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commencement, launches that vessel upon the sea of professional life. With us is now left the construction of the masts, the design of the rigging, and the flag of its ensign. Whether we shall be wafted by the winds of practice to the harbor of success is known only to that power that rules the destiny of man.

The gates of the medical profession are thrown open to receive us, to admit us to the competition of the world. By an impressive act we are taken into the fellowship of an honorable and learned profession. Will it be our good fortune to be ushered into the front rank, or shall we be hurried down that broad way, traveled, alas! by so many, where every turn teems with failures and every course presents the evidences of blighted hopes and shattered ambitions? With us, gentlemen, the answer rests. The character of our lives, as time shall reveal it, will shape our destiny. No past action or conduct can supply a sure means of penetrating the mists of the future.

What fate has in store for you, what crowns are to bedeck your brows are wisely concealed by Providence. We have, however, this assurance, that the course of our lives is in a large measure the result of our own steering. Genius is only patience—success only the fruits of labor. The good seeds sown by our previous instruction and nourished by industry must at length yield a goodly harvest.

No battle was ever won, no great success or renown ever achieved without toil, patient and unremitting. The greatest truths and problems of science which the brain of man has sought and solved, the most cunning mechanical devices which the ingenuity of man has conceived and constructed, are but the results of energy of body and of mind.

The discovery of the circulation of the blood by the illustrious Harvey was not the labor of a day but of many years, and Pasteur spent a long and consecrated life in isolating for our instruction and benefit the micro-organisms of disease. Scan the world of medicine from its far off eastern horizon, where twinkles the star of Hippocrates, to its high zenith, where shines the mighty constellation of the great physicians of to·day, and you will hear but one word uttered forth by the "glorious voice that sounds out the music of these spheres,” and that one word is “work."

The men whose names adorn the pages of medical history possess one faculty in common, perseverance. Their lives were spent in one long search for truth, undismayed by failure, unconfused by contradictions. Ever pushing on with valor and zeal, they laid ceaseless

siege to the walls and portals of knowledge until victory placed upon their wrinkled brows the crown of laurels.

In the practice of medicine the physician is brought face to face with every phase of life. Who like him knows so well the cords which move the inmost souls of men ? Whose touch like his can awaken them to sweetest harmony or provoke them to harsh discord ? In sickness and in health, in joy and in sorrow, in the emptiness of poverty and the fullness of riches he shares the lot of his fellow-man. The palace of prosperity and the hovel of adversity alike know his form. His life is one long sacrifice to the cares and afflictions of others. The sun of renown seldom illumines his path, the goddess of wealth seldom smiles upon him. Yet he comes in response to every call, whether it be the rich man's plaint or the poor man's cry, and by words of encouragement and the offices of therapeutic art makes the shadows of despair to vanish and the radiance of hope to shine.

A man who enters the profession of medicine possessed by no higher motive than a desire for wealth and power is a growth out of time and place—a neoplasm upon the body politic, a counterfeit of the true physician, and unworthy of the honors of professional life. Let your primary object and ambition in medicine always be intellectual and honorable. If fortune comes, treat it as a secondary consideration; ever holding as the first and foremost object, reputation for honest, upright service, and real scientific worth.

When the land is under the scourge of the pestilence and terror is upon the faces of the children of men, there is but one friend and counselor, the physician! He stands a barrier to the approaching evil and opposes the forces of death with the armament of science:

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With reverence and awe do we look back upon the early promotors of this beneficent calling and honor the names engraven high on the monuments and tablets of fame. It is a blessing to live as we do in the closing years of the nineteenth century, a century in which genius combined with industry has wrought undreamed of wonders in the scientific world. With us now rests the furtherance of these investigations, and the day may not be far distant when, armed with the experience of the past and backed by the forces of nature, we can successfully oppose all disease and make man immune to those destroyers, which in former times unhindered wrought such havoc in his ranks.

And now, professors of the faculty, on behalf of the class of 1898, I must say farewell. The hours spent in your learned presence have been both pleasant and profitable, and will ever be remembered by us with tender regard and pleasant reflections. We are deeply thankful for the kindly interest shown by you to each and every one of us, and, as emotion can not be expressed, we can only say we are thankful. We leave you trusting that it may be our privilege and pleasure to keep in touch with you in our future work, and with the resolve that we will do our best to reflect honor upon our famous “Alma Mater.”

To us, my fellow classmates, this is a day of days, a day of vital significance and mighty transformation, for it marks a new era in our lives, wherein we pass from the transitional stage into one of full development, where energies both mental and physical have combined to make one grand harmony. Gathered together here in the presence of friends, amid the fragrance of flowers and the sounds of joyous music, by an impressive act we are admitted into an honorable and learned profession. Let us go forth like the Olympian to a great game, where honor, power, and fame were all at stake. May we run well and never lose sight of the goal.

We are about to leave the wise and solicitous guidance of our beloved faculty and choose for ourselves a path in life. As the present merges into the future, may we march on without misgiving or dismay, and if, when at our journey's end all mists shall be dispelled, we do not see the portals of the “Temple of Fame” open for our triumphant entrance, we may at least hear the welcome plaudit, “Well done, thou good and faithful servant."

