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'6 Vivisection.

posterior roots of the spinal nerves, Sir Charles Bell discovered that the sensory and motor fibres are distinct anatomically and functionally in the two roots. 3. By experiments,, stigmatised as of special cruelty, Professor Ferrier discovered the portion of the brain most closely connected with the sense of smell, the "olfactory centre." One of his patients had for six years been deprived of the senses of smell and taste as the result of a fall on his head. The sense of taste was partially restored by iodide of potassium, but was lost again when the medicine was given up. Dr. Ferrier gave him no drugs, but applied an electric current to the part of the brain which his experiments had shown to be the olfactory centre. He permanently restored to his patient the sense of smell of which for six years he had been wholly deprived, as wel as that of taste which had been temporarily recovered. 4. The effects of chloral, a remedy now used all over the world, " were discovered," Professor Virchow tells us, " and established experimentally by Herr 0. Liebreich in my laboratory." 5. The innervation of the heart was discovered by Weber by experiments on the vagus nerve. 6. M. Villemin discovered that tubercular disease was contagious by inoculating animals with tubercular matter. It has been further shown that tubercular disease can be transmitted; that many cows suffer from tubercle and that their milk may carry contagion to human beings. A mother with a family of children can scarcely desire that her children shall be sacrificed to a horrible disease rather than that a few animals shall be experimented on in the laboratory. 7. Dr. Simon well points out the experiments referred to when " we think of guarding against the dangers of Asiatic cholera. On the one side there are the wellknown scientific infection-experiments of Professor Thiersch, and others following him, performed on a certain number of mice. On the other hand, there are the equally well-known popular experiments which, during our two cholera epidemics of 1848-9 and 1853-4, were performed on half a million of human beings, dwelling in the southern districts of London, by certain commercial companies which supplied those districts with water. Both the Professor and the companies gave us valuable experimental teaching as to the manner in which cholera is spread." The anti-vivisectionists would save the few mice, and let the thousands of human beings be "destroyed through lack of knowledge." 8. The experiments of Pasteur have proved that certain forms of disease are due to minute organisms which repro

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Vivisection. 7

duce themselves with marvellous rapidity. He "cruelly" inoculated animals with matter containing these germs. He "cultivated " the germs, and marked what rendered them specially mischievous or comparatively harmless. He has thus, by re-iterated experiments on living animals, discovered how to neutralise the infection, and the French farmers who had seen their fowls destroyed by "fowl's cholera," are now able, thanks to M. Pasteur, to guard their poultry yards against its ravages. A similar class of investigations has shown the real cause of "cattle disease," and unless the anti-vivisectionists triumph, English farmers will be saved from one of their most ruinous foes. 9. Mr. Lister—who has been compelled to leave England to carry on his investigations, in consequence of the "Cruelty to Animals Act," —has discovered by vivisection the antiseptic treatment of wounds, and has thus saved from agony and death thousands of human beings. The bitterest anti-vivisectionist would probably be only too glad to use Lister's discovery if he were suffering from an open sore, or compelled to undergo a surgical operation: yet anyone who benefits by the result has no right to complain of the means without which the result could not have accrued. 10. M. Toussaint, by inoculating animals, has discovered a protective against splenic fever. From the various researches of eminent vivisectionists the mass of diseases resulting from the presence of germs can now be dealt with, mitigated, and to some extent prevented. Yet Ihe anti-vivisectionist clamor would put an end to all this beneficent activity, and condemn men and animals to preventible suffering and death. (On the whole of this see Dr. Simon's address, reported in Nature August 18.) 11. The observations of the phenomena of starvation, by Mm. Chossat, Scheffer, Valentine, and Panum have been most useful in revealing the relative values of food stuffs and in dealing with the phenomena of starvation in human beings. As Dr. Carpenter points out: "It is extremely important that the medical practitioner should be aware that many of the phaenomena above described may be induced by the adoption of a system of too rigid abstinence in the treatment of various diseases; and that they have been frequently confounded with the symptoms of the malady itself and have led to an entirely erroneous method of treating it." He quotes from Dr. Copland some startling cases of mischief due to the misapprehension of symptoms which were really due to starvation. 12. The changes undergone by food in the alimentary canai the

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$ Vivisection.

work of the various secretions, the minutiae of digestion, the knowledge of all of these has been acquired by the experiments of vivisectors. Such cases as those of Alexis St. Martin are too rare to be depended upon, and failing these such knowledge can only be won by the establishment of artificial fistulas and certain other methods. Without this knowledge, however, the prevention or cure of enfeebled digestion is impossible.

These are but few of the cases which might be cited as reason for refusing to interfere with the prosecution of physiological enquiries by qualified observers. This paper does not pretend to be a complete argument in favor of experimental investigation: it only endeavors to persuade the indifferent to make themselves acquainted with the interests at stake before they join in swelling the senseless cry raised against scientific progress. The question is essentially one for the poor. If the laboratory be closed by the State, the hospital will become the chamber of involuntary experiment, and the poor will pay for the sentimental cry raised by the wealthy and the idle. The prolongation of preventible misery, the needless sufferings of man and beast, the continuation of disease and ill-health—these are the price to be paid for yielding to the demand of ill-regulated and ignorant sentiment. It is sometimes pretended that those who advocate vivisection are indifferent to animals. That is certainly not so in my own case, and I doubt if it is so in any. As I write, a favorite St. Bernard lies at my side, his big feathery tail waving gently if I speak or move; an English terrier is scampering round the room in full pursuit of an errant ball; a Dandie Dinmont puppy, exhausted with his endeavors to feed on the leg of the writing-table, lies asleep in my lap; a number of birds are twittering in a big cage that gives them space to use their wings; an aquarium, flower-surrounded, fills a large window; a squirrel is playing in the greenhouse outside. All my living brute friends are dear to me, and they gladden my otherwise lonely home; and just because they and their fellows are thus dear, and because dearer j et are those highest animals we call our brethren—because of this, I plead for freedom of science, benefactor of all that lives.


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