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ed. Then he marched to Palamos, and scension, by agreeing to the bill for trienundertook the siege of that place, while at nial parliaments. This Mr. Harley brought the same time it was blocked up by the in, by order of the lower house, immedicombined squadrons of Brest and Toulon. ately after their first adjournment; and it Though the besieged made an obstinate de- kept pace with the consideration of the sup fence, the town was taken by storm, the plies. The commons having examined the houses were pillaged, and the people put to estimates and accounts, voted four millions the sword, without distinction of age, sex, seven hundred sixty four thousand seven or condition. Then he invested Gironne, hundred and twelve pounds for the service which in a few days capitulated. Ostalric of the army and navy. In order to raise met with the same fate, and Noailles was this sum, they continued the land-tax; they created viceroy of Catalonia by the French renewed the subsidy of tonnage and poundking. In the beginning of August he dis- age for five years, and imposed new duties tributed his forces into quarters of refresh- on different commodities (6). The trienment, along the river Terdore, resolving to nial bill enacted, that a parliament should undertake the siege of Barcelona, which be held once within three years at least: was saved by the arrival of admiral Russel. that within three years at farthest after the The war languished in Piedmont, on ac- dissolution of the parliament then subsistcount of a secret negotiation between the ing, and so from time to time, for ever king of France and the duke of Savoy; after, legal writs under the great seal notwithstanding the remonstrances of Rou- should be issued, by the direction of the vigny, earl of Galway, who had succeeded crown, for calling, assembling, and holding the duke of Schomberg in the command of another new parliament: that no parliament the British forces in that country. Casal should continue longer than three years at was closely blocked up by the reduction of farthest, to be accounted from the first day Fort St. George, and the Vaudois gained of the first session : and, that the parliament the advantage in some skirmishes in the then subsisting should cease and determine valley of Ragelas : but no design of import- on the first day of November next followance was executed (5).
ing, unless their majesties should think fit England had continued very quiet un- to dissolve it sooner. The duke of Devonder the queen's administration, if we ex- shire, the marquis of Halifax, the earls of cept some little commotions occasioned by Weymouth and Aylesbury, protested against the practices, or pretended practices, of this bill, because it tended to the continuthe jacobites. Prosecutions were revived ance of the present parliament longer than, against certain gentlemen of Lancashire as they apprehended, was agreeable to the and Cheshire, for having been concerned in constitution of England. the conspiracy formed in favor of the late
DEATH OF ARCHBISHOP TILLOTSON king's projected invasion from Normandy. AND OF QUEEN MARY. These steps were owing to the suggestions WHILE this bill was depending, Dr. John of infamous informers, whom the ministry Tillotson, archbishop of Canterbury, was countenanced. Colonel Parker and one seized with a fit of the dead palsy, in the Crosby were imprisoned, and bills of treason chapel of Whitehall, and died on the twentyfound against them: but Parker made his second day of November, deeply regretted escape from the Tower, and was never re- by the king and queen, who shed tears of taken, though a reward of four hundred sorrow at his decease; and sincerely lapounds was set upon his head. The king mented by the public, as a pattern of elehaving settled the affairs of the confederacy gance, ingenuity, meekness, charity, and at the Hague, embarked for England on the moderation. These qualities he must be eighth of November, and next day landed allowed to have possessed, notwithstanding at Margate. On the twelfth he opened the the invectives of his enemies, who accused session of parliament, with a speech, in him of puritanism, flattery, and ambition; which he observed that the posture of af- and charged him with having conduced to fairs was improved both by sea and land a dangerous schism in the church, by acsince they last parted; in particular, that a cepting the archbishopric during the life of stop was put to the progress of the French the deprived Sancroft. He was succeeded