With earnestness of purpose and diligence in work there can be no failure in life, and the man who seems worsted in the fight, who has failed to secure what the world calls success, may still find solace

in the reflection that the race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, nor yet wealth to men of understanding, but time and chance happeneth to them all.”

“ Impletus sed inceptus."

Not finished, but begun. LOUISVILLE.

Reviews and Bibliography.

A System of Medicine. By Many Writers. Edited by Thomas CLIFFORD ALLBUTT,

M. A., M. D., LL. D., F. R. C. P., F. R. S., F. L. S., F. S. A., Regius Professor of Physic in the University of Cambridge, Fellow of Gonville and Caius College. Volume IV. 1001 pp. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1897.

The following list of names of contributors to this volume is of itself a passport to the fullest on the part of the medical public. It embraces Drs. Thomas Clifford, M. D., LL. D., F. R. C. P., F. R. S.; Archibald E. Garrod, F. R. C. P.; George F. Still, F. R. C. P.; W. B. Cheadle, F. R. C. P.; Anthony A. Bailley, F. R. C. S.; Sir William Roberts, F. R. C. P., F. R. S.; R. Saundby, F. R. C. P.; Charles Henry Ralfe (the late), F. R. C. P.; W. Howship Dickinson, F. R. C. P.; W. S. Playfair, M. D., LL. D., F. R. C. P.; W. Soltan Fenwick, F. R. C. P.; John Rose Bradford, M. D., D. Sc., F. R. C. P., F. R. S.; Louis Cobbett, F. R. C. S.; W. A. Wills, M. R. C. P.; Humphrey Davy Rolleston, F.R.C.P.; T. Lauder Brunton, LL. D., D. Sc., F. R. C. P., F. R. S., R. F. C., Leith, M. B., C. M., B. Sc., M. A., F. R. C. P. E.; J. R. Stocker, M. B., M. R. C. P.; Julius Dreschfield, B. Sc., F.R.C. P.; W. Lee Dickinson, F. R. C. P.; Frederick Treves, F. R. C. S.; W. H. Allchin, F. R. C. P.; Eustace Smith, F. R. C. P.; Patrick Manson, LL. D., F. R. C. P.; Herbert William Allingham, F. R. C. S.

The volume, like the previous ones, while unpretentious, is rich in the ripest knowledge, the soundest experience, and the wisest discrimination that has been brought to the service of medicine. The drift to the more moderate uses of drugs has not hitherto so fully appeared in any work of the regular school. In some things this change has become world-wide, as in the use of mercury and other powerful drugs. But one would have to conclude that the views of Lauder Brunton had dominated the writers of this work when we find five drops of laudanum every three hours prescribed in acute gastritis. To this and other instances of possibly extreme moderation there is yet remaining much material for possible converts; still with few exceptions the dictum is that of the most advanced forces in the war against disease.

One imbued with the appendicitis craze will be taken aback to learn that such an array of names is set against the use of the very term appendicitis. It is declared an uncouth name, and the term perityphlitis is retained,

with the explanation that, while it does not denote the seat of origin of the malady, it indicates with sufficient clearness the predominant pathological feature of an affection that may arise in more ways than one, and which has no precise clinical individuality until the peritoneum in the cecal region has become inflamed. It does not need to say that the wholesale cutting so common in this country is condemned.

D. T. S.

A Clinical Text-Book of Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment for Practitioners and

Students of Medicine. By J. W. MACDONALD, M. D., Graduate of Medicine; Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh; Professor of the Practice of Surgery and Clinical Surgery in Hamline University, Minneapolis, etc. With three hundred and twenty-eight illustrations. 798 pp. Price, cloth, $5.00; half morocco, $6.00. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. 1898.

Systems of surgery to cover the field of its science with satisfactory fullness have grown so large that the author of this work, without underrating the importance of a profound study of the principles, as well as of surgical pathology and bacteriology, has confined his efforts to putting in the hands of students and practitioners in a single volume the most practical part of practical surgery.

The young practitioner,” says the author, “is often embarrassed by not knowing how to make a systematic examination in a case of injury, and he may be placed at a disadvantage by the criticism of excited bystanders. The man who goes about the examination of his patient in a systematic manner, leaving nothing undone and guarding against all contingencies, will not only command the approval of the patient and his friends, but will protect himself against dangerous errors."

Great care is therefore taken throughout the work to make the examination of each disease or injury to the system systematic and comprehensive, and, when possible, directions are laid down as to the methods of examination. This is insisted on as all the more necessary since the universal popularity of surgery, especially among young practitioners is such that there is an ever-present danger that the attention being fixed too intently on the operation that may be required, the mind of the surgeon dwells too lightly upon the diagnosis of the disease. There only remains to be said that the author has done his work well, and that emendations in future editions, and future editions there certainly will be if the author lives, will have to do mainly with what is discovered between now and then.

D. T. S.

A Manual of Obstetrics. By A. F. A. KING, A. M., M. D, Professor of Obstetrics and

Diseases of Women and Children in the Medical Department of the Columbian University, Washington, D. C., and in the University of Vermont. Seventh edition, with two hundred and twenty-three illustrations. 574 pp. Philadelphia and New York: Lea Brothers & Co. 1898.

In the preface to the first edition the author stated that the chief purpose of his book was to present in an easily intelligible form such an outline of the rudiments of Obstetric Science as may constitute a good ground-work for the student at the beginning of his obstetric studies, and

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