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handled language, they possessed already the essential hypotactic constructions of Old English, such as the Heah-clause and the constructions with swa. And it is in the Blickling Homilies and the Peterborough Chronicle, both later texts, that we find some of the most striking examples of crude structure.

III Finally, the constructions which have been analyzed illustrate in several respects the intellectual processes involved in speech. We have seen grammatical "contamination, which is a matter of association of ideas, exemplified in the coördination, whether in parallel clauses or within a subordinate clause, of ideas bearing a different logical relation to the sentence as a whole. We have seen it also in the mingling of related constructions expressing the same idea, such as the swæðer-clause and the inverted disjunctive clause. The fluidity of language, again, its unconscious adaptation to the needs of the speaker, is illustrated by the diverse forms assumed by the swæðer-construction, and by the gradations from hortatory to concessive meaning in the case of the indefinite clause. A kindred phenomenon is the use of a clause in a double sense, as temporal-concessive. The growth of sentences in which one idea enters because suggested by another is illustrated by conditional clauses to which concessive meaning is given by the later part of the sentence. Further, among coördinate sentences can be found many examples of the adding of thought to thought with only the vaguest indication of relationship between them.

APPENDIX I.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

The list includes only works which have actually been consulted and have been found of some value. A. Bibliographies.

ADAMS, A. The Syntax of the Temporal Clause in Old

English Prose, pp. 233–236. New York, 1907.
CHASE, F. H. A Bibliographical Guide to Old English

Syntax. Leipsic, 1896.
Cook, A. S. A First Book in Old English, pp. 235–243.

Boston, 1900.
Paul, H. Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie, 2d

ed., Vol. 3. Strassburg, 1909.
ZEITLIN, J. Accusative with Infinitive and some Kindred

Constructions in English. New York, 1908.
B. General Theory.
Morris, E. P. On Principles and Methods in Latin

Syntax. New York, 1901.
OERTEL, HANNs. Lectures on the Study of Language.

New York, 1901.

Ries, J. Was ist Syntax ? Marburg, 1894. C. Latin and Greek.

BURTON, E. D. Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New

Testament Greek. Chicago, 1909.
DELBRÜCK, B., und WINDISCH, D. Syntaktische For-

schungen. 5 vols. Halle, 187178.
DRAEGER, A. Historische Syntax der Lateinischen Sprache.

2 vols. Leipsic, 1878.
HALE, W.G. The Cum-constructions: their History and

Functions. (Cornell University Studies in Classical
Philology 1.) Ithaca, 1887–89.

LANE, G. M. A Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges.

Rev. ed. New York, 1903.

D. Germanic.

BEHAGHEL, O. Die Modi im Heliand. Paderborn, 1876.
- Die Syntax des Heliand. Vienna, 1897.
DELBRÜCK, B. Der Germanische Optativ im Satzgefüge.

Beiträge zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache und

Literatur 29. 201-304.
DOUSE, T. L. An Introduction ... to the Gothic of

Ulfilas. London, 1886.
ERDMANN, O. Untersuchungen über die Syntax der

Sprache Otfrids. Erster Teil: Die Formationen des
Verbums in Einfachen und in Zusammengesetzten

Sätzen. Halle, 1874. (= Otf.)
MENSING, O. Untersuchungen über die Syntax der Con-

cessivsätze im Alt- und Mittelhochdeutschen. Kiel,

1891. NOREEN, A. Altisländische und Altnorwegische Gramma.

tik unter Berücksichtigung des Urnordischen. 3d ed. Halle, 1903.

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E. Old English.

ADAMS, A. The Syntax of the Temporal Clause in Old

English Prose. New York, 1907.
BELDEN, H. M. The Prepositions in, on, for, fore, at

in Anglo-Saxon Prose. Baltimore, 1897.
BENHAM, A. R. The Clause of Result in Old English

Prose. Anglia 31. 197–255.
BOSWORTH, J. and TOLLER, T. N. An Anglo-Saxon Dic-

tionary. 2 vols. Oxford, 1882–98. Supplement, 1908. BRUCE, J. D. The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Book of

Psalms. Baltimore, 1894.
CALLAWAY, M. The Absolute Participle in Anglo-Saxon.
Baltimore, 1889.

