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and civil. These were approved by all ranks of men ; but, with them were issued the following regulations, which excited universal alarm. That as the repartimientos or shares of land seized by several persons, appeared to be excessive, the royal audiences were empowered to reduce them to a moderate extent: That upon the death of any conqueror or planter, the lands and Indians granted to him shall not descend to his widow or children, but return to the crown: That the Indians shall henceforth be exempt. ed from personal service, and shall not be compelled to carry the baggage of travellers, to labour in the mines, or dive in the pearl fisheries : That all persons who are or have been in public offices, ecclesiasticks of every denomination, hospitals, and monasteries, shall be deprived of the lands and Indians allotted to them; these lands and Intrians shall be annexed to the crown : That every person in Peru, who had any criminal concern in the contests between Pizarro and Almagro, shoirld! forfeit his lando ntint Indians." All the Spanish ministers who had hitherto been entrusted with the direction of American affaits, opposed these regulations. But Charles, tenacious at all times of his own opinions, persisted in his resolution of publishing the laws.
That they might be carried into execution with greater vigour and authority, he authorized Francisco Tello de Sandoval, to repair to Mexico as visitador, or superintendant of that country ; and to co-operate with Antonio de Mendoza, the viceroy, in enforcing them. He appointed Blasco Nugnez Vela, to be governor of Peru with the title of viceroy, and to strengthen his administration, he established a court of audience at Lima, in which four lawyers of eminence were to preside as judges.
The viceroy and superintendant sailed at the same time. An account of the new laws they were to enforce had reached America before their arrival. The entry of Sandoval into Mexico was considered as the prelude of general ruin. Under the prudent administration of Mendoza, the people of New Spain had become accustomed to the restraints of law and authority, Happily for them, Mendoza, by long residence in the country, was so well acquainted with its state, that he knew what was for its interest, as well as : what the people could bear; and Sandoval displayed a degree of moderation unexpected from a person just entering
upon the exercise of power. They were disposed to grant every indulgence to the inhabitants, that was in their power In compliance with their request, they suspended for some time, the execution of what was offensive in the new laws; they also consented, that a deputation of citizens should be sent to Europe, to lay before the emperor the apprehen. sions of his subjects in New Spain, with respect to their tendency and effects; and concurred with them in support ing their sentiments.
Charles, moved by the opinion of men, whose abilities and integrity were unquestionable, granted such a relaxa. tion of the rigour of the laws, as re-established the colony in its former tranquillity. In Peru, the storm wore an as. pect more fierce and threatening. As the account of the new laws spread through the different settlements, the in. habitants ran together; the women in tears, and the men exclaiming against the injustice and ingratitude of their sovereign, in depriving them unheard and unconvicted, of their possessions.
" Is this,” cried they, “the recompence due to persons, who, without public aid, at their own expense, and by their own valour, have subjected to the crown of Castile, territo. ries of such vast extent and opulence? Shall the conquerors of this great empire, instead of receiving marks of distinc. tion, be deprived of the natural consolation of providing for their widows and children, and leave them to depend for subsistence on the scanty supply they can extort from un. feeling courtiers. Although we are not now able to explore unknown regions, in quest of more secure settlements, yet we still possess vigour sufficient to assert our just rights ; and we will not tamely suffer them to be wrested from us." Consultations were held in different places, planning how they might oppose the entrance of the viceroy and judges; and prevent, not only the execution, but the promulgation, of the laws.
Vaca de Castro had the address to divert them from their purpose ; he flattered them with hopes, that when the viceroy and judges should arrive, and had leisure to examine their petitions and remonstrances, they would con. cur with them in endeavouring to procure them some mi. tigation in the rigour of the laws, which had been framed without due attention to the state of the country, or the sentiments of the people. Of all the qualities that fit men
for high command, the viceroy possessed only integrity e and courage; the former harsh and uncomplying, the lat
ter bordering so frequently on rashness and obscinacy, that in his situation they were defects rather than virtues.
When he landed, he seemed to have considered himself merely as an executive officer, without any discretionary power. Regardless of what he heard of the state of the country, he adhered to the letter of the regulations with unrelenting rigour. Through all tlie towns which he passed, he declared the natives free. Every person in public office was deprived of his lands and servants; and, as an example of obedience, he would not suffer an Indian to carry any part of his baggage in his march to Lima, from Tumbez. Wherever he approached, amazement and consternation went before him. On entering the capital, he openly avowed, “ that he came to obey the ordeis of his sovereign ; not to dispense with the laws.' Inis marsh declaration was accompanied with a baughty deportnient, and insolence of office, which rendered himn odious to the people. Several persons of rank were confined, and some put to death without a trial.