He desired they would continue in the metropolitan see by Dr. Tennison, the act of tonnage and poundage, which bishop of Lincoln, recommended by the would expire at Christmas: he reminded whig party, which now predominated in them of the debt for the transport ships em- the cabinet. The queen did not long sur. ployed in the reduction of Ireland; and ex- vive her favorite prelate. In about a month horted them to prepare some good bill for after his decease, she was taken ill of the the encouragement of seamen. A majority small-pox, and the symptoms proving danin both houses was already secured; and in gerous, she prepared herself for death with all probability he bargained for their conde-Igreat composure. She spent some time it
exercises of devotion, and private conversa- RECONCILIATION BETWEEN THE KING tion with the new archbishop; she received AND THE PRINCESS OF DENMARK. the sacrament with all the bishops who The princess Anne being informed of were in attendance; and expired on the the queen's dangerous indisposition, sent a twenty-eighth day of December in the lady of her bed-chamber to desire she thirty-third year of her age, and in the might be admitted to her majesty; but this sixth year of her reign, to the inexpressi- request was not granted. She was thanked ble grief of the king, who for some weeks for her expression of concern; and given after her death could neither see company, to understand, that the physicians had dinor attend to the business of state. Mary rected that the queen should be kept as quiwas in her person tall and well-proportion-et as possible. Before her death, however, ed, with an oval visage, lively eyes, agreea- she sent a forgiving message to her sister: ble features, a mild aspect, and an air of and, after her decease, the earl of Sunderdignity. Her apprehension was clear, her land effected a reconciliation between the memory tenacious, and her judgment solid. king and the princess, who visited him at She was a zealous Protestant, scrupulously Kensington, where she was received with exact in all the duties of devotion, of an uncommon civility. He appointed the paleven temper, and of a calm and mild con- ace of St. James for her residence, and versation. She was ruffled by no passion, presented her with the greater part of the and seems to have been a stranger to the queen's jewels. But a mutual jealousy and emotions of natural affection: for she as- disgust subsisted under these exteriors of cended, without compunction, the throne friendship and esteem. The two houses of from which her father had been deposed, parliament waited on the king at Kensingand treated her sister as an alien to her ton, with consolatory addresses on the death blood. In a word, Mary seems to have im- of his consort: their example was followed bibed the cold disposition and apathy of her by the regency of Scotland, the city and husband; and to have centered all her am- clergy of London, the dissenting ministers, bition in deserving the epithet of an humble and almost all the great corporations in and obedient wife. (See Note L, at the England (7). end of this Vol.]
NOTES TO CHAPTER IV.
1 The French king hearing how Upholsterer of Notre Dame, a
liberally William was supplied, church in which those trophies
5 In the course of this year, M. 2 Burnet. History of K. W. Bur. du Casse, governor of St. Do.
chet. Lives of the admirals mingo, made an unsuccessful Sloane's Nar. Feuquieres. Vol. attempt upon the island of Ja. taire. Ralph. Tindal. State maica : and M. St. Clair, with Tracts.
four men of war, formed a de. 3 The duke of Luxembourg sent sign against St. John's, New
such a number of standards foundland; but he was repulsed
and duties upon marriages, births, and burials, bachelors, and widows. They passed an act for Jaying additional duties upon coffee, tea, and chocolate, towards paying the debt due for the transport ships : and another, imposing duties on glass ware, stone, and earthen
bottles, coal, and culm. 7 The earls of Rochester and
Nottingham are said to have started a doubt, whether the parliament was not dissolved by the queen's death; but this dangerous motion met with no countenance.
