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nese, Mingoes, and Delawares were united. The Indians were defeated by the Virginia militia, and sued for peace. Logan, however, disdained to be among the suppliants; but lest the sincerity of a treaty should be distrusted from which so distinguished a chief absented himself, he sent by a messenger, the following speech to Lord Dunmore : “I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Los "gan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat : If ever "he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. Dur“sing the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan “remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such "was my love for the whites, that my countrymen, as they « passed, pointed and said, "Logan is the friend of the “ white men.' I had even thought to have lived with you, " but for the injuries done by one man. Colonel Cresap, "the last spring, in cold blood, and unprovoked, murders "ed all the relations of Logan, not even sparing my wc“ men and children. There runs not a drop of my blood “in the veins of any living creature. This called on me "for revenge. I have sought it ; I have killed many; L .6 have fully glütted my vengeance ; for my country I re"joice at the beams of peace; but do not harbour a thought " that mine is the joy of fear; Logan never knew fear; He « will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is left to « mourn for Logan ? not one."
Another anecdote in favour of the Indian character, res lated by Doctor Benjamin Franklin, deserves a place in: this history. Conrad Weiser, a celebrated interpreter of Indian languages, who had been naturalized among the Six Nations, and spoke the Mohock language well, gave Franklin the following account.
He was sent by our governor on a message to the council at Onondago, he called at the habitation of Canassetago an old acquaintance, who embraced him, spread furs for hiin to sit on, placed before him some boiled beans and venison, and mixed some rum and water for his drink; when he was well refreshed, and had lighted his pipe, Canassetago began to converse with him ; asked how he had faird the many years since they had seen each other; whence he came, and what had occasioned his journey, &c. Conrad answered all his questions, and when the discourse began to fag, the Indian, to continue it said, “ Conrad
“ you have lived long among the white people, and know 66 something of their customs: I have ben sometimes at “ Albany, and have observed that once in seven days they i shut up their shops, and all assemble in the great house ; "tell me what it is for, and what it is they do there."
« They meet there," says Conrad, « to hear and learn a good things.” “I do not doubt," says the Indian, “that “ they tell you so, for they have told me the same; but I “ doubt the truth of what they say, and I will tell you my 6 reasons. I went lately to Albany to sell my skins, and “ buy blankets, knives, powder, rum, &c. You know I ge“ nerally used to deal with Hans Hanson ; but I was a little " inclined this time to try some other merchants. Howe« ver, I called first upon Hans, and asked him what he “ would give for beaver. He said he would not give more “ than four shillings a pound, but (says he) I cannot talk bi on this business now, this is the day we meet together 16 to learn good things; and I am going to the meeting. " So I thought to myself, since I cannot do any business 6 to-day, I may as well go to the meeting too ; and I went
with him. There stood up a man in black, and began to " talk to the people very angrily. I did not understand 6 what he said ; but perceiving he looked much at me and " at Harson, I imagined he was angry at seeing me there ; “ so I went out, sat down near the house, struck fire and « lit my pipe, waiting till the meeting should break up. I * thought too, that the man had mentioned something about “ beaver, and suspected that it might be the subject of their " meeting. So when they came out. Well Hans,' says I, “ I hope you have agreed to give me more than four shil. “ lings a pound.' No,' says he, I cannot give so much, “ I cannot give more than three shillings and six pence.' “ I then spoke to several other dealers, but they all sung " the same song, three-and-six-pence, three-and-six-pence. « This made it clear to me, that my suspicion was right; « and that whatever they pretended of meeting to learn
good things, the real purpose was to consult how to cbeat “ Indians in the price of beaver. Consider but a little,.Consu rad, and you must be of my opinion. If they met so “ often to learn good things, they certainly would have s learned some before this time. But they are still igno5 rant. You know our practice, if a white man, travelling « through our country, enters one of our cabins, we all treat
him as I treat you; we dry him if he is wet, we warm « him if he is cold, and give him meat and drink, that he 16 may satisfy his thirst and hunger ; and we spread soft « furs for him to rest and sleep upon : we demand nothing “ in return. But if I go into a white man's house in Al" bany, and ask for victuals and drink, they ask, where is « your money ? and if I have nonc, they say, Get out you “ Indian dog! You see they have not learned those little “ good things; that we need no meetings to be instructed " in, because our mothers taught them to us when we were 6 children ; and therefore, it is impossible their meetings u should be as they say, for any such purpose, or have any « such effect ; they are only to contrive the cheating of In- dians in the price of their beaver.”
I appeal to every sensible professor of christianity, if there is not more force in the reasoning of this unlettered inhabitant of the wilderness, than in many of the elaborate discourses of the learned divines amongst us, though embellished with all the trappings of modern elocution.
