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The second beast is represented as giving life unto the image, that he should both speak, and cause as many as would not worship him to be killed. He should have power to excommunicate all those who might refuse subjection to his dominion and conformity to his established worship ; thus exposing them to many calamities and punishments as outlawed persons, and causing them to be put to death, It has frequently been remarked, that while the secular beast is said to make war upon the saints, the ecclesiastical power is only represented as causing them to be killed. The council of Lateran decreed not to put heretics to death, but to deliver them over to the secular power for this purpose. The inquisitors, says Burnet, on this occasion, with a disgusting affectation of lamb-like meekness, are wont to beseech the civil magistrates to shew mercy to those whom they themselves had given up to the flames.The Apostle proceeds to give a farther description of the second beast in the following verses :


figurative, in the same prophecy, will be a direct violation of the rules of sound interpretation. The whole book, says Mr. Faber, excepting those few passages which are avowedly descriptive, must be understood literally throughout, or figuratively throughout; otherwise it will be impossible to ascertain the meaning designed to be conveyed. If the Pope be really this image, the language is both natural and expressive; and it has been literally verified in innumerable instances, by papal interdicts, excommunications, and similar

-The Pope may be considered not only as the image of the secular beast, but also in a sense as the head of the two-horned beast. The latter, however, still remains in existence when there is no Pope. The cardinals, during that vacancy, as representing the whole ecclesiastical power, are the head of the beast; and as such they create the Pope, to be the image both of the secular and ecclesiastical, idolatrous, persecuting, power; and to be the representative of the whole. The Pope does not derive his dominion from any hereditary right, or from popular election, or from regal appointment; but he is the creature of the Romish clergy; and being created by them, he becomes the object of their worship, and exercises, or, at least, claims a right to exercise, absolute authority over both them and the kings of the earth. Thus the Papists, like other idolaters, first make their idol, and then worship him.


of this chapter. A proposal is made to men of wisdom and understanding to find out the beast from his number. Does the attempt then deserve either censure or ridicule? Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man. The remark in the last clause of this verse may imply two things. First, that it is a method of numbering practised among men ; as the measure of a man is such a measure as men commonly make use of in measuring. The ancients were accustomed to denote names by numbers; that is, to reckon up the numbers for which the letters in the name separately stood, and then to give the sum total instead of the name. Bishop Newton has adduced several instances of this practice in his comment on this text. Secondly, the phrase may also imply, that the number, when deciphered, would give the name, title, or distinguishing character of a man. With regard to the number of the beast, therefore, the interpretation given by Irenæus the disciple of Polycarp (who lived a little after St. John's time), an interpretation which has been adopted by the ge- : nerality of judicious commentators from that period to the present, is, without doubt, the true exposition of this mystery. The letters in the word Lateinos (Actsivos), according to the orthography of the Greek language, in which the Apostle wrote, contained exactly the number six hundred and sixty-six. But the Greek word Lateinos signifies the Latin man, or the man of Latium. The first founder of the secular Roman empire was Lateinos, or Latinus according to the Latin orthography. From him the Romans were called Genus Latinum, or the Race of Latins. Their language was also for the same reason called Latin. The revived western Roman empire was called the Latin empire, to distinguished it from the Greek empire in the East. The Roman church in the West was called the Latin church, for the sake of a simi


pist may

lar distinction. The service of the church is also performed in Latin, and all its official papers are composed in the same language. But the word Lateinos not only signifies the name of the founder of the Latin empire, but it may also be considered as the title of the Latin empire and the Latin church. The term is also the distinguishing appellation of every individual both in the empire and in the church. The beast, therefore, either secular or ecclesiastical, may be called Lateinos : the Pope, the image of the beast, may be styled Lateinos; and every Roman Pa

be denominated Lateinos. On these grounds, therefore, to use the words of Mr. Faber, we have abundant reason to conclude that Latinus, and nothing but Latinus, is the name of the beast. For in no other word descriptive of the beast can such a fatal occurrence of circumstances be discovered. Several names, says Bisop Newton, might be cited which contain this number; but it is evident that it must be some Greek or Hebrew name, and with the name all the other qualities or properties of the beast must agree. But this is evidently the case with respect to the word Latinus. Another peculiar and striking circumstance may however here be noticed on this subject. The Apostle wrote the Apocalypse in the Greek language; and therefore it may reasonably be supposed, that a Greek word would be intended for the concealed name. It must, however, be admitted, that he sometimes uses Hebrew names in his book. Now, if any one should ask whether the name in this enigma might not possibly be an Hebrew word, it may be replied, and it must be admitted to be a most astonishing circumstance, that the letters of the Hebrew word Romiith, which signifies either the Roman kingdom, or the Roman beast, or the Roman church, consist of exactly six hundred and sixty-six. Probably no one word besides these mentioned, in any language whatsoever, and much less two words in two different languages, can be found to express both the same number, and the same thing, which are expressed and implied in this enigmatical proposition *. -Which of the two beasts has been re

* An ingenious and learned writer, designated by the initials J. E. C. whose notes on the twelfth, thirteenth, and seventeenth chapters of this book, Dr. Adam Clarke has admitted into his Commentary on the Revelation, and whose system is, on the whole, much the same as that of Bishop Newton, has argued that the Greek words 'H Aatim Baoidesa, signifying the Latin kingdom, are, to a demonstration, the terms intended for the number of the beast. It will be seen by the Greek scholar, that the numeral letters in these words, as well as those of the word A&TUVOS, make exactly the number 666; and it certainly must farther increase the astonishment of the calculator to observe this peculiar concurrence of circumstances in the mystical number so fatal to the Roman church and empire. J. E. C. grounds one of the arguments for his hypothesis upon the objection of Bellarmin the Jesuit, respecting the orthography of Latinus; who asserts that the word ought to be written Activos, and not Aatavoç. But upon either principle a critic's objection can be of no avail; for, if Λατειος be demolished, then “Η Λατινη βασιλεια may be adopted, and the same thing will be established upon his own principles. J. E. C. remarks, that though the name of the beast is the Latin kingdom, it is impossible, from the mere name, to say whether it is the Latin empire SECULAR or SPIRITUAL. He asserts, however, that it is evident the second beast is the one numbered from three different passages in the Apocalypse. He sums up his view of the subject with the following argument: It is said “ the number of the “ beast is the number of a man;" consequently, the numbered beast must be A MAN; that is, it must be represented elsewhere in the Revelation under this emblem, for in no other sense can an empire be denominated a man. Therefore, it is not the ten-horned beast, for this is uniformly styled the beast in every part of the Apocalypse where there has been occasion to mention this power. It can,

therefore, be no other than the two-horned beast, or Roman hierarchy; which, on account of its preaching to the world its most antichristian system of doctrines, and calling it Christianity, is likewise named in several passages in this book The FALSE PROPHET.-If the popish church, or the popish Roman empire, be not represented by this number of the beast, let the Papists state what is. I am, however, decidedly of opinion, that human ingenuity will never devise any other solution of this enigma than that which is found in the Greek terms Λαζεινος or Η Λατινη βασιλεια; or in the Hebrew word ηηηη.The subject may be illustrated by an hypothetical calculation. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that the word Activos casually represents both the number and the thing intended by this enigma. Admit further that it is a million to one (though the improbability is, without doubt, immensely greater), that a word in any or all languages cannot

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