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these murmured in secret, and meditated revenge : greas numbers of them resorted to Lima, where the house of younz Almagro was open to theni, and the slender pore tion of his father's fortune, which the governor permitted him to enjoy, was spent in affording them subsistence.

The warm attachment, with which every person who had served under the elder Almagro, was quickly transferred to the son, who was now grown up to the age of manhood, and possessed all those qualities, which captivate the affections of soldiers. Bold, open, generous, of a graceful appearance, dexterons 'at all martial exercises, he seemed formed for command. His father had been exon tremely attentive to have him instructed in every science, becoming a gentleman, the accomplishments he had ac. quired, increased the respect of his partizans, who were ready to undertakc any thing for his advancement, they began to deliberate how they might be avenged on the author of their misery.' . . . • Their frequent cabals did not pass unobserved ; and the

governor was warned to be on his guard against men who meditated some desperate deed, and had resolution to execute it. It was either from the native intrepidity of his mind ; or from contempt of persons, whose poverty rendered their rrachinations of little consequence, that he replied “ Be not afraid (said he careless)), about my life ; it is perfectly safe, as long as every man in Peru knows that I can in a moment put him to death, who dares to harbour a thought against it." This security gave the Almagrians full leisure to digest and ripen every part of their scheme; and Juan de Herrada, an officer of great abilities, who had the charge of Almagro's education, took the lead in their consultations, with all the zeal that cornexion inspired, and with all the authority wliich the asa cendancy which he had over the mind of his pupil, gabe him.

On the twenty-sixth day of June, 1541, being the satbath at mid-day, the season of tranquillity and repose in all sultry climates, Herrada at the head of eighteen of the most determined conspirators, sallied out of Almagro's house, in compleat armour, and drawing their swords, as they advanced hastily towards the governor's palace, criel out “ Long live the king; but let the tyrant die." Their

associates warned of their motions by a signal, were in arms at different stations, ready to support them.

Though Pizarro was usually surrounded by such a numerous train of attendants, as suited the magnificence of the most opulent subject of the age in which he lived ; yet, as he was just risen from table, and most of his own domestics had retired to their own apartments, the conspirators passed through the two outer courts of the palace unobserved. They were at the bottom of the stair-case, before a page in waiting could give the alarm to his master ; who was conversing with a few friends in a large hall.

) The governor whose steady mindno form of danger could appal, starting up, called for arms, and commanded Francisco de Chaves to make fast the door. But that officer did not retain so such presence of mind as to obey this prudent order, running to the top of the stair-case, wildly asked the conspirators what they meant, and whither they were going? Instead of answering, they stabbed him to the heart, and burst into the hall. Some of the persons who were there, in a fright threw themselves from the windows, others attempted to escape and a few, drawing their swords followed their leader into an inner apartment. The conspirators having the object of their vengeance now in view, rushed forwards. Pizarro, with no other arms than his sword and buckler, defended the entry, and supported by his half brother Alcantara, and his few friends, maintained the unequal contest with intrepidity, worthy of his former exploits ; and with the vigour of a youthful conibatant, "Courage, (cried he to his companions) we are yet formidable enough to make those traitors repent their audacity." But the armour of the conspirators, protected them, while every thrust they made took effect.

Alcantara fell dead at his brother's feet ; his other defendants were mortally wounded. The governor, so weary that he could not wield his sword, and no longer able to Parry the many weapons furiously aimed at him, received a deadly thrust full in his throat, sụnk to the ground and cxpired. As soon as he was slain, the assassins ran into the streets waving their bloody swords, and proclaiming the death of the tyrant; About two hundred of their associates having joined them, they conducted young Almagro, in solemn procession through the city ; and assem

bling the magistrates and principal citizens, compelled them to acknowledge him as lawful successor to his father in his government.

The palace of Pizarro, together with the houses of sereral of his adherents, were pillaged by the soldiers, who had at once the satisfaction of being avenged on their enemies, and of enriching themselves by the spoils of those, through whose hands all the wealth of Peru had passed.

· The popular qualities of Almagro and the success of the conspiracy drew many soldiers to his standard; who declared without hesitation in his favour. Almagro was soon at the head of eight hundred of the most gallant veterans of Peru. He appointed Herrada general. Notwithstanding this favourable turn of fortune, the acquiscence in his goyernment was far from being general. Pizarro had left many friends to whom his memory was dear; the barbarous assassination of a man to whom his country was so much indebted, filled every impartial person with horror;l. by others he was considered as an usurper. The officers who commanded in some provinces, refused to recognize his authority, until it was confirmed by the emperor. In others, particularly at Cuzco, the royal standard was erected, and preparations made to revenge the murder of their ancient leader. .: ili

Those seeds of discord acquired greater vigour when the arrival of Vaca de Castro was known. After a long voyage he put into a small harbour in the province of Papayan, in the year 1541, from thence he proceeded by a difficult and tedious route to Quito. In his way he received an account of Pizarro's death, and of the events which followed upon it. He immediately produced the royal commission appointing him governor of Perų. ' His jurisdiction was acknowledged by Benalcazar, lieutenant general for the enperor, in Papayan, and by Pedro de Puellus, who, in the absence of Gonzales Pizarro, commanded the troops in Quito; who had himself gone upon a fruitless expedition to the east of the Andes, where he and his followers suffered incredible hardships.