I shall close the Indian character with a short extract, with some small variations, from a letter of the justly cele- , brated William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania ; who, in the early part of the settlement of America, hd an opportunity of observing their customs and manner of life, bem fore they had been changed by so frequent an intercourse with Europeans. He describes their persons, manpers, language, religion, and government, in the following manner. 6. They are generally tall, straight, well built, and of singular proportion; they tread strong and clever, and mostly walk with a lofty chin: of complexion, brown as the gypsies in England. They grease themselves with bears fat clarifsed; and using no defence against the sun or weather, their skins must needs be swarthy. Their eyes are little and black, not unlike a straight-looked Jew. I have seen as comely European-like faces among them, as on your side of the sea. An Italian complexion hath not much more of the white; and the noses of many of them have as 12 uch of the Roman. Their lanuage is lofty, yet narrow; but, like the Hebrew, in signification, full; like si ort hand in writing, one word serveth in the place of three, and the #rest are supplied by the understanding of the hearer. Im
perfect in their tenses, wanting in their moods, participles, adverbs, conjunctions, and interjections : I have made it my business to understand it, that I might not want an interpreter on any occasion : and I must say, that I know not a language spoken in Europe, that hath words of more sweetness or greatness in accent and emphasis than theirs.
Their children, as soon as they are born, are washed in water, and while young they plunge them into rivers in cold weather, to harden and embolden them. Having wrapped them in a clout, they lay them on a straight thin board, a little more than the length and breadth of the child, and swaddle it fast upon the board, to make it straight, and thus they carry them at their backs. The children will walk when very young, at nine months commonly : they wear only a clout round their waist, till they are grown up: if boys, they go a fishing till ripe for the woods, which is about fifteen; they then hunt; and after having given some proofs of their manhood, by a good return of skins, they may marry ; otherwise it is a shame to think of a wife. The girls stay with their mothers, and help to hoe the ground, plant corn, and carry burdens. When the young women are fit for marriage, they wear something on their heads for advertisement, but so as their faces are hardly to be seen, except when they please.
Their houses are made of poles stuck in the grounds covered with mats and bark, in the fashion of an English barn ; their beds are reeds, grass, or skins. If an European comes to see them, or calls for lodging at their house or wigwam, they give him the best place, and first cut. If they come to visit the white inhabitants, their salutation is commonly, Itah! which is as much as to say, good be to you ! and set them down, which is mostly on the ground; soinetimes not speaking a word, but observe all that passes. If you give them any thing to eat or drink, it is well, for they will not ask; and, if it be little or much, if it be with kindness, they are well pleased ; else they go away sullen, but say nothing. In liberality they excel; nothing is too good for their friend. Light of heart, strong affections, but soon spent : they are the mos merry creatures that live ; they feast and dance perpetually ; they never have much, nor do they want much. If they are ignorant of our pleazures, they are free from our pains. We sweat and toil to
live ; their pleasure feeds them; I mean their hunting, fishing, and fowling; and their table is spread every where : they eat twice a day, morning and evening. In sickness, impatient to be cured, and for it give any thing, especially to their children, to whom they are extremely natural.
They are great concealers of their own resentments. A tragical instance fell out since I came into the country : -A king's daughter thinking herself slighted by her husband, in suffering another woman to lie down between them, rose up, went out, plucked a root out of the ground, and eat it ; upon which she immediately died : and for which, he, some time after, made an offering to her kin. dred, for atonement, and liberty of marriage ; as two others did to the kindred of their wives, that died a natural death. For until the widowers have done so they must not marry again.
They believe in a God and immortality, without the help of metaphysics ; for they say : “ There is a great “King that made them, who dwells in a glorious country " to the southward of them, and the souls of the gooi "shall go thither, where they shall live again.” Their worship consists of two parts, viz. Sacrifice and Cantico, Their sacrifice is the first-fruits ; the first and fattest buck they kill, they put on the fire ; where he is all burned ; and he that performs the ceremony, sings, at the same time, a mournful ditty, but with such marvellous ferment, and labour of body, that he will even sweat to a foam. The other part is their Cantico, performed by round dances, sometiines words, sometimes songs, then shouts ; and two (being the first that begin) by singing and drumming on a board direct the chorus ; their postures in the dance are very antick, and different, but all keep measure. This is done with equal earnestness, but great appear. ance of joy. In the Fall, when the corn is gathered in, they begin to feast one another : there have been two great festivals already, to which all come that will; I was at one myself; their entertainment was a great seat by a spring, under some shady trees, and twenty bucks, with hot cakes of new corn, both wheat and beans, which t'll made up in a square form, in the leaves of the stem, ar to baked them in ashes ; and after that they proceed to dlp.ing. But they that go, must carry a small present in