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tient and true interpretation; suchtleship would not have been ada deep insight also into the mostmitted. For this reason, waving recondite meanings of these scrip-. his claim to this high honor, he tures, and such admirable rea- besought them to suffer the word sonings founded thereon for the of exhortation ; (chap. xiii. 22.) confirmation of the gospel reve. which well became him, who pro. lation, as clearly point us to the fessed to become all things to most learned of the apostles, as all men, so far as he could lawfulbeing the writer. Although A- ly, that he might gain the more pollos was mighty in the scriptures, . to christianity. For this reason when compared with his Alexan- he protested, that in the whole of drian brethren, and eloquent in the doctrine delivered to them, his manner of speaking; yet he he had maintained a good conneeded to be more accurately in- science, chap. xiii. 18. 3. This structed by Aquila : while Paul epistle was more likely to be read had profited in the Jewish religion, by many zealots, whom Paul deand the types explained in the sired to convince and convert, if epistle to the Hebrews above many sent forth without a name, than it of his fellow-students ; had seen would have been had Paul prefix. Jesus Christ, who called him to the ed his own name. So many rea. apostleship; and had been caught sons cannot be adduced why A. up by Christ into the third heaven. pollos should not have given his
In addition to this positive evi- name to the performance,' unless dence, it may be observed, that this be the first, that Apollos was there is no substantial objection not the writer of it; for the name against the opinion, that Paul of a popular preacher or writer wrote the Epistle to the Hebrews. often goes farther with mankind The want of Paul's name is no than his sentiments. valid objection. The three epis No passage in the epistle furtles of John are universally ac- ' nishes a valid objection. Candidus, knowledged to be the production or Venema, considers chap. xiii. of his pen, notwithstanding his 17, 18, 19, 22. as agreeing better
name is nowhere inserted in them. with Apollos than Paul; but has * Paul indeed commonly introduced 'not satisfied me that Paul might his epistles with his name, and the not exhort the Hebrews to obey assertion of his apostleship; but their rulers, with as much pro- ; there are important reasons for priety as Apollos : or with as the deviation in the presentoase. much propriety say, “ pray for 1. The doctrines, which he set us;" “ we are confident that we forth in the epistle to the Hebrews, have a good conscience;" “I were wholly founded by hiin on the more earnestly beseech you the Jewish scriptures, and not on to do this, that I may be rethe authority of the writer. 2. stored to you the sooner;" and Paul was the apostle to the o suffer this word of exhortation." Gentiles. In writing to the He In chap. ii. 3. the writer does brews, he did not assume his not say that he received the docapostolic character, because the trines of Christ from other witunbelieving Jews and Judaizing nesses ; nor does he disclaim air christians traduced him as an immediate revelation. He mereapostate. His claim to apos. ly says, “how shall we escape if
we neglect so great a salvation, prisoned, Paul would probably which beginning to be spoken by have intimated it in some of his the Lord, was confirmed to us by epistles, for he was with the aposthem who heard him ?” Now tle the greater part of the time, Paul often appeals to the testimo- while he was in bonds. See Phiny of eye-witnesses for the con- lip. i. 1. Col.i. 1.and Philem. ver. 1.' firmation of things niade known Candidus asserts that the comto himself by revelation. See Acts mon reading, in Heb. x. 34. is inxiii. 30, 31. 1 Cor. xv. 5, 6, 7, correct. I know not why the pre-: 8. and 2 Tim. ii. 2. In the same sent reading may not be correctly." manner Peter appealed to the tes- and most literally rendered thus : timony of the other apostles. See “for ye even suffered with me in 1 Pet. i. 12. So did Jude, ver. 17. my bonds." This implies that
Paul may have called his epis- they jointly sympathized in his tle to the Galatians a large letter, afflictions. The Alexandrian and because he rarely, on account of Clermont MSS. two of Stephen's. some infirmity or many avoca MSS. the Syriac version, the St. tions, wrote so long a letter as German, and the Vulgate support that with his own hand : and in the reading which Candidus Heb. xiii. 22, Paul may have deems correct; but the common said, as the writer does in the reading is supported by the greatoriginal, “ for indeed I have written est number of ancient MSS. and to you briefly," on account of the therefore ought to be retained. importance of the subjects, which The Alexandrian, St. German, he had discussed in few words. ' and some other copies, were