Account of the Lancashire Plot- The Commons inquire into the Abuses which had
crept into the Army, They expel and prosecute some of their own Members for Corruption in the Affair of the East India Company-Examination of Cooke, Acton, and others—The Commons impeach the Duke of Leeds—The Parliament is prorogued-Session of the Scottish Parliament—They inquire into the Massacre of Glencoe-They pass an Act for erecting a trading Company to Africa and the Indies—Proceedings in the Parliament of Ireland - Disposition of the Armies in Flanders-King William undertakes the Siege of Namur-Famous Retreat of Prince Vaudemont— Brussels is bombarded by Villeroy-Progress of the Siege of Namur-Villeroy attempts to relieve it— The Besiegers make a desperate Assault -The Place capitulates—Boufflers is arrested by Order of King William-Campaign on the Rhine, and in Hungary-The duke of Savoy takes Casal— Transactions in Catalonia, The English Fleet bombards St. Maloes and other Places on the Coast of France Wilmot's Expedition in the West Indies—A new Parliament— They pass the Bill for regulating Trials in Cases of High Treason—Resolutions with respect to a new Coinage. The Commons address the King, to recall a Grant he had made to the Earl of Portland-- Another against the new Scottish Company--Intrigues of the Jacobites-- Conspiracy against the Life of WilliumDesign of an Invasion defeated— The two Houses engage in an Association for the Defence of his Majesty-Establishment of a Land-Bank-Trial of the Conspirators—The Allies burn the Magazine at Givet-Louis the Fourteenth makes Advances towards a Peace with Holland-He detaches the Duke of Savoy from the Confederacy-Naval Transactions— Proceedings in the Parliaments of Scotland and Ireland—Zeal of the English Commons in their Affection to the King-Resolutions touching the Coin, and the Support of Public Credit-Enormous Impositions-Sir John Fenwick is apprehended-A Bill of Attainder being brought into the House against him, produces violent Debates—His Defence — The Bill passes -Sir John Fenwick is beheaded— The Earl of Monmouth sent to the TowerInquiry into Miscarriages by Sea-Negotiations at Ryswick, The French take Barcelona—Fruitless Expedition of Admiral Neville to the West Indies—The Elector of Saxony is chosen King of Poland Peter the Czar of Muscovy travels in Disguise with his own Ambassadors—Proceedings in the Congress at Ryswick - The Ambassadors of England, Spain, and Holland sign the Treaty—A general Pacification.
ACCOUNT OF THE LANCASHIRE PLOT. (John Friend, to defray the expense of their
The kingdom now resounded with the expeditions. His testimony was confirmed complaints of the papists and malcontents, by other infamous emissaries, who received who taxed the ministry with subornation of but too much countenance from the gov. perjury, in the case of the Lancashire gen- ernment. Blank warrants were issued, and tlemen who had been prosecuted for the filled up occasionally with such names as conspiracy. One Lunt, an Irishman, had the informers suggested. These were deinformed Sir John Trenchard, secretary of livered to Aaron Smith, solicitor to the state, that he had been sent from Ireland, treasury, who, with messengers, accompaniwith commissions from king James to divers ed Lunt and his associates to Lancashire, ungentlemen in Lancashire and Cheshire: der the protection of a party of Dutch horse that he had assisted in buying arms, and guards, commanded by one captain Baker. enlisting men to serve that king in his pro- They were empowered to break open houses, jected invasion of England: that he had seize papers, and apprehend persons, accordbeen twice dispatched by those gentlemen ing to their pleasure; and they committed to the court of St. Germain's, assisted many many acts of violence and oppression. The jacobites in repairing to France, helped to persons, against whom these measures were conceal others that came from that king- taken, being apprized of the impending dandom; and that all those persons told him ger, generally retired from their own habithey were furnished with money by Sir tations Some, however, were taken and
imprisoned: a few arms were secured ; and, papers and circumstances relating to the in the house of Mr. Standish, at Standish- pretended plot, resolved, that there was sufhall, they found the draft of a declaration ficient ground for the prosecution and trials to be published by king James at his land- of the gentlemen at Manchester; and that ing. As this prosecution seemed calcu- there was a dangerous conspiracy against lated to revive the honor of a stale conspi- the king and government. They issued an racy, and the evidences were persons of order for taking Mr. Standish into custody; abandoned characters, the friends of those and the messenger reporting that he was who were persecuted found no great diffi- not to be found, they presented an address culty in