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enforcement of the present law resting with the Pharmaceutical Society; in future the Privy Council will have the same power as the Society.

At a conference called by the Hospital Reform Association, held for the purpose of discussing the administration of medical relief in the out-patient and casualty departments of hospitals and dispensaries, Sir H. Burdett did not think that a proposal to form another committee, which would go over the old grounds, dig up the old facts, and report on the same lines, would solve the matter. They would never get a more enlightening guide than the report, which had become a classic of Sir William Ferguson's committee forty years ago. He was opposed strongly on conviction as a practical man to get another investigation. If they had a committee at all, it should tand on the old undisputed facts and try to bring together those who had it in their power to devise a new system. Sir William Broadbent said the majority of the hospital staffs were just as much alive to the evil of the increasing number of out-patients as anybody else. At the present moment the staff were in a very helpless position; being servants of the hospital, they had to see the patients brought to them. The reduction in the number of patients could not be effected by the staffs of the hospitals, but by a general consensus on all sides. He looked forward to a realization of the responsibility which the power conferred on the Hospital Sunday Fund and the Prince of Wales' Fund necessarily involved. Those bodies had the power of the purse, and their approval, and more especially their condemnation, would carry enormous weight.

The new government laboratories in Clement's inn passage are found to be a great convenience. No fewer than thirty-eight rooms, specially constructed and fitted with perfect appliances, are at the disposal of the staff. It appears that in 1867 the number of samples examined and reported upon was 9,055; in 1877, 14,024; in 1887, 39,244; and in the twelve months ended March of the present year, 64,664: of these, 28,875 were samples of beer and brewing material, 11,403 spirits, 14,872 snuff and tobacco, 41 coffee, 6,423 miscellaneous articles, and the standardization of excise instruments and 3,050 specimens of the contract supplies of government departments. The principal laboratory is specially adapted for the examination of beer and spirits. A set of rooms are used for the analysis of crown contract samples and of food and drugs as well as tobacco. The new building was constructed by the Board of Works at a cost of between £25,000 and £30,000.

An assemblage of managers and artists of the London and provincial music halls have met at Grosvenor House, the town house of the Duke of Westminster, for the purpose of putting on an organized basis the effort of the variety stage to assist the Queen Victoria Jubilee Nursing Institute. During the meeting the methods of nursing the sick poor in their own homes were explained, and it appeared that substantial help had been given to this movement last year, when the fund in all was benefited from various sources by about £156,000, as much as £250 had resulted from an entertainment specially given at the Tivoli Music Hall.

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The Bishop of Stepney, preaching in St. Paul's Cathedral on Hospital Sunday, said that it had been said that the Christian Church was the oldest fighting regiment in Europe, but he thought it was something better than that. It was the oldest Red Cross Society in Europe for the relief of suffering and distress. In the name of the 1,755,000 patients who came to the hospitals last year, on behalf of the daily London sick list of 173,874greater than the population of Brighton, Cardiff, and Bolton-by the consideration of the 214,000 who lived in single-roomed tenements in London, by the generosity of those ancestors who paid to-day ten shillings out of every pound for the hospitals, and by the sacred name of their most Holy Redeemer he made his appeal.

The Prince of Wales has laid the foundation stone of the new buildings at University College Hospital. The hospital will eventually be entirely rebuilt, the cost being borne by one individual who is the proprietor of a furnishing business in the neighborhood of the hospital. The cost will be upward of £100,000.

LONDON, June, 1898.

Abstracts and Selections.

Picric ACID IN THE TREATMENT OF BURNS.-C. Willems, of Ghent (Ann. de la Soc. Belge de Chir., May 15th), points out that picric acid is really of use only in burns of the first and second degrees. The special action of the acid is to favor the growth of new epidermis. In such superficial burns the utility of the agent, he holds, is beyond question. By means of it he has seen extensive burns of the face and limbs heal with great rapidity. Epidermization takes place so quickly that no suppuration occurs. Another advantage of the picric acid is its marked analgesic property. In burns of the third degree Willems found the acid much less useful; it does indeed check suppuration, but it has no effect in quickening granulation. As in practice, however, these three degrees of burns are generally present at the same time, the acid may with advantage be used at first, as it soothes the pain and rapidly heals the superficial lesions; an antiseptic can then be substituted for the treatment of the granulating surface. The pain and the toxic accidents which have been placed to the discredit of picric acid are to be attributed to the use of too strong preparations. Willems points out that a saturated watery solution has generally been used, compresses soaked in this being applied to the wound and allowed to dry on it. He points out that picric acid is dissolved in water in the proportion of only about onehalf per cent. In cases reported to the Surgical Society of Paris not long ago, as proving the serious disadvantages of the treatment by this agent, solutions of five per cent and ten per cent appear to have been used. Wil

lems contends that it is unfair to condemn an agent for effects due to its misuse. Willems himself uses the acid in vaseline ointment of the strength of one, or at most two, per cent; 15 g. of this spread upon lint makes a dressing suitable for a vast burn. Although most of his patients have been children, he has seen no signs of toxic effect, and the pain, when there was any, was slight and transient. The sole drawback is the yellow dicoloration of the skin which the acid produces. This can be got rid of by repeated washing with alcohol, or with carbonate of lithine diluted with water.-British Medical Journal.