Vaca de Castro was arrested, and, notwithstanding the dignity of his former rank, and his merii in having prevented a general insurrection of the colony, he was loaded with chains, and shut up in the common goal. From the time the purport of the new regulations were known, every Spaniard in Peru turned his eyes towards Gonzalo Pizarro, as the only person able to avert the ruin with which they were threatened. From all quarters, letters | and addresses were sent to him, conjuring him to stand
forth as their protector; offering to support him in the attempt with their lives and fortunes. ·, Gonzalo, though he wanted the talents of his other brothers, was equally ambitious, and of as daring courage. The behaviour of an ungrateful court, towards his bro. thers, and himself, dwelt continually on his mind. Ferdinand, a state prisoner in Europe, the children of the governor in custody of the viceroy, and sent on board the fleet, himself reduced to the condition of a private citizen, in a country, for the discovery and conquest of which, Spain was indebted to his family. These thoughts prompted him to seek for vengeance, and assert the rights of his
family, of which he now considered himself the guardia and heir.
But the. veneration which every Spaniard had for his sovereign, made him shudder at the thoughts of march ing in arms against the royal standard. He hesitated long and was still unresolved: when the violence of the viceros, the universal call of his countrymen, and the certainty of soon becoming a victim to the severity of the new laws moved him to quit his residence at Chuquisaca de la Plata, and repair to Cuzco. All the inhabitants went out to meet him, and received him with transports of joy, as the de liverer of the colony.
In the fervour of their zeal they elected him procurator. general of the Spanish nation in Peru, to solicit the repeal of the late regulations; they also commissioned him to Jay before the royal audience in Lima their remonstrances, anch, upon pretext of danger from the Indians, authorized him to march thither in arms. Under sanction of this no. mination, Pizarro took possession of the royal treasure, ap. pointed officers, levied soldiers, seized a large train of artillery, which Vaca de Castro had deposited in Guamanga, and set out for Lima as if he had been advancing against a public enemy.
Disaffection having now assumed a regular form, many persons of note resorted to his standard ; and a considerable body of troops, which the viceroy had raised to oppose his progress, deserted to him. The violence of the vice. roy's administration, and his overbearing haughtiness, had become so odious to his associates, the judges of the royal audience, as well as to the people, that the judges thwarted every measure he proposed ; and set at liberty the prisoners he confined ; justified the malecontents, and applauded their remonstrances. The viceroy became at length so universally odious, that he was abandoned by his own guards, was seized in his palace, and carried to a desolate island on the coast. to be kept there, until he should be sent home to Spain. This revolution took place, while Pizarro was on : his march to Lima.
The judges having now assumed the supreme direction of affairs, issued a proclamation suspending the execution of the obnoxious laws and sent a message to Pizarro, re: quiring him, as they had already granted whatever he :
could request, to dismiss his troops, and to repair to Lima with fifteen or twenty attendants. It was not expected that a man so daring and ambitious would tamely comply with this requisition : but it was necessary to throw a decent veil over their conduct : Cepeda, president of the court of audience, a pragmatical and aspiring lawyer, held a secret correspondence with Pizarro, and had already formed the plan, which he afterwards executed, of devoting himself to his service.
Pizarro now beheld the supreme power within his reach; and Carvajal, the promoter and guide of all his actions, had long fixed his opinion, that it was the only end at which Pizarro ought to aim. He, accordingly, demanded, to be made governor and captain-general of the whole province, and required the judges to grant him a commission to that effect. But the judges, from a desire of preserving some attention to appearances, seemed to hesitate, about complying. Carvajal, impatient of delay, and impetuous in all his operations, marched into the city by night, seized several officers of distinction, obnoxious to Pizarro, and hanged them without the formality of a trial. Next morning the court of audience issued a commission in the emperor's name, appointing Pizarro govemor of Perii, with full powers civil as well as military; and he entered the town that day with great pomp, to take posse ssion of his new dignity. Pizarro had scarcely begun to exercise the new powers with which he was invested, when he beheld formidable enemies rise up to oppose him.
The viceroy had been put on board a vessel by the judges, in order that he might be carried to Spain under custody of Juan Alvarez, one of their own number: who, as soon they were out at sea, touched with remorse, or moved by fear, fell at the feet of his prisoner, declaring him from that moment to be free, and that he would himself, and every person in the ship, obey him as the legal representative of their sovereign. Nugnez Vela ordered them to steer to Tumbež, where he landed, and erected the royal standard, and resumed his functions of viceroy. Several persons of note insantly avowed their resolution to support his authority.
Alarmed with these appearances of hostility, Pizarro prepared to assert the authority to which he had attained, and marched against the viceroy, as the enemy who was