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is by a network of such dangerous channels, as involve masterly steering for even small craft, and make it a matter of wonder that large vessels should attempt it. Indeed a French steamer, L'Hermite, was wrecked there not long ago, owing to one moment's hesitation on the part of her commander, who, meeting a strong tide running out, shifted the helm at a critical moment, and so the vessel was swept on to the reef-a helpless plaything for the overwhelming surf. The Wallis Isles lie due north of Tonga, and are the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Oceania, and a strong clerical staff; also of a French sisterhood, who devote themselves to teaching children whose lives have been spared by their own once cannibal parents, and who now worship with them, in a handsome stone church, built by themselves, under the direction of the Fathers, and are in every respect pattern Catholics. Three days' sail from Wallis lies Fotuna, which is a little world by itself. It consists of a single peak, rising abruptly from the waters, and broken up into towering masses of crag and pinnacles, seamed by deep ravines, opening up into fertile valleys, richly cultivated. Sparkling streams afford an abundant water-supply for the irrigation of the taro beds; bread-fruit, bananas, and palms grow luxuriantly: so it is an isle of great natural beauty, and though only fifteen miles in circumference, affords ample provision for its 900 inhabitants. They seem to be a happy, healthy community, and have all adopted Christianity, either in its Protestant or Roman form. The representative of the latter is a fine old priest, who has devoted the greater part of his life to work on Fotuna, and year by year adds a few inches to the walls of a very large cathedral, which he hopes some future generation will complete. The natives show their love for the good padre by bringing him the heavy blocks of coral-rock, which he hews at his leisure; but they are well content to worship in less solid buildings. The majority wear, as their badge, a little brass medal of the Virgin, or some other Christian amulet, which, in the case of the little children, is often their only raiment Apparently the adherents of the two great Christian bodies con

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FOTUNA CLOTH. 37

trive to live in peace, instead of finding in differing faith a new
occasion for enmities, as has been the case even in Polynesian isles.
But is it not grievous that, when at length “the people who sat in
darkness have seen a great light,” it should not shine upon them in
one undivided ray?
The people of this lonely isle are especially interesting, because
they, and the inhabitants of Aniwa-a much smaller isle in the same
region—are of a totally different race from those on the other isles
composing the New Hebrides—the latter being Papuans, and these
Malays, whose ancestors drifted all the way from Tonga in a canoe.
Though their colour has darkened, they retain the dialect and the
hair of their race.
Every one on board has treasures of some sort from Fotuna—
especially very beautifully painted native cloth. I think some
of the patterns are almost more artistic than those of the Fijians.
Like theirs, these are principally geometrical; and in addition to
the black and red dyes which are there used, the artists of Fotuna
introduce a good deal of yellow. The printing is done in the same
manner, the raised pattern being carefully designed with strips of
cocoa-rib or bamboo on wooden blocks, on which the colour is
stamped. It is the same principle as that of our printing-types,
and was known in Polynesia long before the art of printing was
invented in Europe.
The most remarkable productions of Fotuma and some of its
neighbouring isles are gigantic cocoa-nuts, more than double the
ordinary size. They are immensely prized as drinking-cups. Many
are 18 inches in circumference after the husk has been removed.
The largest grow on the isle of Niufau, which is described as being
merely the rim of a great crater, from which smoke sometimes
rises, and which is incrusted with sulphur. Apparently the
warmth of the soil agrees with all vegetation; for the isle is ex-
ceedingly fertile, and the cocoa-nuts are the wonder and envy of all
beholders,
I confess I should not care to live on one of these smoulder-
ing volcanoes. There are a good many such, scattered about the
Pacific—and occasionally one subsides altogether. For instance,

halfway between Tonga and New Zealand lies Sunday Isle. It is a volcanic rock-mass 1600 feet in height, and about four miles in diameter. It is exceedingly fertile, but steam rises from all the crevices of the rocks, and the people have only to scrape a hole in the ground, and therein place their food that it may be baked in nature's own oven. At one time there were a good many settlers in this warm corner, but in an evil day a Peruvian slave-ship touched here, and landed 200 poor creatures, captured in all parts of the Pacific. Typhoid fever had broken out among them; so they were thrown ashore to die, which they did, and most of the settlers shared their fate. The others left the island on the first opportunity, leaving only one white man with a Samoan wife and a dusky brood. These lived on in peace and plenty for about ten years, when suddenly the little fresh-water lake began to boil furiously, and from its midst a fountain of fire shot high in the air. Happily this mighty rocket served as a signal of distress, for a passing vessel descried the fiery column and came to investigate, greatly to the relief of the Crusoe family, who were taken on board, and for ever abandoned their home. Evidently this isle must lie on the same volcanic chain as the White Sulphur Isle, which is a sulphur volcano to the north of New Zealand, connected subterraneously with that great tract in the province of Auckland, where geysers, solfataras, and all manner of volcanic phenomena abound." All these are reproduced on a smaller scale on the island of Tanna in the New Hebrides, within 30 miles of Fotuna. It is a circular island, about 40 miles in diameter. Near the harbour rises a volcanic mountain about 500 feet in height, densely wooded to the very summit, though seamed with fissures from which rise clouds of steam and sulphureous vapours. The whole island is exceedingly fertile—cocoa-palms, bread-fruit trees, bananas, sugarcane, &c., grow luxuriantly, and the yams occasionally attain a weight of 50 lb, ; one root being from 40 to 50 inches long—a very neat thing in potatoes. Yet the soil which produces this rank vegetation forms so thin a crust over the vast furnace below, 1 Tide ‘At Home in Fiji' (C. F. Gordon Cumming), vol. ii.

