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with our feet; for they would break by in spite CHAP. I. of every effort to prevent it."*

1755. Colonel Washington had for some time been considered as the pride and ornament of Vir. ginia, in the military line, and his reputation grew with every occasion for exertion which presented itself. His conduct in this battle was universally extolled, and the common opinion of his countrymen was, that, had his advice been pursued, the destruction of the day had been avoided. The assembly, which was in session when the intelligence of this defeat, and of the abandonment of the colony by colonel Dunbar, was received, felt the necessity of levying troops for their defence; and it was deter. mined to raise a regiment to consist of sixteen August. companies. The command of this regiment is appointed was offered to colonel Washington, who was command of

a regiment. also designated in his commission, as the commander in chief of all the forces raised and to

to the

* In another letter he says “ we have been beaten, shamefully beaten....shamefully beaten by a handful of men, who only intended to molest and disturb our march! Victory was their smallest expectation! But see the wonderous works of Providence, the uncertainty of human things! We, but a few moments before, believed our numbers almost equal to the force of Canada ; they, only expected to annoy us. Yet contrary to all expectation, and human probability, and even to the common course of things, we were totally defeated, and have sustained the loss of every thing."

CHAP. I. be raised in the colony of Virginia, and had the 1755.

uncommon privilege of naming his own field officers.

Retaining still his prepossessions in favour of a military life, and believing that he might now re-enter the service without disgrace, he cheerfully accepted the appointment offered him by his country.

Having made all the necessary arrangements for the recruiting service, he set out himself to visit the posts, and organize the remaining troops of Virginia, who were dispersed in small parties over an extensive frontier. These posts were put in the best state of defence they would admit of, particularly by cutting down and removing the trees which might cover an enemy attacking them. Having performed this duty he set out for, Williamsburg, in order to ar. range with the lieutenant governor, the future plan of operations; and to impress, as well on him, as on the leading men of the colony, the vast importance of devising proper means to retain the few Indians, not yet detached from the interest of the English by the French; the necessity of a more effectual militia law; and of an act to establish a complete system of martial law among the troops in the regular service. While on the way he was overtaken below Fredericksburg by an express, with the intelligence, that a large number of French and Indians, divided as was their custom, into

distress of

and exertions

Washington to augment the regular forces of the

several parties, had broke up the back settle. CHAP. I. ments; were murdering and capturing men, 1755. women, and children; burning their houses, and destroying their crops. The troops stationed among them for their protection, were unequal to that duty; and, instead of being able to afford the aid expected from them, were themselves blocked up in their forts.

Colonel Washington hastened back to Win- Extreme chester, where he found the utmost confusion the frontiers and alarm prevailing. He endeavoured to raise of colonel the militia, and to lead them immediately against the enemy; but more attentive to their colony. particular situation, than the general danger, they could not be prevailed on to leave their families. The back inhabitants, instead of assembling in arms, and obtaining safety by meeting the enemy, fled into the lower country, and increased the general terror. In this state of things, he endeavoured to collect and arm the men who had abandoned their houses, and to remove their wives and children to a distance from the scene of desolation and carnage exhibited on the frontiers; he gave too, the most pressing orders to the new appointed officers, of whose inattention to duty he greatly complained, to hasten their recruits; and di. rected the county lieutenants, below the Blue Ridge, to order their militia immediately to Winchester; but before these orders could be executed, the party which had done so much


CHAP. I. mischief, and excited such alarm, recrossed 1755, the Alleghany mountains with impunity. The

commander in chief, who was under the ne cessity of attending personally to every department, was for some time incessantly employed in making the most judicious disposition of the recruits for the protection of the country, in obtaining for them the necessary supplies, and in establishing the general principles of disci. pline, especially the necessity of an exact

obedience to orders. 1756. Early in the ensuing spring, the enemy in

vited by the success of the preceding year, made another irruption into the inhabited country, and did great mischief. The number of troops on the regular establishment was totally insufficient for the protection of the frontier, and it was found impracticable to obtain effective service from the militia. The Indians divided into small parties, concealed themselves with so much dexterity, as seldom to be perceived until the blow was struck. These murders were frequently committed in the very neighbourhood of the forts, and the detachments from the garrisons, which were employed in scouring the country were generally eluded, or attacked to advantage. In one of these skirmishes, im. mediately in the neighbourhood of a stockade, the Americans were totally routed, and captain Mercer killed. Such was the confidence of the enemy, that the smaller forts were very fre

quently assaulted, and they had repeated skir. CHAP. I. mishes * with such scouting parties, as they 1756. fell in with. The people either abandoned the country, or attempted to secure themselves in small stockade forts, where they were in great distress for provisions, arms, and ammunition; were often surrounded and sometimes cut off. With this state of things, colonel Washington was deeply affected. “I see their situation," said he, in a letter to the lieutenant governor, “I know their danger, and participate their sufferings, without having it in my power to give them further relief than uncertain promises. In short, I see inevitable destruction in so clear a light, that, unless vigorous measures are taken by the assembly, and speedy assistance sent from below; the poor inhabitants now in forts must unavoidably fall, while the remainder are flying before the barbarous foe. In fine, the melancholy situation of the people, the little prospect of assistance, the gross and scandalous


* In one of these skirmishes, mr. Donville, an ensign in the French service was killed, and in his pocket were found the orders given him by Dumas, the commandant on the Ohio, in which he was directed to pass fort Cumberland, to harass the convoys, and, if possible, to burn the magazines at Conogagees. To the honour of Dumas, particular instructions were given, to restrain the Indians as far as should be in his power, from murdering those who should fall into their hands. Unfortunately, obedi. ence to such orders could seldom be enforced.


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