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VI. AVOIRDUPOIS, OR COMMON WEIGHT. 16 drams make 1 ounce, oz. dr. 16 oz. 1 lbs. qrs./cwt.ston 16 ounces, 66 1 pound, Ib. 2561 101 28 pounds 66 1 quarter, gril 71681 448 281 11 .4 quarters“ 1 hundred, cut. 286721 1792112141 20 hundred 1 ton, ton. 573440 35840 2240 801 20 1

WEIGHTS. 35. The original standard of 2. How many grains in 2 penallour weights was a corn of wheatinyweights ? 3? taken from the middle of the ear 3. How many pennyweights in and well dried. These were cal- 2 ounces? 3? 4? 5? led grains and 32 of them ipade 4. How many ounces in two one penny weight. But it was af-pounds ? 3? 5? 6? 4? 7? terwards thought sufficient to di- 5. What is the table of Apothevide this same pennyweight into caries weight? 24 equal parts, still calling the 6. How many scruples in three parts grains, and these are the ba-drams? 2? 4? 62 5: 77 sis of the table of Troy weight, by 7. How many dramas in 3 oun. which are weighed gold, silver and ces? 2? 4? 6? 5: 7? jewelry. Apothecaries weight, is 8. What is the table of common the same as Troy weight, only weight? having different divisions between 9. How many ounces in two grains and ounces. Apothecaries pounds ? 3? 4? 5? 6? make use of this weight in com- 10. What was the original stanpounding their medicines, but they dard of our weights? . buy and sell their drugs by Avoir. 11. What were these called? dupois weight. In buying and 12. How many of them were selling coarse and drossy articles, called a penny weight? it became customary to allow a 13. How was this peony weight greater weight than that used for afterwards divided ? small and precious articles, & this 14. What were these divisions custom at length established the called ? Avoirdupois, or common weight, 15. Of what table do these grains by which all articles are now form the basis ? weighed, with the foregoing excep- 16. What things are weighed tions. Avoirdupois weight is about by this weight? one sixth part more than Troy 17. How does Apothecaries weight, a pound of the former be weight differ from Troy? ing 7000 grains, and of the latter 18. What ise is made of this 5760 grains. Jo buying and sel-weight? ling by the bundred weight, 28 19. How do Apothecaries buy pounds have been called a quar- and sell their drugs? ter, and 112 pounds a cwi. but this 20. How did Avoirdupois weight practice of grossing, as it is called, originate ? is now pretty generally laid aside, 21. What articles are weighed and 25 pounds are considered alby this weight: quarter, and 4 quarters, or 100 22 What is the difference bepounds, a hundred weight. tween Troy & Avoirdupois weight.

QUESTIONS. | 23. What is meant by grossing 1. What is the table of Troy weight? Weight?

Į 24. Is this bow often practised?

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- VIII. CLOTH MEASURE. 2 1-4 inches make 1 nail, na.13 quarters make 1 ell Flemish, E. F. 4 nails “ I quarter, gr, 15 quarters" 1 ell English, E. E. 4 quarters • 1 yard, yd. 37.2 in. " 1 ell Scotch, E. S.

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2 pints, pts. make 1 quart, qt. cu. 33.6 spt 1 qts.
4 quarts " 1 gallon, gal.sin. 67.2 1 2] 115
8 quarts " 1 peck, pk.: 268 .8 | 8 4 15
4 pecks " i bushel, bu.' 537.6 | 161 81 21 11
8 bushels " 1 quarter, gr. 2150.

4 64 32 8 4 11 4 quarters " 1 chaldron, ch\17203.2 1512|256|64|324 8 1

MEASURE. 36. The original standard of each of which is an inch square, English long measure was a bar. and the number of inches in a solid ley corn taken from the middle of foot is equal to the number of such the ear and well dried. Three blocks that would be required to of these in length, were called an make a pile a foot square and a inch, and then the others us in the foot high. Now it would require table. Long measure is employ-144 blocks to cover a square foot ed for denoting the distance of one inch high. Hence to raise the places, and for measuring any pile twelve inches bigh would rething where length only is con- quire twelve times 144=17 8 cerned. When measure is appli- blocks or inches. In like manner ed to surfaces, where length and it would require 9 solid blocks a breadth are both concerned, it is foot each way to cover a square called square measure. A square yard to the height of one foot, and inch is a square measuring an inch 3 times 9=27 to raise it three on every side. The table of feet, or make one solid yard. square measure is made from that This will be obvious from an in.. of long measure by multiplying

the several numbers of the latter
into themselves. Thus, 12 inches
are a foot in length, a square foot
then is a square which measures
one foot or 12 inches on every side,
and contains 12X.12=1.44 square
inches. 3. feet in length make a

7 yard ; a square yard is
la quare measuring three
I feet on each side; but

l such a square contains.

inspection of the diagram. The. (see fig.) nine (3X3=9) squares

Scord of wood is sometimes called measuring a foot on each

esfeight feet. In this case four feet 9 square feet, and when we sayl!