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WOLCANIC ISLE OF TANNA. 39

that in some places the penetrating heat is painful to the naked
foot. Nevertheless, the people have no fear of accidents; on the
contrary, wherever they find a group of hot springs they build their
huts, and, like the New Zealanders, they love to lounge on the
steaming grass or hot stones. In every village a circular space is
set apart as the marum, or place for holding council or feasting,
and in these districts a warm spot is selected, where, after sun-
down, the men may combine the pleasures of a vapour-bath with
the enjoyment of their bowl of kava, while discussing the affairs of
the tribe
The springs are in great favour as baths. They are of all tem-
peratures—from the tepid water in which the natives play luxur-
iously for hours, to the boiling springs in which they place their
food and leave it to cook itself. Some of these natural boilers lie
so close to the shore, that the fishers who haunt the reefs, armed
with long four-pronged spears, have only to throw their prize into
the rock-caldron the moment they have secured it. No fear of
tainted fish for them | Nor need they search far for drinking
water. Probably the nearest spring is quite cold and excellent.
Some of the springs are highly medicated, and many resort to the
healing waters, some of which are especially efficacious for the cure
of ulcerous sores.
Beyond the strangely fertile crust, covering the region of horror,
lies an unveiled tract of cinders and black volcanic ash, forming
a wide barren valley from which rises the principal cone. This
valley is intersected by a multitude of fissures from which issue
scalding sulphureous fumes. Here and there beds of the purest
sulphur have been deposited, and trading vessels occasionally carry
hence a cargo of this pale primrose-coloured mineral, to be turned
to good domestic uses. Pools of boiling mud alternate with springs
of cold water clear as crystal; and in fissures lying but a few feet
apart the same strange diversity exists. One sends forth a blast of
scalding steam, while in the next a dripping spring yields its slow
but continuous supply of ice-cold water, falling drop by drop.
The cone, which is called Asoor by the Tannese, is about 300
feet in height. It is a gradual ascent, but fatiguing, owing to the

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accumulation of fine black ash or sand, in which the foot sinks at every step. Masses of scoria and vitreous lava, or obsidian, have been thrown up by the volcano, and lie scattered on every side. On reaching the summit, you find yourself on the brink of a crater half a mile in diameter, within which lie five secondary craters. These act as so many chimneys for the great furnace, which roars and bellows below, and which day and night, with deafening roar, unweariedly throws up its fiery blast at intervals of five, seven, or ten minutes, according as its action is more or less vehement. Some travellers have visited it repeatedly at intervals of several years, and their accounts of the intervals of eruption never vary beyond this slight difference. Huge masses of black rock or liquid fire are tossed in the air, to a height of 200 or 300 feet, often falling back within the crater, or else hurled to the valley below. Clouds of white steam mingle with denser clouds of the finest dark-grey dust, which is carried by the wind to all parts of the island, coating every green leaf with a powder like fine steel-filings, which fills the eyes and nostrils of all breathing creatures in a most unpleasant manner. When rain falls, it absorbs this dust, and becomes literally a mud-shower. From the position of the inner craters, it is obvious that even the most foolhardy scientific traveller could hardly venture to approach them to peer into the mysterious workings of that mighty caldron. Yet a native legend records, that in one of the fierce battles between the tribes of Tanna, one party was gradually driven backward, till they retreated to the summit of the cone, and even there they still fought on, contesting foot by foot of the sandy ridges of the inner crater, where a multitude of these savage warriors perished, having fought to the death, unheeding the wrath of the fire-gods. But of the isles visited by the Seignelay, before I had the privilege of joining the party, there is none which I regret so much as Easter Island, or, as the inhabitants call it, Rapa Nui, where they touched on the way from Valparaiso, from which it is distant about 2500 miles, without any intermediate isle. I think it must be the loneliest spot in the Pacific, as there are apparently only two

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