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according to their engagements, untils and seventy-nine, a comprehension of SweFrance should have complied with the pre- den, and all those powers that should be liminaries. No regard, however, was paid named before the ratification, or in six to either of these addresses. Then the Im- months after the conclusion of the treaty. perial ambassadors demanded the good of. Besides, the Dutch ministers concluded a fices of the mediator, on certain articles: treaty of commerce with France, which but all that he could obtain of France was, was immediately put in execution. Spain that the term for adjusting the peace be had great reason to be satisfied with the tween her and the emperor should be pro- pacification, by which she recovered Gilonged till the first day of November, and ronne, Roses, Barcelona, Luxembourg, Charin the mean time an armistice be punctually leroy, Mons, Courtray, and all the towns, forobserved. Yet even these concessions were tresses, and territories taken by the French made, on condition that the treaty with in the province of Luxembourg, Namur, England, Spain, and Holland, should be Brabant, Flanders, and Hainault, except signed on that day, even though the empe- eighty-two towns and villages, claimed by ror and empire should not concur.
the French: this dispute was left to the deTHE AMBASSADORS SIGN THE TREATY. cision of commissaries; or, in case they
ACCORDINGLY, on the twentieth day of should not agree, to the determination of September, the articles were subscribed by the States-general. A remonstrance in favor the Dutch, English, Spanish, and French of the French Protestant refugees in Engambassadors, while the Imperial ministers land, Holland, and Germany, was delivered protested against the transaction, observing, by the earl of Pembroke to the mediators, this was the second time that a separate in the name of the Protestant allies, on the peace had been concluded with France; day that preceded the conclusion of the and that the States of the empire, who had treaty; but the French plenipotentiaries debeen imposed upon through their own cre- clared in the name of their master, that as dulity, would not for the future be so easily he did not pretend to prescribe rules to king persuaded to engage in confederacies. In William about the English subjects, he certain preparatory articles settled between expected the same liberty with respect to England and France, king William prom- his own. No other effort was made in beised to pay a yearly pension to queen Mary half of those conscientious exiles: the treaD'Este, of fifty thousand pounds, or such ties were ratified, and the peace proclaimed sum as should be established for that pur- at Paris and London. pose by act of parliament. The treaty itself A GENERAL PACIFICATION. consisted of seventeen articles. The French The emperor still held out, and perhaps king engaged, that he would not disturb or was encouraged to persevere in his obstidisquiet the king of Great Britain in the nacy by the success of his arms in Hungary, possession of his realms or government: where his general, prince Eugene of Savoy, nor assist his enemies, nor favor conspiracies obtained a complete victory at Zenta over against his person. This obligation was the forces of the grand seignior, who comreciprocal. A free commerce was restored. manded his army in person. In this battle, Commissaries were appointed to meet at which was fought on the eleventh day of London, and settle the pretensions of each September, the grand vizier, the aga of the crown to Hudson's bay, taken by the French janissaries, seven and twenty bashaws, and during the late peace, and retaken by the about thirty thousand men, were killed or English in the course of the war; and to drowned in the river Theysse : six thousand regulate the limits of the places to be re-were wounded or taken, together with all stored, as well as the exchanges to be made. their artillery, tents, baggage, provision, It was likewise stipulated, that, in case of a and ammunition, the grand seignior himself rupture, six months should be allowed to escaping with difficulty: a victory the more the subjects of each power for removing glorious and acceptable, as the Turks had their effects: that the separate articles of a great superiority in point of number, and the treaty of Nimeguen, relating to the as the Imperialists did not lose a thousand principality of Orange, should be entirely men during the whole action. The empeexecuted ; and, that the ratifications should ror, perceiving that the event of this battle be exchanged in three weeks from the day had no effect in retarding the treaty, thought of signing. The treaty between France proper to make use of the armistice, and and Holland imported a general armistice, continue the negotiation after the foremena perpetual amity, a mutual restitution, a tioned treaties had been signed. This was reciprocal renunciation of all pretensions likewise the case with the princes of the upon each other, a confirmation of the peace empire; though those of the Protestant perwith Savoy, a re-establishment of the treaty suasion complained, that their interest was concluded between France and Branden- neglected. In one of the articles of the burgh, in the year one thousand six hundred treaty, it was stipulated, that in the places