or in length, four in breadth, and one that a surface contains so many"

aylin height=16 sobid feet is called square feet, or square yards, we

one foot'; or eight feet in length, mean that the surface is equal tol,

refour in breadth and six inches in. such a number of squares measur

height, a foot, that is, 1-3th of a ing a foot, or a yards on each

le cord is called one foot, 2. 8ths, two When measure is applied to solids Tee

5:feet, &c: In measuring lands, which have length breadth and roads, &c. the distances are usual-. thickness, it is called solid, or cu.

ully taken in chains and links. 10bic measure. A solid inch is alor

"jordinary business, feet and inches e body, or block, having six sides, are the most common measuresa,

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Many mechanics, however, now 14. How many nails in a yard? in
take dimensions in feet and tenths half a yard?
of a foot, instead of inches, and if 15. How many quarters in two
all would do the same, they would yards ? three?
find all their calculations machd6. How many quarters in two E.
more simple and easy. By fortyi ells ? three ?
feet of round timber, in the table 17. What was the original stand-
of solid measure, is meant so much ard of long measure?
round timber as will make forty 18. What is the use of this meas.
feet after it is squared.


19. In measuring lands, &c. how 1. What is the table of long meas are distances taken?

20. What is meant by a square 2. How many rods in a mile: l inch? a square foot ? a square 3. How many yards in a mile?! yard? how many feet?

121. What do we mean when we 4. How many inches in 2 leet? say that such a surface contains in a yard ?

so many square feet, er yards? 5. How many feet in two rods 22. Repeat the table of square three? four?

measure, 6. How many furlongs in two 23. How is this table formed?

miles? 3 5? 4? 6?" - 124. How many square chains 7. How many miles in 3 leagues make an aére? a mile ? 5? 77 82

125. How many dimensions has 8. How many inches make one square measure ? link? 2? 3?

26. When measure is applied to 9. How many links in a rod? 2? 3 things which have length, 4? 5?

breadth and thickness, what is it 10. How many links in one chain called ? how many rods?

27. What is meant by a solid ivch? 11. How many chains in a mile? a solid foot ?

in half a mile? one fourth: one 23, Repeat the table of solid eighth?

- I measure. 12. How many chains in a furlong? 23. Explain the method by which two? three? foar?

į the table is formed. 13. What is the table of cloth 30. How is the cord sometimes measure?

considered ? MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 37. Four pounds Troy weizhlished the beer mensure, which of wheat gathered from the mid-bears about the same proportion dle of the ear and well dried were to wine measure that avoirducalled one gellon, and this was the poise does to troy weight. The original standard of all English dry measure was also made larger measures, both liquid and dry, and than the wine measure, and was at this was the same as the presentilength established at about a mean wine gallon. But in time it be-between wine and beer measure. came customary to use a larger By wine measure are measured measure in selling cheap liquors, wine, all kinds of spirits, cider, and this custom at length estab-lvinegar, oil, &c. By beer measa

XIV. CIRCULAR MEASURE. 60 seconds," make 1 minute, 'l "60 '11 s. 12. 60 minutes 66 1 degree, o 36001 601 1 30 degrees 66 1 sign, s. | 108000 18001 301 11.

12 signs, or 360° 1 circle. 11296000/21600/3601121 1 ure are measuredale and beer, and|9. How many cubic inches in a by dry measure are measured all gallon dry measure ? kinds of dry goods, corn, grain, 10. How many in a peck ? how salt, roots, fruit, &c. A standarul many in a bushel ? bushel is 18.inches diameter 11 How many pints in a peck ? and 8 inches deep. The statutel. how many in a bushel ? bushel for measuring coal, ashes 12. How many gallons in a bushel: and lime, in Vermont, coptains 38 how many in a quarter? quarts, or 2553.6 cubic inches. 13.. What was the original stand. QUESTIONS.

I ard of English measures of ca. 1. Repeat the table of wine meag pacity? ure,

14. What kind of measure at pres. 2. How many cubic inches in al ent agrees with this? wine gallon?

15. How did beer measure orig. 3. How many pints in a gallon ? inate? gills?

16. What is its proportion to wine 4. How many quarts in eight gal-t measure ?

lons-ten, twelve ? . 17. What is said of dry measure? 5. How many hogsheads in a ton? 18. What are measured by wine 6. Repeat the table of beer meas measure? by beer? by dry? ure.

119. What are the dimensicus of a 7. How many cubic inches in al standard bushel ? beer gallon?

20. What is content of a coal, &o. 8. Repeat the table of dry meas. bushel in Vermont? ure.

CIRCULAR MEASURE. 38. Every circle, without re- measure. gard to its size, is supposed to be 2. How many seconds in two min. divided into 360 equal parts, call- utes? three? four? sixty? ed degrees, and these again to be 3. How many degrees in two subdivided into minutes and sec- signs? 3? 4? 6? 9? onds ; so that the absolute quanti- 4. How is every circle supposed ty expressed by any of these del to be divided?" nominations must always depend(5. What are the subdivisions? upon the size of the circle. In 6. What does the quantity of these this measure are reckoned lati-i divisions depend upon: tude, longitude, the planetary mo-7. What is the use of this measure? tions, &c.

I 8. How many miles in a degree QUESTIONS. of latitude? 1. Repeat the table of circulari

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