rendering the scheme odious to the to the king, desiring a proclamation might nation. They even employed the pen of be published, offering a reward for appreFerguson, who had been concerned in every hending his person. The peers concurred plot that was hatched since the Rye-house with the commons in their sentiments of conspiracy. This veteran, though appointed this affair; for complaints having been laid housekeeper to the excise-office, thought before their house also, by the persons who himself poorly recompensed for the part he thought themselves aggrieved, the question had acted in the revolution, became dissat- was put, whether the government had cause isfied, and, upon this occasion, published a to prosecute them; and carried in the affirletter to Sir John Trenchard on the abuse mative; though a protest was entered of power. It was replete with the most against this vote by the earls of Rochester bitter invectives against the ministry, and and Nottingham. Notwithstanding these contained a great number of flagrant in- decisions, the accused gentlemen prosecuted stances, in which the court had counte- Lunt and two of his accomplices for perjury, nanced the vilest corruption, perfidy, and at the Lancaster assizes; and all three were oppression. This production was in every found guilty. They were immediately inbody's hand, and had such an effect upon dicted by the crown, for a conspiracy against the people, that when the prisoners were the lives and liberties of the persons they brought to trial at Manchester, the populace had accused. The intention of the miniswould have put the witnesses to death, had try, in laying this indictment, was to seize they not been prevented by the interposition the opportunity of punishing some of the of those who were friends to the accused witnesses for the gentlemen, who had prepersons, and had already taken effectual varicated in giving their testimony: but the measures for their safety. Lunt's chief as- design being discovered, the Lancashiresociate in the mystery of information was men refused to produce their evidence one Taafe, a wretch of the most profligate against the informers: the prosecution principles, who finding himself disappointed dropped of consequence, and the prisoners in his hope of reward from the ministry, were discharged. was privately gained over by the agents for
INQUIRY INTO THE ABUSES IN THE the prisoners. Lunt, when desired in court
ARMY. to point out the persons whom he had ac- When the commons were employed in cused, committed such a mistake as greatly examining the state of the revenue, and invalidated his testimony; and Taafe de- taking measures for raising the necessary clared before the bench, that the pretended supplies, the inhabitants of Royston preplot was no other than a contrivance be- sented a petition, complaining, that the offiiween himself and Lunt, in order to procure cers and soldiers of the regiment belonging money from the government. The prison- to Colonel Hastings, which was quartered ers were immediately acquitted, and the upon them, exacted subsistence-money, even ministry incurred a heavy load of popular on pain of military execution. The house odium, as the authors or abettors of knavish was immediately kindled into a flame by contrivances to ensnare the innocent. The this information. The officers, and Pauncegovernment, with a view to evince their fort, agent for the regiment, were examined: abhorrence of such practices, ordered the then it was unanimously resolved, that such witnesses to be prosecuted for a conspiracy a practice was arbitrary, illegal, and a vioagainst the lives and estates of the gentle- lation of the rights and liberties of the submen who had been accused ; and at last the ject. Upon further inquiry, Pauncefort and affair was brought into the house of com- some other agents were committed to the mons. The jacobites triumphed in their custody of the sergeant, for having neglectvictory. They even turned the battery of ed to pay the subsistence-money they had corruption upon the evidence for the crown, received for the officers and soldiers. He not without making a considerable impres- was afterwards sent to the Tower, together sion. But the cause was now debated be- with Henry Guy, a member of the house, fore judges, who were not at all propitious and secretary to the treasury; the one for to their views. The commons having set giving, and the other for receiving, a bribe on foot an inquiry, and examined all the to obtain the king's bounty. Pauncefort's brother was likewise committed, for being granted so much against the sense of the concerned in the same commerce. Guy had nation. Their books were subjected to the been employed, together with Trevor the same committee that carried on the former speaker, as the court-agent for securing a inquiry, and a surprising scene of venality majority in the house of commons: for that and