to be restored by France, the Roman Catho- merce, debauched her morals, by encourlic religion should continue as it had been aging venality and corruption, and entailed re-established. The ambassadors of the upon her the curse of foreign connexions as Protestant princes joined in a remonstrance, well as a national debt, which was gradualdemanding, that the Lutheran religion ly increased to an intolerable burden. After should be restored in those places where it all the blood and treasure which had been had formerly prevailed; but this demand expended, William's ambition and revenge was rejected, as being equally disagreeable remained unsatisfied. Nevertheless, he to France and the emperor. Then they reaped the solid advantage of seeing himrefused to sign the treaty, which was now self firmly established on the English throne; concluded between France, the emperor, and the confederacy, though not successful and the Catholic princes of the empire. By in every instance, accomplished their great this pacification, Triers, the palatinate, and aim of putting a stop to the encroachments Lorrain, were restored to their respective of the French monarch. They mortified owners. The countries of Spanheim and his vanity, they humbled his pride and arroVeldentz, together with the dutchy of Deux gance, and compelled him to disgorge the Ponts, were ceded to the king of Sweden. acquisitions which, like a robber, he had Francis Louis, Palatine, was confirmed in made in violation of public faith, justice, the electorate of Cologn: and cardinal Furs- and humanity. Had the allies been true to temberg restored to all his rights and bene- one another; had they acted from genuine fices. The claims of the dutchess of Or-zeal for the common interests of mankind; leans upon the Palatinate were referred to and prosecuted with vigor the plan which the arbitration of France and the emperor; was originally concerted, Louis would in and in the meantime the elector Palatine a few campaigns have been reduced to the agreed to supply her highness with an an- most abject state of disgrace, despondence, nuity of one hundred thousand florins. The and submission; for he was destitute of true ministers of the Protestant princes published courage and magnanimity. King William, á formal declaration against the clause re- having finished this important transaction, lating to religion; and afterwards solemnly returned to England about the middle of protested against the manner in which the November, and was received in London negotiation had been conducted, Such was amidst the acclamations of the people, who the issue of a long and bloody war, which now again hailed him as their deliverer had drained England of her wealth and from a war, by the continuance of which people, almost entirely ruined her com- they must have been infallibly beggared.
NOTES TO CHAPTER V.
1 Burnet. Boyre. Oldmixon. State
Tracts. Tindal. Ralph. Lives of the Admirals. niel.
taire. 2 Burnet. Oldmixon. Boyer. Tin.
dal. Ralph. Lives of the Ad• mirals. 3 Some promotions were mnde
before the king left England.
land and Flanders, created earl
ers of trade and plantation.
State Trials. Tindal. Ralph.
5 Somers was created a baron.
and appointed lord chancellor of England; admiral Russel was dignified with the title of earl of Orford. In February the earl of Aylesbury, who had been committed on account of the conspiracy, was released upon bail : but this privilege was denied to lord Montgomery, who had been imprisoned in Newgate on the same account.
State of Parties-Characters of the Ministers—The Commons reduce the Number
of standing Forces to Ten Thousand— They establish the Civil List; and assign Funds for paying the National Debts—They take Cognizance of fraudulent Indorsements of Exchequer Bills-A new East India Company constituted by Act of Parliament-Proceedings against a Book written by William Molineux of Dublin-And against certain Smugglers of Alamodes and Lustrings from France-Society for the Reformation of Manners- The Earl of Portland resigns his Employments—The King disowns the Scottish Trading Company-He embarks for Holland—First Treaty of Partition—Intrigues of France at the Court of Madrid -King William is thwarted by his new Parliament-He is obliged to send away his Dutch Guards— The Commons address the King against the Papists—The Parliament prorogued— The Scoltish Company make a Settlement on the Isthmus of Darien; which, however, they are compelled to abandon-Remonstrances of the Spanish Court against the Treaty of Partition—The Commons persist in their Resolutions to mortify the King-Inquiry into the Expedition of Captain Kidd—A Motion made against Burnet, Bishop of Sarum— Inquiry into the Irish Forfeilures—The Commons pass Bill of Resumption-And a severe Bill against Papists—The old East India Company re-established—Dangerous Ferment in Scotland—Lord Somers dismissed from his Employments—Second Treaty of Partition-Death of the Duke of Gloucester- The King sends a Fleet into the Baltic, to the Assistance of the Swedes—The second Treaty of Partition generally disagreeable to the European Powers—The French Interest prevails at the Court of Spain-King William finds Means to allay the Heats in ScotlandThe King of Spain dies, after having bequeathed his Dominions by Will to the Duke of Anjou— The French King's Apology for accepting the Will— The States-general own Philip as King of Spain-A new Ministry and a new Parliament - The Commons unpropitious to the Court- The Lords are more condescendingAn intercepted Letter from the Earl of Milford to his Brother-Succession of the Crown setiled upon the Princess Sophia, Electress Dowager of Hanover, and the Protestant Heirs of her Body- The Dutchess of Savoy protests against this Act
- Ineffectual Negotiation with France-Severe Addresses from both Houses, in relation to the Parlition Treaty, William is obliged to acknowledge the King of Spain-The two Houses seem to enter into the King's Measures—The Commons resolve to wreak their Vengeance on the old Ministry—The Earls of Portland and Oxford, the Lords Somers and Halifax, are impeached-Disputes between the two Houses- The House of Peers acquits the impeached Lords-Petition of KentFavorable end of the Session-Progress of Prince Eugene in Italy-Sketch of the Situation of Affairs in Europe Treaty of Alliance between the Emperor and the Maritime Powers—Death of King James—The French King owns the pretended Prince of Wales as King of England-Addresses to King Williain on that Subject— New Parliament- The King's last Speech to both Houses received with great Applause-Great Harmony between the King and Parliament - The two Houses pass the Bill of Abjuration - The Lower House justifies the proceedings of the Commons in the preceding Parliament-Affairs of Ireland— The King recommends a Union of the two Kingdoms—He falls from his Horse — His DeathAnd Character.
