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to raise its prices a small amount, and all new duties and ex-
penses will be covered ; nor can the consumers find a remedy
except in abandoming the use of the article. It has therefore
been more expedient to submit to exaction than to resist. They
have also, by paying higher prices than those nations whose
merchants must vie with each other can venture to give, secured
the choice of all the productions of China, so that the second
qualities are alone to be purchased by other merchants, until the
demands of the English Company are supplied. The trade of
Great Britain to China is now thrown open, and this event must
produce a change which will affect that of all other nations. As
individuals will be able to transact their business more econo-
mically than the Company has ever done, we may presume on a
greatly increased consumption of such of the products of China
as are admitted into Great Britain. The smuggling trade, al-
though in part owing to the high duties exacted by the British
government, has also been encouraged by the monopoly; this
will be diminished, and a greater amount of British tonnage will
be employed, to the injury of the trade of the north of Europe.
We may also inser, that the exactions of the local authorities will
be lessened. The East India Company has never condescended
to a clandestine trade, but individual merchants will resort to it
whenever the profits will more than counterbalance the risk; and
as the government of Canton as well as the imperial treasury de-
rive no small revenue from the legal trade, and are not strong
enough to suppress that which is illegal, they will soon discover
the only sure mode of preventing the latter, namely, to render
it the least profitable.
The trade of the Indian possessions of Great Britain with China
has long been open to individual merchants, and has increased to
an enormous amount. The value of the articles imported into
China by the private traders, has so far exceeded those exported,
as to have rendered it unnecessary for the Company for many
years to ship any specie. It has also had a similar effect upon
our own trade, for bills upon London have had a ready and pro-
fitable sale, and even notes of the Bank of the United States can
be negotiated in Canton.
The most remarkable feature in the trade between the British
possessions and China, is, that the article which exceeds sixfold
in value all the rest, is one expressly prohibited by the Chinese
laws, namely, opium. This has had for some years past an aver-
age sale to the extent of twelve millions of dollars. The vessels
which import it discharge it outside of the port, and the boats in
the service of the custom house itself are the principal vehicles
for its introduction. Such is the avidity with which it is Sought,
that no edict, however severe in its penalties, has the slightest
effect in lessening the consumption; the authorities, unable to

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carry the law into effect, now share in the profits of its breach;
and it is said, that the Emperor himself, while uttering edicts of
the most stern character against the pernicious drug, is in private
a slave to its seductions.
By the latest accounts from Canton we perceive that a British
commissioner has been appointed for the purpose of superintend-
ing the trade with China. The local authorities have refused to
recognise him, and disapprove of his residence; so much so as to
have forbidden Chinese to serve him as servants, and withdrawn
his comprador. The latter is a most important personage, since
through him alone supplies of provisions can be obtained; so that
to refuse a comprador is about equivalent to the Roman form of
exile, which forbade the supply of fire and water. Other nations
have consuls and commercial agents, but have wisely abstained
from asking their recognition by the Chinese government; and
we doubt not that the British will be compelled in like manner
to acquiesce, or to abandon their trade. Indeed, the same Canton
paper which contains the account of the uncivil reception of Lord
Napier, contains also an intimation, that English merchants may
find it convenient to trade under some other flag.
The trade of the United States with China is the latest in its
origin of any, but is now second in extent to that of England
alone, and in 1833, fell short of that of the East India Company
only about one-ninth. During this year, no more than $682,500
in specie were carried to Canton in American vessels; $4,772,500
were provided for by bills of exchange; while about $3,000,000
were transmitted in merchandise. Of the merchandise, some
important items are the products of American industry: among
these are sandal wood, cut in the islands of the Pacific ; biche-
de-mer, collected in the Indian Archipelago; the furs of our
western territories, and in 1831, upwards of 100,000 pieces of
cotton goods made in the United States. On other articles large
profits are earned, as on the opium of Smyrna, the quicksilver of
Asia, and the furs of Canada and of the North West Coast. This
trade has upon the whole been the most profitable in proportion
to its extent of any branch of our foreign commerce, and has
been the principal source of some of the largest fortunes to our
merchants. It has not indeed been without its reverses, and on
one occasion an attempt of a single house to drive all competitors
from the trade, produced a wide extent of ruin, in which itself
was finally involved; but so far as the country in general is con-
cerned, it has added in no small degree to our national wealth.
One of the earliest voyages made from the United States to China,
is worthy of being mentioned from its boldness. Captain Stuart
Dean, immediately after the close of the revolutionary war, fitted
out a North River sloop, of eighty tons burthen, and accompa-