Candidus says, “ It is more early corrected by the Vulgate, and than doubtful whether Paul would therefore cannot have much credit have freely conversed in Italy, with a biblical critic. where Timothy was imprisoned, The salutations from the chriswhich however this author asserts tians of Itaiy, show that the writer chap. xiü. 23. But who, will of this letter was either in Italy, venture to accuse Paul of cow, or had some Italian brethren with ardice? Let his sufferings in his him, which agrees with the supmaster's cause witness for him, position, that Paul was the author against this charge. Besides, it is of it. He had been two years a not certain that Timothy was im- prisoner at Rome, but had now prisoned ; for Heb. xiii. 23. may obtained his liberty, (ver. 23, of be literally rendered thus ; xiii. chap.) by means, as is sup
Know that our brother Timothy posed, of the persons converted is sent away, with whom, if he under his ministry in the empecome soon, I will see you." The ror's family. See Philip, iv. 22. word απολελυμερον, is rendered in These arguments, which I this manner, in Math. xiv. 15. have compiled from Macknight's “ Send away the multitudes.” literal translation of the aposPaul had probably sent Timothy tolical epistles, and nearly in the away into Macedonia with an words of that learned man, aporder to return and bring him 'pear to me, to afford conclusive an account of the state of the evidence that St. Paul, and not churches. See Philip. ii. 19,- Apollos, was the writer of the
Had Timothy been im- epistle to the Hebrews.
If Candidus will candidly con- ordaining councils should be comsider them, I think he will be posed of elders and delegates from constrained, at least, to admit, the vicinity of the church, over that when he said there were which the pastor is to be ordain: "mighty exceptions” to his and ed. When there are churches of Venema's opinion, he ought to the same faith and order in the have given the name of MACK- neighborhood, ordaining councils NIGHT a place, beside the names should be selected from them, in of MILL and MICHAELIS. order more effectually to pre.
TIMOTHY. . serve christian faith, purity, and
The church put their candiQUESTIONS RELATIVE TO CHURCH
dale upon 'trial before the ordainGOVERNMENT, PROPOSED AND ing council. The candidate puts
himself upon trial, whether he be Question I. “If a council, call- duly qualified to receive the ofed by a church for the purpose fice of a gospel minister, and of ordaining a man to be her pas. whether it be suitable, that he tor, find him to be in their opin- should be ordained over that par, ion heretical, and therefore refuse ticular church. The candidate to ordain him ; do they, by such may object to the appointment of refusal, leave him under an eccle. a certain church, as a part of the siastical censure."
council, and in case his objections Answer. To a right solution are reasonable, they should prevent of this question, we must consider such appointment. But it is the the design for which an ordaining duty of the church to appoint the council is convened, and the au- council. It appears unsuitable, thority with which such council that a candidate, who is to be ex. is invested. When a church, af, amined with respect to his qualiter due trial, has elected one to fications, should choose his own be their pastor, it is incumbent judges. Such a practice would on them to convene a council of lay the foundation of error and disthe elders and delegates of the order in the church of God. The churches, with which they are in claim of the candidate extends no near and intimate connexion, to farther, (unless by the indulgence examine the man of their choice, of nominating one, two or three and provided he be found quali- of his particular acquaintance) fied, to consecrate him to the work than to determine for himself, of the gospel ministry. The call- whether he will submit his charing of delegates, to constitute a acter and standing to such colin. part of the council, is proper and cil, as the church shall appoint. necessary to maintain the com The council being convened munion, order, and edification of with the consent of the candidate the churches.