STATE OF PARTIES.
conduce to his own honor, and that of the WHEN the king opened the session of government. He recommended the mainparliament on the third day of December, tenance of a considerable navy; and gave he told them the war was brought to the it as his opinion, that for the present Engend they all proposed, namely, an honorable land could not be safe without a standing peace. He gave them to understand there army. He promised to rectify such corwas a considerable debt on account of the ruptions and abuses as might have crept fleet and army: that the revenues of the into any part of the administration during crown had been anticipated: he expressed the war; and effectually to discourage prohis hope, that they would provide for him faneness and immorality. Finally, he asduring his life, in such a manner as would sured them, that as he had rescued their religion, aws, and liberties, when they were now become advocates for maintain were in the extremest danger, so he should ing a standing army in time of peace; nay, place the glory of his reign in preserving and impudently avowed, that their comand leaving them entire to the latest pos- plaisance to the court in this particular was terity. To this speech the commons re- owing to their desire of excluding from alı plied in an address, by a compliment of con- share in the administration à faction disafgratulation upon the peace, and an assurance, fected to his majesty, which might mislead that they would be ever ready to assist and him into more pernicious measures. The support his majesty, who had confirmed majority of those who really entertained them in the quiet possession of their rights revolution-principles opposed the court, from and liberties, and by putting an end to the apprehensions that a standing army once war fully completed the work of their de-established would take root, and grow into liverance. Notwithstanding these appear- an habitual maxim of government: that ances of good-humor, the majority of the should the people be disarmed, and the house, and indeed the whole nation, were sword left in the hands of mercenaries, the equally alarmed and exasperated at a pro- liberties of the nation must be entirely at ject for maintaining a standing army, the mercy of him by whom these mercenawhich was countenanced at court, and even ries should be commanded. They might recommended by the king, in his speech to overawe elections, dictate to parliaments, the parliament. William's genius was alto- and establish a tyranny, before the people military. He could not bear the thoughts could take any measures for their own proof being a king without power. He could tection. They could not help thinking it not without reluctance dismiss those officers was possible to form a militia, that with the who had given so many proofs of their concurrence of a fleet might effectually courage and fidelity. He did not think protect the kingdom from the dangers of an himself safe upon the naked throne, in a invasion. They firmly believed, that a mikingdom that swarmed with malcontents, litia might be regularly trained to arms, so who had so often conspired against his per- as to acquire the dexterity of professed solson and government. He dreaded the am- diers: and they did not doubt they would bition and known perfidy of the French surpass those hirelings in courage, considerking, who still retained a powerful army. ing that they would be animated by every He foresaw that a reduction of the forces concurring motive of interest, sentiment, would lessen his importance both at home and affection. Nay, they argued, that Britand abroad; diminish the dependence upon ain, surrounded as it was by a boisterous his government; and disperse those for- sea, secured by floating bulwarks, aboundeigners in whose attachment he chiefly ing with stout and hardy inhabitants, did confided. He communicated his sentiments not deserve to be free, if her sons could not on this subject to his confidant, the earl of protect their liberties without the assistance Sunderland, who knew by experience the of mercenaries, who were indeed the only aversion of the people to a standing army; slaves of the kingdom. Yet, among the nevertheless, he encouraged him with hope genuine friends of their country, some indiof success, on the supposition that the com- viduals espoused the opposite maxims. mons would see the difference between an They observed, that the military system of army raised by the king's private authority, every government in Europe was now aland a body of veteran troops maintained by tered: that war was become a trade, and consent of parliament for the security of the discipline a science not to be learned but kingdom. This was a distinction to which | by those who made it their sole profession: the people paid no regard. All the jealousy that, therefore, while France kept up a of former parliaments seemed to be roused large standing army of veterans, ready to by the bare proposal; and this was inflamed embark on the opposite coast, it would be by a national prejudice against the refugees, absolutely necessary, for the safety of the in whose favor the king betrayed repeated nation, to maintain a small standing force, marks of partial indulgence. They were sub- which should be voted in parliament from missive, tractable, and wholly dependent upon year to year. They might have suggested his will and generosity. The jacobites failed another expedient, which in a few years not to cherish the seeds of dissatisfaction, would have produced a militia of disciplined and reproach the whigs who countenanced men. Had the soldiers of this small standthis measure. They branded that party ing army been enlisted for a term of years, with apostasy from their former principles. at the expiration of which they might have They observed, that the very persons who claimed their discharge, volunteers would in the late reigns endeavored to abridge the have offered themselves from all parts of prerogative, and deprive the king of that the kingdom, even from the desire of learnshare of power which was absolutely neces- ing the use and exercise of arms, the amsary to actuate the machine of government, bition of being concerned in scenes of