Vaco de Castro not only assumed the supreme authority, but shewed that he possessed talents equal to the etic gency of the momentous trust committed to him. By his influence and address be soon asseinbled a body troops, that set him above all fear of insult from the ad

verse party, and enabled him to advance from Quito with the dignity that became his character.

Almagro observed the rapid progress of the spirit of disaffection to his cause ; and that he might give an affectual check to it before the arrival of Vaca de Castro, he set out at the head of his troops for Cuzco, where the most considerable body of troops had erected the royal standard under the command of Pedro Alvarez Holguin. During his march thither, Herrada, the skilful guide of his youth, died; and from that time his measures were conspicuous for violence, and want of sagacity. Holguin, with forces far inferior was descending to the coast, at the very time that Almagro was on his way to Cuzco. By a very simple stratagem, he deceived his unexperienced adversary, avoided an engagement, and effected a junction with Alvarado, an officer of note, who had been the first to declare against Almagro as an usurper.

Soon after, Vaca de Castro entered the camp with the troops which he had brought from Quito, and erected the royal standard before his own tent, he declared himself as governor, that he would discharge all the functions of general of their combined forces ; and although he had not been brought up to the profession, he displayed the abillities and decision of an officer accustomed to command. As his strength was superior to that of the enemy, he was impatient to end by a battle, the contest which appeared unavoidable.

Almagro and his followers despairing of pardon, for a crime so atrocious as the murder of Pizarro, the governor, were not inclined to shun that mode of decision.

They met, September the sixteenth, 1542, at Chupas, about two hundred miles from Cuzco. The violence of civil rage, the rancour of private enmity, the eagerness of revenge, and the last efforts of despair, inspired them with such courage, that victory remained for a long time doubtful : but at last declared for Vaca de Castro. The martial talents of Francisco de Carvajal, a veteran officer, and the intrepidity of Vaca de Castro triumphed over the bravery of their opponents, led on by young Almagro, with a gallant spirit, worthy of a nobler cause, and deserving a better fate.

Many of the vanquished, who had been accesssary to the ly assassination of Pizarro, rather than wait an ignominious e at VOL. I.


doom, rushed on the swords of the enemy, and fell like soldiers. Of fourteen hundred men, the amount of com batants on both sides, five hundred lay dead on the field; and the number of the wounded was still greater. Vaca de Castro proceeded immediately to try his prisoners as rebels. Forty were condemned to suffer death as traitors, others were banished from Peru. Their leader, who made his escape from the battle, betrayed by some of his officers, was publicly beheaded at Cuzco ; and in him the name of Almagro, and the spirit of his party were extinct.

During these violent commotions in Peru, the emperor and his ministers were employed in preparing regulations by which they hoped to restore tranquillity, and a more perfect system of internal policy, into all their settlements in the New World. To prevent the extinction of the Indian race called for immediate remedy ; fortunately for them Bartholomew de Casas happened to be then at Madrid, on a mission from a chapter of his order at Chiapa. . His zeal in behalf of this unfortunate people, was so far from abating, that from an increased knowledge of their sufferings, his ardour had augmented. He eagerly seized this opportunity in reviving his favourite maxims.concerning the treatment of the Indians. With that moving eloquence, natural to a man on whose mind the scenes which he had beheld, had made a deep impression, he described the irreparable waste of the human species in the New World ; the Indian race almost totally swept away in the island in less than fifty years, and hastening to extinction on the continent with the same rapidity.

With a decisive tone, he imputed all this to the exactions and cruelty of his countrymen, and positively insisted that nothing could prevent the depopulation of America, but by declaring the natives freemen, and treating them as such. Not content with thus verbally asserting the rights of this oppressed people, he published a celebrated treatise, in which he related the horrid cruelties of his countrymen.

The emperor was deeply affected with the recital of so many actions shocking to humanity. To relieve the Indians, as well as to circumscribe the power of his own subjects in the New World, he framed a body of laws containing many salutary appointments with respect to the constitution and powers of the supreme council of the Indies, and the administration of justice, both ecclesiastical

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