corruption was soon disclosed. It apreason he was obnoxious to the members in peared that the company, in the course of the opposition, who took this opportunity to the preceding year, had paid near ninety brand him; and the courtiers could not with thousand pounds in secret services; and that any decency screen him from their ven- Sir Thomas Cooke, one of the directors, and geance. The house having proceeded in a member of the house, had been the chief this inquiry, drew up an address to the king, manager of this infamous commerce. Cooke, enumerating the abuses which had crept refusing to answer, was committed to the into the army, and demanded immediate re- Tower, and a bill of pains and penalties dress. He promised to consider the remon-brought in, obliging him to discover how strance, and redress the grievances of which the sum mentioned in the report of the comthey complained. Accordingly, he cashiered mittee had been distributed. The bill was colonel Hastings; appointed a council of violently opposed in the upper house by the officers to sit weekly and examine all com- duke of Leeds, as being contrary to law and plaints against any officer and soldier; and equity, and furnishing a precedent of a danpublished a declaration for the maintenance gerous nature. Cooke, being agreeably to of strict discipline, and the due payment of his own petition brought to the bar of the quarters (1). Notwithstanding these con- house of lords, declared that he was ready cessions, the commons prosecuted their ex- and willing to make a full discovery, in case aminations: they committed Mr. James he might be favored with an indemnifying Craggs, one of the contractors for clothing vote, to secure him against all actions and the army, because he refused to answer upon suits, except those of the East India comoath, to such questions as might be put to pany, which he had never injured. The him by the commissioners of accounts. lords complied with his request, and passed They brought in a bill for obliging him and a bill for this purpose, to which the comMr. Richard Harnage, the other contractor, mons added a penal clause; and the former together with the two Paunceforts, to dis- was laid aside. cover how they had disposed of the sums EXAMINATION OF COOKE, ACTON, AND paid into their hands on account of the
OTHERS. army; and for punishing them, in case they WHEN the king went to the house, to give should persist in their refusal. At this pe- the royal assent to the money-bills, he enriod, they received a petition against the com- deavored to discourage this inquiry, by missioners for licensing hackney-coaches. telling the parliament that the season of the Three of them, by means of an address to year was far advanced, and the circumthe king, were removed with disgrace, for stances of affairs extremely pressing: he, having acted arbitrarily, corruptly, and con- therefore, desired they would dispatch such trary to the trust reposed in them by act of business as they should think of most imparliament.
portance to the public, as he should put an Those who encouraged this spirit of refor- end to the session in a few days. Notwithmation, introduced another inquiry about the standing this shameful interposition, both orphan's bill, which was said to have passed houses appointed a joint committee to lay into an act, by virtue of undue influence. open the complicated scheme of fraud and A committee being appointed to inspect the iniquity. Cooke, on his first examination, chamberlain's books, discovered that bribes confessed that he had delivered tallies for had boen given to Sir John Trevor, speaker ten thousand pounds to Francis Tyssen, of the house, and Mr. Hungerford, chairman deputy-governor, for the special service of of the grand committee. The first being the company; an equal sum to Richard voted guilty of a high crime and misde- Acton, for employing his interest in premeanor abdicated the chair, and Paul Foley venting a new settlement, and endeavoring was appointed speaker in his room. Then to establish the old company; besides two Sir John and Hungerford were expelled the thousand pounds by way of interest, and as house: one Nois, a solicitor for the bill, was a further gratuity; a thousand guineas to taken into custody, because he had scandal- colonel Fitzpatrick, five hundred to Charles ized the commons, in pretending he was Bates, and three hundred and ten to Mr. engaged to give great sums to several mem- Molineux, a merchant, for the same purbers, and denying this circumstance on his pose; and he owned that Sir Basil Fireexamination. The reformers in the house brace had received forty thousand pounds naturally concluded that the same arts had on various pretences. He said he believed been practised in obtaining the new charter the ten thousand pounds paid to Tyssen had of the East India company, which had been been delivered to the king by Sir Josiah