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and eloquence in persuading his men not to abandon him, But the thoughts of revisiting their families and friends, after so long an absence and suffering such incredible hardships, rushed with such joy into their minds, that when Pizarro drew a line upon the sand with his sword, permit ting such as wished to return honie to pass over it, only thirteen daring veterans remained with their commander. This small, but determined band, whose names the Spanish historians record with deserved praise, as the persons to whose persevering fortitude their country is indebted for the most valuable of all its American possessions, fixed their residence in the island of Gorgona, where they de termined to wait for supplies from Panama, which they trusted their associates there would eventually procure.'

Almagro and Luque were not inattentive or cold solici. tors, and their incessant importunity was seconded by the general voice of the people, who exclaimed loudly against the infamy of exposing brave men, engaged in the public service, charged with no error, but what flowed from an excess of zeal and courage. The governor overcome with intreaties and expostulations at last consented to send a small vessel to their relief. But : unwilling to puncourage Pizarro in any new enterprize, he would not permit one land-man to embark on board it. .

Pizarro and his companions had remained at this time five months on an island in the most unhealthy climate in the region of America ; during which period, they were buoyed up with hopes of succours from Panama ;, till worn out with fruitless expectations, they in despair came to a resolution of committing themselves to the ocean on a float; but on the arrival of the vessel from Panama, they were transported with such joy, that all their sufferings were forgotten. Pizarro easily induced them to resume their former scheme with fresh ardour. Instead of returning to Panama, they stood towards the south east, when on the twentieth day after their departure, they discovered the coast of Peru.

They landed in 1526, at Tumbez, a place of some note, distinguished for its stately temple, and a palace of the Incas or sovereigns of the country. There the Spaniards feasted their eyes with the first view of the opulence and civilization of the Peruvian empire ; a country fully peopled, and cultivated with an appearance of regular industry;.

the natives decently clothed, ingenious, and so far surpassing the other natives of the New World, as to have the use of tame domestic animals. But their notice was most pleasingly attracted with the show of gold and silver, which not only appeared as ornaments on their persons, and temples, but several of their vessels for common use were made of those precious metals. Pizarro and his companions seemed now to have attained the completion of their most sanguine hopes, and concluded all their wishes and dreams of inexhaustible treasures, would soon be realized.

It was however, impracticable for Pizarro, with such a slender force, to make any progress in subjugating a country so populous, and of which he hoped hereafter to take

possession. "He ranged, however, along the coast, mainEtaining a friendly intercourse with the natives, who were

no less astonished'at their new visitants, than the Spaniards were with the uniform appearance of opulence and cultivation, which they beheld..

Having explored the country as far as was requisite, to Fascertain the importance of the discovery, Pizarro procur

ed from the inhabitants some of their Lamas or tame cat:tle, to which the Spaniards gave the name of sheep ; some

vessels of gold and silver, as well as some specimens of | their other works of ingenuity, and two young men, whom - he proposed to instruct in the Spanish language, that they

might serve as interpreters in the expedition which he meditated. With these he arrived at Panama. Yet neither the splendid relation which he and his associates gave of the incredible opulence of the country which he had discovered, nor the bitter complaints he made on account of the unseasonable recall of his forces, which had put it out of his power to make a settlement there, could move the governor to swerve from his former purpose. His coldness, however, did not in any degree abate the ardour of the three associates ; they therefore determined to solicit their sovereign to grant that permission which was refused by his delegate.

With this view, after adjusting among themselves that Pizarro should claim the station of governor, Almagro that of lieutenant governor, and Luque the dignity of bishop, in the country which they proposed to conquer, they sent Pizarro as their agent to. Spain.

Pizarro lost no time in repairing to court; he appeared before the emperor with the unembarrassed dignity of a man conscious of what his services merited; and he con. ducted his negociations with such dexterity and address, which could not have been expected from his education or former habits of life. His description of his own sufferings, and pompous account of the country which he had discovered, confirmed by the specimens he had brought, made such an impression on Charles, and his ministers, that they not only approved of the intended expedition, but seemed to be interested in the success of its leader. Presuming upon those favourable dispositions, Pizarro paid little attention to the interest of his associates. But as the pretensions of Luque did not interfere with his own, he obtained for him the ecclesiastical dignity to which he aspired. For Almagro he claimed only the cominand of a fortress, intended to be erected at Tumbez. To himself he secured whatever his boundless ambition could desire. He was appointed governor, captain-general, and Adelantado of all the country which he had discovered; and hoped to conquer ; with supreme authority, civil as well as military, and an absolute right to all the privileges and emoluments usually granted to adventurers in the New World. His jurisdiction was declared to extend two hundred leagues along the coast, south of the river St. Jago ; to be independent of the governor of Panama ; and he had power to nominate all the officers who were to serve under him.

