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would be unintelligible to the far greater part of Greek readers. For this reason he immediatly explains himself by adding, T&T' ESIV, AVIATois; that is, unwashen. Add to this, that the rite there alluded to is, in the following verses, explained in a manner which, to one in Matthew's circumstances, who wrote for the immediate use of the natives of Judea, familiarized to such observances, must have appeared entirely superfluous. The woman from the confines of Tyre and Sidon, who applied to our Lord, in be. half of her daughter, is, by Matthew who wrote in Hebrew, for the use of the Hebrews, very properly, in the style of their ancient scripture, called Canaanitish, and is, not less suitably, by Mark who wrote in Greek, for the benefit of all who spoke that language, denominated Syrophenician. When the two Gospels, Matthew's and Mark's are, on these points, compared together, though the particulars in the comparison, taken severally, appear inconsiderable, they bear such strong internal characters as serve greatly to corroborate the historical proof we have relating to their respective authors and languages, to the circumstances of time, and place of publication, as well as to the people for whose use they were respectively written. Such little points, which have nothing of the ostentation of evi. dence, will be admitted, by the judicious, to have the more weight, on that very account. And, let it be observed that, though the church of Rome, in that early period, and the same may be affirmed of the church of Alexandria, consisted mostly of Hellenist Jews, it was not confined to these. The sacred writers, therefore, who wrote in Greek, chose very properly, so far to adapt their expressions as to be at least intelligible to other readers of that language.

$ 6. There are some peculiarities of style which have been observed in this writer, such as the more frequent use of the adverbs ευθυς and ευθεως, than is found in any other writer in the New Testament, his beginning sentences oftner with και, and και ελεYEV AUTOis, idioms not unfrequent with the rest. Augustin considers this Evangelist as the abridger of Matthew. Marcus Matthæum subsecutus tanquam pedissequus et breviator ejus videtur. It is indeed true that Mark sometimes copies the very expressions used by Matthew. That he is not, however, to be considered as an abridger, may be evinced by the following reasons: First, he omits altogether several things related by Matthew, our Lord's pedigree, his birth, the visit of the Magians, Joseph's flight into Egypt, the cruelty of Herod.

As his intention appears to have been to give in brief the history of our Lord's ministry, he begins very properly with the preaching of the Baptist. Again, there are some other things in Matthew, whereof, though they fall within the time to which Mark had confined himself, he has taken no notice; and some things are mentioned by Mark which had been overlooked by Matthew. Further, he has not always followed the same arrangement with his predecessor: and his reVOL. III.




lation of some facts, so far from being an abridgement of Matthew's, is the more circumstantial of the two. His style in general, instead of being more concise, is more diffuse. That he had read Mat. thew's Gospel cannot be doubted. For their exact conformity in expression in several places, Grotius has an ingenious manner of accounting. He supposes that Mark had carefully read Matthew's Gospel in the original Hebrew, before it was translated into Greek; and that he had the particulars fresh in his memory, when he was occupied in writing his Gospel. Again, he supposes that the translator of Matthew into Greek has thought it safest to adopt the expressions of Mark, wherever they would suit the Hebrew, from which he was translating. But this, it must be confessed, though not implausible, iş mere conjecture. It is generally our Lord's discourses which are abridged by Mark. As to his miracles, he has rather more fully related them. The additional circumstances and incidents recorded in this Gospel, appear to rest upon the authority of the Apostles, but principally on that of Peter.





1. The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ Son

of God.

2 As it is written in the Prophets, " Behold I Mat. 3; 1.

send mine angel before thee, who shall prepare Lu. 3; 1. 3 thy way:" " The voice of one proclaiming in the 10:1; 6.

wilderness, Prepare a way for the Lord ", make 18.40; 3. 4 " for him a straight passage:thus came John bap

tizing in the wilderness, and publishing the baptism 5 of reformation for the remission of sins. And all the

Jo. 1; 25.

13 Jehovah.

CH. 1.


Mat. 3; 13. LU. 3; 21. Jo. 1; 31.

country of Judea, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem

resorted to him, and were baptized by him in the 6 river Jordan, confessing their sins. Now John's

clothing was of camel's hair, tied round his waist

with a leathern girdle : and he lived upon locusts 7 and wild honey. And he proclaimed, saying, One

mightier than I cometh after me, whose shoe

latchet I am unworthy to stoop down and untie. 8 I indeed have baptized you in water ; but he will

baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 9 At that time Jesus came from Nazareth of Gali10 lee, and was baptized by John in Jordan. As soon

as he arose out of the water, he saw the sky part

asunder, and the Spirit descend upon him like a 11 dove. And a voice was heard from heaven, which

said, Thou art my beloved Son in whom I delight. Mat. 4; 1. 12

Immediately after this the Spirit conveyed him 13 into the wilderness : and he continued there in the

wilderness forty days tempted by Satan "*; and was among the wild beasts ; and the angels minis

tered to him. Mat. 4; 12. 14 But after John's imprisonment, Jesus went into

Galilee, proclaiming the good tidings of the reign 15 of God. The time, said he, is accomplished, the

reign of God approacheth ; reform, and believe

the good tidings. Mat, 4; 18. 16 Then walking by the sea of Galilee, he saw SiJo. 1; 35.

mon, and Andrew, Simon's brother, casting a drag 17 into the sea, for they were fishers. Jesus said to

Lu. 4; 1.

Lu, 4; 15.
Jo. 4; 43.

Lu. 5; 1.

14 Adversary.

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