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treated but little better than lackeys, were destined by the irony of fate to occupy places in the temple of fame, which would be denied themselves. Beethoven, original, independent, iconoclastic, acknowledged no superior, without having yet achieved anything to demonstrate his superiority. Haydn tied down to established forms, subservient, meek, was only happy when sure of the approbation of his superiors. The third Symphony calls for more than passing notice. Beethoven's altruism is well known. The brotherhood of man was a favorite theme with him. By the aid of his mighty intellect and his intuitional powers he saw more clearly than others the world's great need. The inequalities in social conditions were more clearly marked in those times than now. The French Revolution had set people thinking. Liberty and equality was what they were demanding. Beethoven did not approve of war; he expressed himself plainly on this point, in after years, but at this period, considered it justifiable and necessary as a means of abolishing what remained of feudal authority. Beethoven regarded Napoleon as a liberator, as a savior, on his success in restoring order out of chaos in France. It showed considerable moral courage on his part to come out so plainly for Napoleon. A broader question than patriotism was here involved. Patriotism seeks the good of a small section. Altruism embraces the good of all, thus including patriotism. This Symphony was the best work which Beethoven had yet accomplished; a work, the grandeur and sublimity of which must have been a surprise to himself. It was conceived in the spirit of altruism, to show his appreciation of the man whom he believed was destined more than any other to uplift humanity. In the quality of its emotional expression, and also in its dimensions, it far exceeds anything of the kind that had yet appeared.—It is unique as a symphony, just as Napoleon was unique as a man. On finishing the work, he put the name of Bonaparte on the title page.

BONAPARTE
LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN

With perfect propriety the concept is here established that two great men are before the world; Napoleon and Beethoven, and that the latter is as great in his own province as was Napoleon in his, each being the exponent of a new order of things, co-equal in the achievement of great deeds.

He was on the point of sending it to Paris when the news was brought him by his pupil, Ries, that Napoleon was declared Emperor. In a rage Beethoven tore off the title page containing the dedication and threw it to the floor. “The man will become a tyrant and will trample all human rights under foot. He is no more than an ordinary man,” was Beethoven's exclamation.

THE NINTH SYMPHONY

We stand today before the Beethoven symphony as before the landmark of an entirely new period in the history of universal art, for through it there comes into the world a phenomenon not even remotely approached by anything the art of any age or any people has to show us.-Wagner.

It is the work of the seer approaching the end of his life drama, giving with photographic clearness a resume of it. Here are revelations of the inner nature of a man who had delved deeply into the mysteries surrounding life, learning this lesson in the fullest significance, that no great spiritual height is ever attained without renunciation. This world must be left behind. Asking and getting but little from it, giving it of his best; counting as nothing its material advantages, realizing that contact with it, had for him but little joy; the separation from it was nevertheless a hard task. This mystery constantly confronted Beethoven, that even when obeying the truer behests of his nature, peace was not readily attained thereby; often there was instead an accession of unhappiness for the time being. Paradoxically peace was made the occasion for struggle, it had to be wrested from life. No victory is such unless well fought for and dearly bought. This eternal struggle with fate, this conflict forever raging in the heart, runs through all his symphonies, but nowhere is it so strongly depicted as in this, his last. We have here in new picturing, humanity at bay. The apparently uneven battle of the individual with fate, the plight of the human being who finds himself a denizen of a world with which he is entirely out of harmony, who wrought up to despair, finds life impossible yet fears to die, is here portrayed in dramatic language.

To Wagner the first movement pictured the “idea of the world in its most terrible of lights,” something to re

coil from. Beethoven's ninth symphony, he says, leads us through the torment of the world relentlessly until the Ode to Joy is reached. Great souls have always taught that the relief from this Weltschmerz (misery) is through the power of love, that universal love alone can transform and redeem the world. This is the central teaching of Jesus. It was Beethoven's solution of the problem of existence. Love for humanity, pity for its unfortunates, hope for its final deliverance, largely occupied his mind. Through this magic power, sorrows are transformed into peace and happiness. The effect of the chorale finale is that of an outburst of joy at deliverance, a celebration of victory. It is as if Beethoven, with prophetic eye, had been able to pierce the future and forsee a golden age for humanity, an age where altruism was to bring cessation of strife, and where happiness was to be in general. Such happiness as is here celebrated in the Ode to Joy can indeed only exist in the world through altruism. Pity, that sentiment which allies man to the divine, comes first. From this proceeds Iove, and through these, and by these only is happiness possible. This was the gist of Beethoven's thought. He had occupied himself much with sociological questions all his life, always taking the part of the oppressed. It was many days before Jehan was pronounced out of danger; brain fever had seized him, and he was delirious. But the time came when the doctor said, “He will recover.” One day, looking through the curtains, Jehan saw a princely carriage drive into the court, it was Monsieur Cammille and Evadne. The gladness of that hour had been fought for and dearly won; it was as though they had emerged from the tomb and had suddenly entered Paradise. It seemed to them that their tears and sorrows, their sleepless nights, their anguish, their despair, changed into gladness, rendered still more charming the charming hour that was approaching. They said it is good that we have suffered, our troubles were so many handmaidens preparing for us the urn of joy. The lovers saw each other every day during Jehan's convalescence. They went for drives and sometimes horseback rides; their fathers frequently accompanying them. A sweet, pretty wedding was planned. It was to be at the house of Evadne, the beautiful palace of which she was now the sole mistress. Her father was there in the home of his early love. A banquet was spread in the dining room. It was illuminated and brilliant as the daylight; everywhere were lights and flowers; the table in the center was white and glistening. A number of family friends were invited to attend. The joy of Monsieur Lenormand was equal to that of the lovers. Monsieur Cammille, in the serene majesty of a man who had been put to proof, was supremely satisfied. At the feast, Monsieur Lenormand, rising with a glass of wine in his hand, proposed the health of the married pair. He exclaimed, “You shall hear a sermon, I will give you a bit of advice. Adore each other, don't quibble and quirk, but be happy. I go straight to the point, make for yourselves a nest for life, and manage things so that nothing shall be lacking to you. If there be no sun, smile and make one. Henceforth, there must be no sadness anywhere. That there should be affliction and unhappiness in any place, what a disgrace to intelligences created in the image of God. “Evil has no right to exist. All human miseries have for

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