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Chapter IV.-Synthesis of Complex Sentences.*


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46. Rules of construction in complex sentences : I. The rules of construction in simple sentences apply to in

dividual clauses in complex sentences. II. Every subordinate clause should stand as near as possible

to the word which it explains. III. When a sentence contains more than one adverbial clause,

one of them may be brought to the beginning of the sen

tence, particularly that of time or manner. IV. Clauses of condition and concession generally precede

their principal clauses ; clauses of reason and purpose

generally follow them. V. When a substantive clause is the subject, it is generally

(especially in prose) placed after the predicate, in apposition with the pronominal particle it; as,

That you wrong me is evident."

" It is evident that you wrong me.47. Rules of punctuation in complex sentences :I. The rules of punctuation in simple sentences apply to in

dividual clauses in complex sentences. II. Subordinate clauses are separated from their principal

clauses, and from one another (unless when the connection between them is very close), by commas :

A, a', a', a3, but, Aa', a a.
III. When an attributive clause is merely explanatory (logic-

ally universal), it is separated from its noun by a comma;
Ice, which is congealed water (i. e., all ice), may be put
many useful

purposes. A, al (att. explan.); IV. When the attributive clause is determinative (logically particular), no comma is needed; as, Ice which is found in March (i. e., some ice) soon dis

appears. Aal (att. deter.). See § 22. The pupil should also consult again 88 16-20, before commencing this Chapter.

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V. When a sentence contains a number of protases, relating

to a common apodosis, they are separated from one another by semicolons, and from the apodosis by a colon; as,

If la?; if 2a+; if 3a?; if 4al: then A. VI. A direct quotation is preceded by a colon: as, A: a (subs.)

48. These preliminary matters will be illustrated by the following

Example. I. The elements204. Some precious metals are in every country the representatives of

every commodity. A. The more prudent of the crusaders provided themselves with

these precious metals. la'. They were not sure of something. la?. They should be fed from heaven with a shower of quails or


Note.-A. 1a' att. a? subs. 2a' att. II. The complex sentence.

The more prudent of the crusaders, who were not sure that they should be fed from heaven with a shower of quails or manna, provided themselves with those precious metals which, in every country, are the representatives of every commodity.

Exercise 14. In each of the following examples, combine the elements into a Complex Sentence, according to the relations in the Note, and insert the proper punctuation. 1. A. Age increases our desire of living. a. Age lessens the enjoyment of life.

Note.-A. a att.
2. a. The king broke off both treaties.

ał. The people learned this.
A. The people celebrated their triumph by bonfires and public re-


Note.-A. a' adv. tine, ao subs.
3. a'. I have an indifferent opinion of the vulgar.

a3. Some merit raises the shout of the vulgar.
a'. I am ever led to suspect that merit.
A. This I own.

Note.-A. a? subs. a? adv. effect, a: att. 4. head has one day grown giddy with the roar of the milli

a'. That head has the very next been fixed upon a pole.
A. History has frequently taught me this.

Note.-A, al sub 8. a. att.

5. A. The variation of the needle filled the companions of Columbus

with terror. a'. The variation of the needle is now familiar. a". The variation of the needle still remains one of the mysteries

of nature, a'. Into the cause of these mysteries the sagacity of man hath not

been able to penetrate.

Note.-A. a' att. aadv. conces. a8 att. 6. A. There were thousands of living gazettes in all the villages of

France. la'. They discussed Napoleon's measures with the utmost freedom. 2a'. They uttered curses, not loud, but deep. 3a'. Napoleon had got possession of the press, of the tribune, and

of the pulpit, 4a". Nobody could write an attack on him. 5a'. Nobody could make a public speech in opposition (contr.*).

Note.—A. (la? + 2aTM) att. (3a1 + 4a?—5a4) adv. conces. 7. a'. We are acquainted with some countries in Asia.

a'. Despotism is the constitution of none of these countries.
A. Nothing is more false than to say that it is.

Note.-A. a? subs. ao att 8. 10. Alexander VI. was entering a little town in the neighbourhood

of Rome. a'. That little town had just been evacuated by the enemy. A. He perceived the townsmen busy in the market-place, pulling

down a figure from a gibbet. 20. That figure had been designed to represent Alexander VI.

Note.-A. lal adv. time, aatt. 2al att. 9. A. Charles gave orders.

lar. Parliament was summoned in 1626. 2a'. The customary writ was not to be sent to the Earl of Bristol. la’. Bristol, while Spanish ambassador, had mortally offended Buck

ingham, the king's favourite, in the affair of the Spanish

marriage. 2a". Bristol was obnoxious to Charles.