are, under Christ, invested with The churches of a particular authority to examine the state of neighborhood are more immedi- the church, and to consult their ately connected, and are more spiritual interests; and to them it deeply interested in each other'sec. belongs, as an ecclesiastical ju. clesiastical concerns,than churches dicatory, to examine the regular at a distance. On these accounts, ity of the call given to the candi
date. When they find the call date correct in his opinions, and conformable to gospel order, they established in the gospel faith. are empowered and directed by Never may they proceed upon the Christ to enquire and decide, hope, that he will change and Whether the candidate be duly qual. adopt more correct sentiments in ified to receive ordination, as a gos- future. To be inducted into the pel minister ; whether he be of ministry, he must be now sound good report, and furnished with in the faith. When the council such hierary and gracious attain- have made their result, and rements, as to enable him to take ufa fused to ordain on account of her. on him the guidance of souls ; and esy, their determination is decisive, whether his religious doctrines are and should be obligatory upon the conformable to the essential arti- church, which called them; upon cles of the christian faith. Until the candidate, whose opinions these enquiries be diligently made,' were investigated by them : and they cannot proceed to approve upon all ministers and churches in and consecrate the candidate with communion with the council. out great neglect of duty, and a They were a christian judicatory, treacherous dereliction of the instituted under Christ for this cause of the Redeemer. Christ, very purpose, to determine the by his apostle, has given to his qualifications of the candidate ; ministers the power of ordination and until by a revision, or by the reunder this indispensable injunc. sults of some superior judicátory, tion, “The things which thou hast their result is corrected, or superheard of me among many witness. ceded, it must be holden valid: es, the same commit thou to faith. The candidate, while under this ful men, who shall be able to imputation, cannot be ordained teach others also.” None can be to the christian ministry, so as to accounted faithful, who are not be acknowledged a regular miniswell instructed in the christian ter by any in communion with the faith, who embrace not the main council. The result of council articles of that faith, and will not has not simply laid him under pledge themselves to preach the suspicion, but has decided against true doctrines of Christ and to his good report with respect to Jive in conformity to them. There. bis christian faith. fore the council must, with can. may be ordained unless he be of dor, fully enquire of the candi. established good report both in date, what are his religious senti- faith and morals. Before he can ments; and he also is bound to be ordained, the disqualifying remake a full and honest disclosure sults of council must be set aside, of his religious sentiments. as formed either in ignorance, in
If the council, after an impar. prejudice, or in corruption. To tial and deliberate examination, set aside this result, there must find the candidate, in their opin- be a regular ecclesiastical process. ion, essentially erroneous, or in But one will ask, “ Have the any respect materially defective, church and candidate no remedy they must declare what they find, against a decision, which may and refuse to ordain him. Ordi- have been founded in error or cornation must ever proceed upon ruption ?” They have one. Do the council's finding the candi. they believe the result dictated by
oorruption? They will call in a churches. They may call a councouncil of churches of their neigh cil of such ministers and churches, borhood, of established faith, for the as will accord with their views. ayowed purpose of exposing that No compulsory or coercive procorruption. When they have prov- cess can be taken by sister edit, they have a complete remedy, churches to prevent it. But is and may have their pastor elect for the enquiry, What have they a their minister. Do they suppose right to do in the sight of God, that the result was founded in hon- and agreeably to the laws of est mistake, or misapprehen- Christ? It is plain, that they sion. They may invite the coun- have no right to procure the ordicil to a review of their proceed-” nation of their candidate, until the ings, and may ask a number of decision of the council has been other churches of their faith and proved to be corrupt, or faulty, and of their acquaintance, to unite in has been set aside by a regular ecthe review? If there were an er- clesiastical proceeding. Should ror it may be easily remedied; they procure such ordination, if no error, the church will feel they could not justly expect that themselves happily relieved from their minister would be viewed, spiritual danger.
as a regular minister, and entitled But, is the candidate to be view. to the intercourse and communed as a heretic? He is. For ion of those churches, with every ordaining council is of ne- whom they had before walked. cessity to determine, whether the The ministers, who have attempt. candidate be sound in the faith. ed to liberate him from the suspiThis is essential to the preserva. cion and imputation of heresy, tion of purity in the church, and and have proceeded to ordain him, of orthodoxy in the ministry. and those, who countenance and So far as his ministerial character commune with him afterwards, is concerned, he must lie under the are guilty of acting the part of imputation, until a regular investi- separatists. In its nature such gation of the result shall show the conduct is schismatical, tending to fact to be different. As a chrís. subvert order, and to introduce distian brother, he is entitled to the cord and confusion into the same process in the church, to churches of Christ. However, which he belongs, as other private if the church forsake their forchristians, when charged with cor mer faith, and select men, who rupt opinions.
will agree with them and enBut may not the church call courage them in their schism ; another council to ordain their other churches can only regret candidate? May not such coun- it, and labor to persuade them cil proceed to ordain? And should into a more correct course. They not the person ordained be view. may not attempt coercion, but ed as a regular gospel minister?' 'they may manifest their grief and
I answer, That every church disapprobation, by refusing to has a civil right to choose, and to commune with the minister thus have appointed over them such appointed, and with his supportministers, as they please, let his ers, and then leave the issue to opinions be ever so diverse from Jesus, the witness of the truth. those of other ministers and Christians should have no fellow