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nied by a few spirits equally adventurous with himself, reached
the ports of China, and returned in safety.
The voyage of the Alliance is mentioned by Gutzlaff as form-
ing an aera in the navigation of the Indian Seas. This vessel,
built as a frigate, was purchased for this trade in 1787. Leaving
Philadelphia at a season when the monsoon was adverse, she
performed the circuit of New Holland and the Philippine Islands,
nor did she cast anchor until she reached Whampoa. Before this
voyage, it had been considered impracticable to reach China
without stopping several times for provisions and water. The
outward bound European ships touched at Madeira or Teneriffe,
at the Cape of Good Hope, and at Batavia. Five or six months
were thus frequently consumed even in the direct passage. Since
that epoch, American vessels, unless diverted by some object of
profit, have rarely touched at any intermediate port; the direct
passage has been frequently performed in less than three months;
and one vessel has accomplished the eastern passage in one hun-
dred and five days.
Several attempts have been made of late years to open a trade
with ports of China other than Canton. The Spaniards of Ma-
nilla still have the privilege of sending ships to the principal port
of Fou-kien; and this flag has been used by some of the English
residents. Armed vessels under the British flag have also made
coasting voyages, extending as far as the country of the Mant-
chous. If some of these have been unsuccessful, enough has been
done to show that this is not attended with an absolute impossi-
bility, and that the demand for many articles which now reach
the distant provinces loaded with the profits of the Canton mer-
chants, and a heavy freight, is such as will cause them to be pur-
chased in spite of any prohibitive measures the government can
adopt. We only wonder that American merchants have not been
engaged in such enterprises, particularly as it seems well under-
stood that the fears of the British East India Company have op-
posed obstacles to the use of that flag.
We have met with some difficulty in the comparison of Gutz-
laff with other authorities, and even in the first perusal of his
work, in consequence of the different systems of spelling Chi-
nese words adopted by the different authors. He has attempted
throughout to apply the English orthography, and we conceive
has not been successful, in consequence of difficulties inherent
in the structure of our tongue. Derived from many different
languages, it has retained, with slight alterations, the original
spelling, and although the vowel sounds have been altered to
suit English organs, the articulations are often unaltered. Doubts
may frequently occur as to the power of the consonants, and if
the vowels are less uncertain, they are so different in their use
from that ascribed to them in other languages, and from what

is sometimes given to them by ourselves in words of foreign origin, that we consider their application as even more objectionable than that of the consonants. The Chinese themselves having no literal characters, we cannot resort to them for information on this head. Our principal authorities, in respect to Chinese names, are the Jesuits; these have generally used the French alphabet, and it is attended with less uncertainty in its application than the English. It is however deficient in the power of expressing some sounds which are frequent in Chinese; we have therefore sometimes wished to adopt the English w, gu, and sh, instead of ow, kow, and ch; the second alteration we have made in the names of the provinces Quang-tong and Quang-se. It is much to be wished that some conventional mode of spelling languages, which have no alphabet of their own, might be adopted by general consent; or that it should be agreed to refer to the authorities of earliest date. An alphabet of this sort, founded upon the Roman, has been proposed by Volney, and he has shown that it is perfectly adapted to the Arabic, which differs in its usual sounds from any European language, quite as much as the Chinese does. Until some such system be adopted, we shall still find ourselves puzzled to learn that khan, caron and cham, bashaw, pacha, and peishwah, Khang-hi, and Kaung-he, She-whang-te, Chi-Hoàng-ti, are respectively no more than variable spellings of the same sounds. To conclude; although we are compelled to say that we experienced disappointment in the perusal of so much of this work, as treats of the history of China anterior to the accession of the present dynasty, we have in all other respects been highly gratified. More particularly have we been pleased with the history of the commerce of foreign nations with this empire, and enlightened by the details of their trade, collected with great pains from authentic sources. Did the work contain no more than this, it would be invaluable in a country possessed of the second trade in extent with this remote empire; a trade which has been the source of much individual wealth; which has added to the national riches; poured immense revenue into the treasures of government; and which promises to be still further extended. We cannot, on the present occasion, pass over the personal merits of our author. He has, with the greatest perseverance and zeal, devoted himself to missionary labours, to aid in which he has not disdained the study of the literature, the history, and the commerce of the country in which his lot is cast. Satisfied then, in addressing a nation highly literary and polished, possessing in addition an overweening estimate of their own importance, that the first step is to convince it that others are in many points its equals, in others its superiors, he has composed

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familiar tracts, in the Chinese language, descriptive of other portions of the globe. These have been sought for with avidity, and have created a demand for tracts upon religious and moral subjects; and thus it will probably happen, that the very points in the Chinese character which have opposed obstacles to their reception of Christianity, will hereafter be found the most easy avenues to conversion. Among other useful works, he is the chief editor of a monthly magazine in the Chinese language. Two numbers of this have come into our hands, and we have been enabled to discover that one contains a general geographical description of the old continent; the other a particular account of the Empire of Russia, which bounding on that of China for several thousand miles, must be an object of curiosity to the government, as well as the people of the Celestial Empire. In the pursuit of his sacred calling, he has made two voyages along the coast of China, the first in a junk, the second in an European vessel; exposing himself, in the former case, to hazards and inconveniencies of the most appalling character; and in the latter exerting himself in the most strenuous manner to procure an opening for commerce, under the protecting wing of which, he has had the good sense to see that religious impressions might be readily propagated.

ART. WI.-History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of
Design in the United States. By WILLIAM DUNLAP, Vice-
President of the National fleademy of Design, Author of
the History of the American Theatre, Biography of G. F.
Cooke, &c. 2 vols. 8vo, New York: 1834.

THAT Mr. Dunlap has succeeded in compounding two very entertaining volumes, can scarcely be denied ; but that he has been equally successful in accomplishing the object for which their appellation would indicate them to have been prepared, is not so sure. The “History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States,” is a sounding title, and a sounding title is a dangerous affair. If the expectations which it arouses are not sufficiently realized, the reader is little disposed to be blind to the faults, and overkind to the merits of the work. He remembers the passage of the old poet, in which a contrast is drawn between the vapouring scribbler who professed to sing “ the fate of Priam and the noble war,” and the inspired bard, who, commencinghis immortal strains with an invocation to the muse, endeavours “to give not smoke from a blaze,” but from the former to educe light; and he feels strongly tempted to repeat, in reference to

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