The Appositive Participle in Anglo-Saxon. 1901. Publications of the Modern Language Association 16. 141-360.

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Cook, A. S. Biblical Quotations in Old English Prose

Writers. London, New York, 1898. Dewitz, A. Untersuchungen über Alfreds des Grossen

Westsächsische Übersetzung der 'Cura Pastoralis

Gregors. Bunzlau, 1889. Dodd, L. H. A Glossary of Wulfstan's Homilies. New

York, 1908. DRAKE, A. The Authorship of the West Saxon Gospels.

New York, 1894. FLAMME, J. Syntax der Blickling Homilies. Bonn, 1895. FLEISCHHAUER, W. Der Conjunctiv in der Cura Pastora

lis. Erlangen, 1885. GORRELL, J. H. Indirect Discourse in Anglo-Saxon.

Baltimore, 1895. Grein, Sprachschatz der Angelsächsischen Dichter.

Göttingen, 1861–64. HARRIS, L. M. Studies in the Anglo-Saxon Version of

the Gospels. Part I: The Form of the Latin Original,

and Mistaken Renderings. Baltimore, 1901. HENSHAW, A. N. Syntax of the Indicative and Subjunc

tive in the Anglo-Saxon Gospels. Leipsic, 1894. Hertel, B. Der Syntaktische Gebrauch des Verbums

im Krist. Leipsic, 1891. Hotz, G. On the Use of the Subjunctive Mood in Anglo

Saxon and its Further History in Old English. Zürich,

1882. Hulme, W. H. Die Sprache der Altenglischen Bear

beitung der Soliloquien Augustins. Darmstadt, 1894. KINARD, J. P. A Study of Wulfstan's Homilies: their

Style and Sources. Baltimore, 1897. Koch, C. F. Die Satzlehre der Englischen Sprache.

2d ed. Cassel, 1878. (Historische Grammatik der

Englischen Sprache, II. Bd.) KRAWUTSCHKE, A. Die Sprache der Boethius Übersetzung

des Königs Alfred. Berlin, 1902. Kuhn, P. T. Die Syntax des Verbums in Ælfric's Heiligen

leben. Leipsic, 1889.

MATHER, F. J. The Conditional Sentence in Anglo-Saxon.

Munich, 1893.
MOHRBUTTER, A. Darstellung der Syntax in den Vier

Echten Predigten ... Wulfstans. Lubec, 1885.
NADER, E. Tempus und Modus im Beowulf. Anglia 10.

542–563; 11. 444–499.
PROLLIUS, M. Der Gebrauch des Conjunktivs in Elene,

Juliana, und Crist. Marburg, 1888.
REUSSNER, H. A. Untersuchungen über die Syntax in

dem Angelsächsischen Gedichte vom Heiligen Andreas.

Halle a. S., 1889.
ROBERTSON, W. A. Tempus und Modus in der Alteng-

lischen Chronik. Marburg, 1906.
SCHRADER, B. Studien zur Ælfric'schen Syntax. Jena,

1887. SCHÜCKING, L. L. Die Grundzüge der Satzverknüpfung

im Beowulf, I. Teil. Halle a. S., 1904.
SHEARIN, H. G. The Expression of Purpose in Old

English Prose. New York, 1903.
SIEVERS, E. and Cook, A. S. An Old English Grammar.

3d. ed. Boston, 1903.
SMITH, C. A. The Order of Words in Anglo-Saxon

Prose. Baltimore, 1893.
WOHLFART, T. Syntax des Verbums in Ælfric's Hepta-

teuch und ... Hiob. Munich, 1885.
WÜLFING, J. E. Die Syntax in den Werken Alfreds des

Grossen. 2 vols. Bonn, 1894–1901.

F. Middle and Modern English.

BALDWIN, C. S. The Inflections and Syntax of the Morte

d'Arthur of Thomas Malory. Boston, 1894. EINENKEL, E. Streifzüge durch die Mittelenglische Syn

tax. Münster, 1887.
KELLNER, L. Historical Outlines of English Syntax.

London, New York, 1892.
MÄTZNER, E. F. A. Englische Grammatik, 2d ed. 3 vols.
Berlin, 1873–75.

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