actual service, and the chagrin of little dis-jectors. In his private deportment, he was appointments or temporary disgusts, which liberal, easy, and entertaining: as a statesyet would not have impelled them to enlist man, bold, dogmatical, and aspiring. as soldiers on the common terms of perpet- THE NUMBER OF STANDING FORCES ual slavery. In consequence of such a suc- REDUCED TO TEN THOUSAND. cession, the whole kingdom would soon The terrors of a standing army had prohave been stocked with members of a disci. duced such a universal ferment in the naplined militia, equal, if not superior, to any tion, that the dependants of the court in the army of professed soldiers. But this scheme house of commons durst not openly oppose would have defeated the purpose of the the reduction of the forces: but they shifted government, which was more afraid of the battery, and employed all their address domestic foes than of foreign enemies; in persuading the house to agree, that a and industriously avoided every plan of very small number should be retained. this nature, which could contribute to When the commons voted, That all the render the malcontents of the nation more forces raised since the year one thousand formidable.
six hundred and eighty should be disbanded, CHARACTERS OF THE MINISTERS. the courtiers desired the vote might be re
BEFORE we proceed to the transactions committed, on pretence that it restrained the of parliament in this session, it may not be king to the old tory regiments, on whose amiss to sketch the outlines of the ministry, fidelity he could not rely. This motion, as it stood at this juncture. The king's however, was overruled by a considerable affection for the earl of Portland had begun majority. Then they proposed an amendto abate, in proportion as his esteem forment, which was rejected, and afterwards Sunderland increased, together with his moved, That the sum of five hundred thouconsideration for Mrs. Villiers, who had sand pounds per annum should be granted been distinguished by some particular marks for the maintenance of guards and garriof his majesty's favor. These two favorites sons. This provision would have maintained are said to have supplanted Portland, whose a very considerable number; but they were place in the king's bosom was now filled by again disappointed, and fain to embrace a Van Keppel, a gentleman of Guelderland, composition with the other party, by which who had first served his majesty as a page, three hundred and fifty thousand pounds and afterwards acted as private secretary. were allotted for the maintenance of ten The earl of Portland growing troublesome, thousand men; and they afterwards obtained from his jealousy of this rival, the king re- an addition of three thousand marines. The solved to send him into honorable exile, in king was extremely mortified at these resoquality of an ambassador extraordinary to lutions of the commons; and even declared the court of France; and Trumball," his to his particular friends, that he would never friend and creature, was dismissed from the have intermeddled with the affairs of the office of secretary, which the king conferred nation, had he foreseen they would make upon Vernon, a plodding man of business, such returns of ingratitude and distrust. who had acted as under-secretary to the His displeasure was aggravated by the reduke of Shrewsbury. This nobleman ri- sentment against Sunderland, who was supvalled the earl of Sunderland in his credit posed to have advised the unpopular measure at the council-board, and was supported by of retaining a standing army. This nobleSomers, lord chancellor of England, by Rus- man, dreading the vengeance of the comsel, now earl of Orford, first lord of the mons, resolved to avert the fury of the admiralty, and Montague, chancellor of the impending storm, by resigning his office, exchequer. Somers was an upright judge, and retiring from court, contrary to the ena plausible statesman, a consummate cour-treaties of his friends, and the earnest desire tier, affable, mild, and insinuating. Orford of his majesty. appears to have been rough, turbulent, fac- CIVIL LIST ESTABLISHED, &c. tious, and shallow. Montague had distin- The house of commons, in order to guished himself early by his poetical ge- sweeten the unpalatable cup they had prenius; but he soon converted his attention to sented to the king, voted the sum of seven the cultivation of more solid talents. He hundred thousand pounds per annum for the rendered himself remarkable for his elo- support of the civil list, distinct from all quence, discernment, and knowledge of the other services. Then they passed an act English constitution. To a delicate taste, prohibiting the currency of silver hamhe united an eager appetite for political mered coin, including a clause for making studies. The first catered for the enjoy- out new exchequer-bills, in lieu of those ments of fancy; the other was subservient which were or might be filled up with into his ambition. He, at the same time, dorsements: they framed another to open was the distinguished encourager of the the correspondence with France, under a liberal arts, and the professed patron of pro- variety of provisoes: a third for continuing