In return for these concessions, Pizarro engaged to raise two hundred and fifty men, and to provide the ships, arms, and warlike stores, requisite towards subjecting to the crown of Castile, the country of which the government was allotted him. Pizarro's funds were so low, that he could not complete more than half the stipulated number: after he had received his patents from the crown, he was obliged to steal away privately out of the port of Seville, in order to elude the scrutiny of the officers who had in charge, to examine whether he had fulfilled the stipulations of his contract : before his departure, however, Cortes who had returned to Spain about this time, advanced him a supply of money, willing to contribute his aid towards enabling an ancient companion, with whose talents and courage he was well acquainted, to begin a career of glory, similar to that which he himself had finished.

. He landed at Nombre de Dios, in 1529, and marched across the isthmus to Panama, accompanied by his three brothers, Ferdinand, Juan, and Gonzalo. Of whom the first was born of lawful wedlock, the two others, like himself, were of illegitimate birth; and by Francisco, his mo: ther's brother. They were all in the prime of life, and of

such abilities and courage, as fitted them to take a distinguished part in his subsequent transactions. Pizarro found Almagro so much exasperated at the manner in which he had conducted the negociation, that he not only refused to act any longer, in concert with a man, by whose perfidy he had been deprived of the honours and emoluments to which he had a just claim, but laboured to thwart all his schemes, and rival him in his discoveries. · Pizarro, however, had more wisdom and address than to suffer a rupture so fatal to all his schemes, to become irreparable. By offering voluntarily to relinquish the office of Adelantado, and promising to concur in soliciting that title, with an independent government for ·Almagro, he gradually mitigated the rage of an open hearted soldier,. which had been violent, but not implacable. Lrque, highly satisfied with having been successful in all his own pretensions, zealously seconded Pizarro's endeavours. A reconciliation was effected ; and the confederacy renewed on its original terms.

Notwithstanding their re-union, their interest was barely sufficient to equip three small vessels ; on board of these shipped only one hundred and eighty soldiers ; thirty-six of whom were horsemen. Pizarro, with this contemptible force, set sail to invade a great empire. Almagro was left at Panama, as formerly, to follow him with what reinforcements he could procure. Pizarro completed the voyage in thirteen days, but was carried by the winds and currents above a hundred leagues north of Tumbez, the place of his destination, and was obliged to land his troops in the bay of St. Matthew. Without losing a moment, he began to advance towards the south, taking care, however, not to depart from the sea shore, that he might effect a junction with the supplies he expected from Panama.

Pizarro in attacking the natives when he ought to obtain their confidence, subjected himself and followers to many calamities ; such as famine, fatigues, and diseases of vari.

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ous kinds, hardly inferior to those which they had endured in their former expedition. These disasters corresponded so ill with the alluring prospect of the country given by Pizarro, that many began to reproach him, and every soldier must have become cold to the service, had they not met with some appearances of wealth, which seemed to justify the reports of their leader. At length they reached the pro- b vince of Coaque the fourteenth of April, 1531, and having surprized the principal settlement of the natives, they seiz. ed the vessels and ornaments of gold and silver, valued at thirty thousand pesos, with other booty of such value, as dispelled all their doubts, and inspired the most desponding with sanguine hopes.

Pizarro was so delighted with this rich spoil, which he considered the first-fruits of a land overflowing with treasure, that he instantly dispatched one of his ships to Panama, with a large remittance to Almagro; and another to Nicaragua, with a considerable sum to certain persons of influence in that province, in hopes of alluring adventurers, by this early display of the wealth which he had acquired. Disdaining to employ any conciliatory means to bring over the natives to his interest, he continued his march, and attacked them with such violence in their scattered habita. tions, as compelled them to retire into the interior country, or to submit at discretion.

This sudden appearance of strangers whose actions and manners were so different from their own, and whose power appeared irresistible, made the same dreadful impression on these natives, as in the other parts of America.

Pizarro met with little resistance, until he attacked the island of Puna, in the bay of Guayquil. The inhabitants of this island were numerous, less civilized and more fierce and warlike than those on the continent; they de. fended themselves with such obstinate valour, that six months elapsed before Pizarro could reduce them to subjection.

From Puna he proceeded to Tumbez, where he remain. ed three months to recruit his men, who were attacked by distempers peculiar to the climate. While he lay here, two detachments arrived from Nicaragua, which, though neither exceeded thirty men, he considered as a reinforcement of great consequence : especially as they were com

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