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V. The subject and predicate may be separated by an adverb
of time or manner; but not by one of place or cause. VI. The usual order in which adverbs are introduced, is :
1st, manner; 2d, cause ; 3d, place ; 4th, time. VII. An absolute phrase should stand as near to the begin
ning of the sentence as possible; or at the very end. 44. Rules of punctuation in simple sentences :
In the following formulae, the elements of the simple sentence (A) are represented by the numbers 1 (subject), 2 (predicate), 3 (object), 4 (adverb). I. When the elements stand in their natural order, the only punctuation required is a period at the close :
A 1234. II. When an adverbial phrase is placed at the beginning of a sentence, it is followed by a comma :
A 4,1234. III. When a connective is used after the subject or other
element at the beginning of a sentence, it is preceded and followed by a comma,- He, however, replied."
A = 1, con., 234. IV. Attributive phrases following their nouns are separated from them by commas :
A = 1, att., 23, att., 4. V. Similar phrases are separated from each other by
A 1, 1, 2 3 4, 4, 4. 45. The process of synthesis (as well as these rules for ar. rangement and punctuation), is exemplified in the following :
a. Cæsar invaded Britain.
Britain with two legions in the year B.C. 55.
Exercise 13. In each of the following examples, combine the facts and relative circumstances into a Simple Sentence,* supplying the proper punctuation : 1. a. I saw the Queen of France.
6. It is now sixteen or seventeen years since I saw her.
d. She was at Versailles when I saw her. 2. a. Rome ruled over the nations.
6. She had done so before (adverbial phruse).
d. She ruled now by the power of superstition. 8. a. Cromwell called a Council.
b. The Council comprised his chief officers.
6. These disturbances were in the west of England.
g. After all this, he returned to Winchester. 5. a. Malcolm was king of Scotland.
6. He was constrained to retire.
c. He had come too late to support his confederates. 6. a. The Earl of Lancaster was thrown into prison.
6. This was done at the instigation of Mortimer.
• The subject and predicate are printed in italics.
7. a. Edgar Atheling sought a retreat in Scotland.
b. He was the Saxon heir to the throne. c. The insurrection on his behalf had failed. d. He was accompanied by his followers. e. He had taken refuge in Scotland on a previous occasion (an
b. The king ruled over England.
g. This took place in 1294. 9. a. There was a conspiracy.
b. It consisted of two parts (an adjective).
e. This took place shortly after the accession of James I. 10. a. The one plot was called the Main. 6. It was said to have been chiefly conducted by Sir Walter
Raleigh and Lord Cobham, c. It consisted of a plan to place Arabella Stuart on the throne. d. She was the king's cousin. e. This was to be accomplished with the assistance of the Spanish
b. It is also known as the SURPRISE, or the SURPRISE TREASON.
f. It was also intended to remodel the government. 12. a. Broke was engaged in the first plot.
6. He was at the head of the second.
c. He thus formed the connecting link between them. 13. a. The conspirators were discovered.
b. The matter reached the ears of Cecil.
d. Those implicated in the plot were arrested. 14. a. Raleigh was one of the number.
b. He was reprieved.
15. a. Edward returned.
6. He came to England.
¿. Warenne had the title of Governor. 16. a. Warenne had collected an army.
b. It consisted of forty thousand men.
i. Cambuskenneth is near Stirling.
6. There was a French war in 1513.
g. This happened at the commencement of the war. 18. a. Henry VII. was the founder of a dynasty.
b. That dynasty was the House of Tudor
h. He was then in the fifty-second year of his age. 19. a. Tournay surrendered in 1513.
6. It surrendered to Henry VIII.
6. It had been increased before (an adverb).
churches and monasteries in England.
e. He could even suspend all the laws of the Church.
f. This suspension could last for a twelvemonth, 21. a. A crime was facilitated in England. 6. The time referred to was the early part of the reign of
Edward I. c. The crime was that of clipping the coin. d. It was facilitated by the custom of cutting the silver penny, e. This custom was sanctioned by law.
f. It used to be cut into halves and quarters.
6. This conquest first cemented them into a whole.
f. This Christianity was common to them all (adj.). 23. a. Henry met Francis in 1520.
b. Profuse magnificence was displayed on the occasion.
f. It is known as “ The Field of the Cloth of Gold.” 24. a. The Church party was opposed by the Puritans.
b. There were religious disputes between them, c. This induced James to call a conference, d. It met at Hampton Court. e. The king wished to reconcile both parties. f. He called the conference on pretence of finding expedients
for doing so, g. He took this step in 1604. 25. a. Elizabeth was sister to Mary, 6. The latter was anxious to involve the former in some appear
ance of guilt. c. For this purpose she seized the opportunity of a rebellion. d. This rebellion had been headed by Wyatt (possessive attri
bute). e. She ordered Elizabeth to be committed to the Tower. f. When there she was to be examined. g. Her examination was to be strict. h. It was to be conducted by the Council.