ENDARTERITIS of RENAL ARTERIES AND CORTICAL NECROSIS.-J. R. Bradford and T.W.P. Lawrence (Journ. of Path. and Bact.) record the case of a woman, aged thirty-six, confined with a stillborn child some days before admission, suffering from anuria. History mainly negative. Anemia and weakness, but no dropsy, headache, sickness, or convulsions; intellect clear to the last. The cortex of each kidney was found bright buff-colored, and sharply defined from the pyramids; microscopically the convoluted tubules were seen to be necrotic. This necrosis was due to thrombosis of all those branches of the renal artery which had reached an approximate diameter of 100 11-evidently of the so-called “interlobular" arteries; all branches of the renal arteries were extensively diseased, the media and especially the intima being thickened and sclerosed. The interstitial tissue of the kidneys was not increased. The patient thus presented the typical clinical picture associated with "obstructive suppression," while the morbid appearances were such as should, according to theory, have given rise to uremia. The authors hold that this case throws grave doubts on the view held by many “that uremia is independent of the mere retention of normal but toxic products that ought to be excreted." The case also shows the independence of renal endarteritis and extensive renal cirrhosis.-Ibid.

TROPHIC LESIONS IN GENERAL PARALYSIS.--Cololian (Archives de Neurol., March, 1898,) records fifty-seven cases of general paralysis of the insane with reference particularly to the occurrence of trophic lesions in this disease. Of these cases thirty-three were men, twenty-four were women. The commonest lesion was found to be alopecia, which occurred in twenty-six cases. Changes in the teeth and nails occurred next in frequency, nineteen and seventeen cases respectively. Ichthyosis occurred in eleven cases, and other skin lesions (for example, bullæ, edema, and zona) with less frequency. General wasting occurred only in three cases, muscular wasting only in one case. Cutaneous pigmentation, hematuria, perforating ulcer, and erythema were only found in isolated cases. In most of the cases more than one trophic lesion occurred, and in only eight of the fiftyseven cases was there no evidence of trophic lesion.-Ibid.

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A Journal of Medicine and Surgery, published on the first and fifteenth of each

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JOHN P. MORTON & COMPANY, Louisville, Ky.

AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION'S STANDARD OF

REQUIREMENTS.

The measures of reform in medical education, as prescribed by the Association of American Medical Colleges, have been adopted in principle if not to the letter by all the regular and reputable colleges of the North, thus placing medical education upon a firm basis, giving the medical diploma a specific value and supplying the public with doctors who are at least well grounded in the rudiments of scientific medicine.

The medical schools of Louisville, whose sentiments were from the first in accord with the movement, lost no time in uniting with the Association; but the leading schools of the Southern States, for reasons best known to themselves, preferred to organize an association of their own, whose standard of minimum requirements for matriculates should be lower and terms of study shorter than the standard set forth by the Northern Association.

The effect of this has been to fill the dissenting Southern schools with students to the prejudice of the Louisville and other border line colleges who had adopted the higher standard. That this state of affairs should be allowed to continue is unjust and injurious to the schools above named; but this is a trilling consideration when compared to

the damage done the cause of medical education and the demoralizing influence upon the public mind of the lower standard adopted by the Southern schools.

The schools which by their geographical situation could so ill afford to join the ranks of high reform have nevertheless pursued the prescribed course with uncomplaining fortitude, but not without the hope and indeed conviction that relief would come in good time.

That such relief is on the way seems to be indicated by the following extract from the proceedings of the American Medical Association which met in Denver last month. It was unanimously adopted.

Whereas, The American Medical Association did, at Detroit, in 1892 unanimously resolve to demand of all the medical colleges of the United States the adoption and observance of a standard of requirements of all candidates for the degree of doctor of medicine which should in no manner fall below the minimum standard of the Association of American Medical Colleges; and

Whereas, This demand was sent officially by the Permanent Secretary to the dean of every medical college in the United States and to every medical journal in the United States, now, therefore, the American Medical Association gives notice that hereafter no professor or other teacher in nor any graduate of any medical college in the United States which shall, after January 1, 1899, confer the degree of doctor of medicine or receive such degree on any conditions below the published standard of the Association of American Medical Colleges, be allowed to register as either delegate or permanent member of this Association.

Resolved, That the Permanent Secretary shall, within thirty days after this meeting, send a certified copy of these resolutions to the dean of each medical college in the United States and to each medical journal in the United States.

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