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soldiers of tried attachment, on whom he might depend. They were the boldest and most desperate of his followers, conscious, like himself, of crimes, for which they could hardly expect forgiveness; and without any other hope but the success of their arms. With these he did not hesitate to attack Centeno's troops, though double in number to his own. | The royalists did not decline the combat. It was the most obstinate and bloody that ever had been fought in Peru. The intrepid valour, and the superiority of Carvajal's military talents prevailed, and triumphing over numbers, a complete victory was gained. The booty was immense, and the treatment of the vanquished cruel.

By this signal success, the reputation of Pizarro was re-established, and being now considered as invincible in the field, his army increased daily. But this victory was more than counterbalanced by events which happened in other parts of Peru. 1 ; į Pizarro had scarcely left Lima, when the citizens, weary of his oppressive dominion, erected the royal standard ; and Aldana, with a detachment of soldiers from the fleet, took possession of the town: at the same time Gasca landed at Tumbez with five hundred men; as his numbers augmented fast, he advanced into the interior of the country. His behaviour still continued to be gentle and unassuming'; he expressed on every occasion, his ardent wish of putting an end to the contest without bloodshed. He upbraided no man for past offences, but received them as a father receives his penitent children, returning to a sense of their duty. He appointed the general rendezvous of his troops in the valley of Xauxa on the road to Cuzco ; there he remained for some months, that he might have time to make another attempt towards an accommodation with Pizarro, and also that he might train his new soldiers to the use of arms, and accustom them to discipline, before he led them against a body of victorious troops.

Pizarro, elated with success, and having now a thousand 1 men under his command, refused to listen to any terms, although Cepeda, together with several officers, and Carvajal himself, gave it as their advice, to close with the president's offer, of a general indemnity, and the revocation of the obnoxious laws.

VOL. I.

Gasca having tried in vain every expedient to avoid enbruing his hands in the blood of his countrymen, advanced at the head of sixteen hundred men, towards Cuzco. Pizarro, confident of victory, suffered the royalists to pass all the rivers without opposition, and to advance within four leagues of the capital, flattering himself that a defeat in such a situation would render a retreat impracticable, and at once terminate the war. He then marched out to meet the enemy. Carvajal chose his ground, and made a disposition of the troops, with the discerning eye, and profound knowledge, of the art of war, which were conspicua ous in all his operations. ii

As the two armi's moved forward to the charge, the appearance of each was singular, Pizarro's men enrichel with the spoils of the most opulent country in America; every officer, and almost all the private men, were clothed in silk stuff's, or brocade, embroidered with gold and silver; and their horses, their arms, and standards, were adorned with all the pride of military pomp. That of Gasca, though not so splendid, exhibited what was no less striking. Himself accompanied by the archbishop of Lima, the bishop of Quito, and Cuzco, and a great num. ber of ecclesiastics, marching along the lines, blessing the men, and encouraging them to a resolute discharge of their duiy. When both were just ready to engage, Cepeda set spurs to his forse, galloped off, and surrendered himself to the president; several other oflicers of note follow: ed his example. The revolt of persons of such high rank struck all with amazement. Distrust and consternation spread from ronk to rank; some silently slipped away, others threw down their arms, but the greater number went over to the royalists. Carvajal, and some leaders employed authority, threats, and entreaties, to stop then, but in vain ; in less than half an hour, a body of men, which might have decided the fate of the Peruvian en:pire was totally dispersed. Pizarro, seeing all lost, cried out in amazement to a few officers, who still faithfully adhered to him, " What remains for us to do?" “ Let us rush," replied one of them, " upon the enemy's firmest battalion and die like Romans.”

Dejected with such a reverse of fortune, he had no! spirit to follow this soldierly counsel; and with a tame od m:

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Boss disgraceful to his former fame, he surrendered to one of Gasca's officers; Carvajal endeavouring to escape, was overtaken, and seized: Gasca, happy in this bloodless victory, did not stain it with cruelty. Pizarro, Carvajal, and a small number of the most notorious offenders, were punished capitally. Pizarro was beheaded the day after he surrendered. He submitted to his fate with a composed dignity, and seemed desirous to atone by repen. tance for the crimes which he had commitied. The end

of Carvajal was suitable to his life. On his trial he offered E, no defence. When the sentence, adjudging bim to be

hanged, was pronounced, he carelessly replied, “ One can
« die but once.” In the interval between the sentence and!
execution, he discovered no signs of remorse for the past,
or solicitude about the future, scoffing at all who visited
him, in his usual sarcastic vein of mirtli, with the same

quickness of repartce and pleasantry, as at any other period dam of his life. · Cepeda more, criminal tonn either, ought in res have shared the same fate, but the merit of having de

serted his associates at such a critical moment, and withi Fat " such decisive effect, saved him from immediate punish:ibis ment. He was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and died in real confinement. 253 On the death of Pizarro, the malecontents in every corchalg ner of Pern laid down their arns, and tranquillity seemeil

Le to be perfectly re-established. But two very interesting Itu objects still remained to occupy the president's attention. Die O.The one was to find employment immediately for a muihigh titude of turbulent, daring adventurers, with which the stering country was filled ; as might prevent them from exciting. ed new commotions. The other to reward those, to whose :DUB loyalty and valour he was indebted for his success. The e les I former of these he accomplished by appointing Pedro de Op ! Valdivia to prosecute the conquest of Chili, and by em:(powering Diego Centeno to undertake the discovery of the at vast regions bordering on the river De la Plata ; the reputaclitution of these leaders, and the hopes of bettering their . and condition, allured many desperate soldiers to follow their US standards, and drained that part of the country of a large but portion of that inflammable mutinous spirit which Gasca

threaded. The latter was an affair of great difficulty. The how claimants were very numerous.

That he might have leisure to weigh the comparativel merits of their several claims, he retired with the arch. bishop of Lima to a village twelve leagues from Cuzco! There he spent several days in allotting to each a district of lands and a number of Indians, in proportion to his idea of their past services.

But that he might get beyond the reach of the fierce storm of clamour and rage which he foresaw would burst out on the publication of the decree, he set out for Lima leaving the instrument of partition sealed up, with orders not to open it for some days after his departure. As he expected, so it happened, but by his prudent management the discontented were appeased, and order was established Having now accomplished every object of his mission Gasca longed to return to a private station. He committed the government of Peru to the court of audience, and set out for Spain, where he was received with universal ap. plause. Men less enterprizing and desperate, and more accustomed to move in the path of sober and peaceable industry, settled in Peru, and the royal authority was gra dually established as firmly there, as in the other Spanish colonies.

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

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