Note.-A. 1a. adv. time, 2a2 subs. lao att... 2a att. 10. lat. Despotism is the genuine constitution of India. 2a'. A disposition to rebellion in the subject or dependent prince

is the necessary effect of this despotism. 3at. Jealousy and its consequences naturally arise on the part of

the sovereign. * Contract. Rule III. & 49, applies to those subordinate clauses in a Complex Sentence which are co-ordinate with one another. Con, traction is explained in % 29,

4a'. The government is everything.
ba'. The subject is nothing (contr.).
6a'. The great landed men are in a mean and depraved state,

and subject to many evils.
A. All this he lays down as a rule.

Note,-A. (1a 2a- Bal + 4al 5a 6a+) subs. 11. la. He violates the most solemn engagements.

(2, 3, 4) a'. He oppresses, extorts, robs.
(5,6,7) a'. He imprisons, confiscates, banishes, at his sole will and

8a'. We accuse him for his ill treatment of the people committed

to him as a sacred trust. 9a1. “To be robbed, violated, oppressed, is their privilege, -let

the constitution of their country answer for it.” A. This is his defence.

Note.-A. (1a-. . . 7a?) adv. cond. 8a+ adv. time, 9asubs. 12. A. These ruling principles are in truth everything and all in all

to men rightly taught. a>. I have mentioned certain men. a'. In the opinion of such men these ruling principles have no

substantial existence.

Note.-A. aatt. a’ att. 13. la*. Suppose all the misfortunes of mankind to be cast into a

public stock, in order to be equally distributed among the

whole species. 2a'. Some persons now think themselves the most unhappy. 3a%. These persons are already possessed of one share (of misfor

4a”. By such a division another share would fall to these persons.
la'. These persons would prefer the first share to the second

A. This is a celebrated thought of Socrates.

Note.-A. a- subs. la* adv. cond. (2a2 3a* 4a) att. 14. a'. The people were poor and disunited.

la'. Suppose the nobility had not been free and brave.
2a-. Tyranny was breaking through all barriers on every favour-

able moment.
A. That tyranny would have rioted without control.

Note.-A. lal adv. cond. a* adv. time, 2al att. 15. la'. Private wars did not originate in the feudal system. a>. That custom, indeed, owed its universal establishment to

no other cause (than private wars). 2a'. Private wars were perpetuated by so convenient a custom. A. This it is impossible to doubt.

Note.-A. (1aadv conces. 2a? subs.) a att.

16. la'. The paramount end of liberal study is the development of

the student's mind. ar. This development is accomplished through some exercise of

the faculties. 2a'. Knowledge is principally useful as a means of determining

the faculties to that exercise. A. All this I hold.

Note.-A. lal subs. 2a? subs. a? att. 17. 1a-. All our knowledge of mind and matter is merely relative. A. I was engaged in illustrating this principle during my last

lecture, having given a definition of psychology, or the

philosophy of mind. 2a?. In this definition I endeavoured to comprise a variety of ex

pressions. a'. The explanation of these expressions might smooth the way in our subsequent progress.

Note.-A. 1a? subs. 2aatt. a? att. 18. 1a-. All the rites of religion seem to be instituted for a great end. A. That end is the perpetual renovation of the motives to virtue

by the contemplation of its excellence and its necessity. 2a'. These motives gain a more forcible and permanent in

fluence. la. They do this the more frequently and the more willingly

they are revolved. 2a. In time they become the reigning ideas, the standing prin

ciples of action. a*. Everything proposed to the judgment is rejected or approved

by a certain test. 3a?. These motives become that test (contr.). Note.-A. laatt. 2a. att. (1ao adv. deg. 2a adv, time, 3a

adv. time, a: att.). 19. la'. Suppose we are to arrange events according to their pro

bable connection. la. David had been driven away from Saul. 2a2. David's life had been attempted several times 2al. Samuel thereafter ventured on the solemn step of anointing

him king.
A. This we may believe.

Note.-A. 1aadv. cond. (2a? subs. 1a + 2aadv. time). 20. la'. The fame of this princess has surmounted the prejudices both

of faction and of bigotry.
A. Her fame yet lies exposed to another prejudice.
2a?. This prejudice is more endurable (contr.).
lar. This prejudice is more natural (contr.).

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