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and fifty miles a day. At that time (1524) no nation of Europe had any “internal improvements ” which would compare with these roads of the Incas.


The remains of Peruvian architecture are but little less surprising. Their temples and other public edifices were low, but very spacious, and built of immense blocks of stone-sometimes thirty-eight feet long, eighteen wide, and six thick-cut from the solid rock with tools of stone, of copper, or of a mixture of copper and tin. (Iron was unknown to them. These were often carried long distances, across ravines and rivers, to high elevations on the mountain-side, without the known aid of beasts of burden or machinery. No cement was used ; yet the stones were so nicely fitted to each other that the blade of a knife could not be inserted between them. Of the interior decorations Prescott remarks: “The sides of the apartments were thickly studded with gold and silver ornaments. Niches, prepared in the walls, were filled with images of animals and plants, curiously wrought, of the same costly materials; and even much of the domestic furniture, incloding the utensils devoted to the most ordinary menial services, display the like wanton magnificence.” Such was the splendour of the Temple of the Sun at Cuzco, that a Spaniard, who saw it in its glory, asserts that there were only two edifices in his own country which could, in magnificence of workmanship, be compared with it.


In textile fabrics the Peruvians had considerable skill. From the tough fibre of the maguey, from cotton which flourished in abundance on the coast, and from the wool of their vast flocks of sheep, they manufactured an abundant supply to clothe the whole population. Some of their woolleas were of such delicacy that they.were sought even by the Spanish sovereigns, who could command the luxuries of the world.

WARS. The Peruvians professed to make conquests not for rapine and plunder, but only to spread the blessings of their civilization. As soon as a tribe a nation submitted, it was received to the full participation of all the privileges of native subjects. The Caciques of the conquered were admitted into the Peruvian nobility, and allowed to hold their positions among their own people, ruling as viceroys of the Inca.

GOVERNMENT. The Inca was supreme, and elevated immeasurably above all subjects, so the representative of his progenitor, the Sun. But his rule was mild, and had a special reference to the comfort of the subjects. The empire was divided into four great provinces, under four governors, who were a sort of state-council to the Inca. The population was further divided into ten, fifty, one hundred, five hundred, one thousand, and ten thousand, each under

a responsible officer, accounting to his superior for the good conduct of his charge, much after the “ tything system” of King Alfred of England.


The land was divided into three parts,–one for the Sun, one for the Inca, and one for the people. The produce of the Sun's portion sustained the costly religious ceremonial; that of the Inca's defrayed the expenses of government; while the people's part was divided equally among them, each family possessing more or less, according to its number. This division was repeated yearly, and adapted to the yearly charges.

The whole territory was cultivated by the people. The lands of the Sun, first; then, those belonging to the widows, orphans, sick, &c.; thirdly, their own; and lastly, those of the Inca.

The immense flocks of sheep belonged to the Sun and the Inca, and were managed with a skill which surprised the Spaniards, who were well versed in that business at home. A few were trained for the mechanic arts. Every individual had the kind and amount of his labour fixed exactly by law; and idleness was punished as a crime. Part of the agricultural produce and manufactures were sent to the capital, but the greater portion was stored in the provinces, where was a supply for several years, providing against suffering in seasons of scarcity.


They believed in one supreme Deity, Creator of the world, and reared to Him one temple only, near the present city of Lima. Next to Him was the Sun, the founder of their empire, the father of their emperors, and the ruler of the destinies of man. To the Sun rose temples in every city and village. Then followed a host of subordinate deities,-the moon, the stars, the earth, wind, rain, thunder, besides the gods of conquered nations. The number of the priesthood was great, and the ceremonies and sacrifices were complex and elaborate; the offerings consisting of flowers, grains, animals, and, some say, human victims.




In these times of political tranquillity, when opposite parties in the State can with perfect freedom from animosity discuss questions on which they differ, the theologian also may trust himself to write freely on topics which could scarcely be touched twenty years ago without incurring suspicion of party prejudice. In expounding the passage noted above, we can stand happily aloof from the scenes of a controversy in which we are not ourselves involved; and can advise those who are (to say the least) likely to be involved in it, to open their Bibles, sit down calmly and prayerfully,

and consider what the New Testament teaches us concerning the mutual relations of clergy and laity. With this intention, let us open the sacred volume, and read on.

The clders which are among you,” said St. Peter. Those men wło, according to the accustomed language of the synagogue, adopted also by the earliest Christian congregations, are called elders, bopi, or years, (which latter word is to this day retained in the Syrian churches,) are the

persons spoken of by the apostle. He writes about twenty-seven years after the Crucifixion, when infant churches are multiplied, and their congregations are entering on a period of trial; such trial as is incident to all communities that have outlived the simplicity of their first love, but bare not yet had time to learn wisdom from long and various experience. The Christians whom he addresses are “strangers scattered abroad.” But their elders are among them in their little settlements. God graciously places the presbyters in their midst, whom the apostle is instructing in their duty. “ The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder," ovu pro útepos, an elder like yourselves; "and a witness of the sufferings of Christ.” “I was unfaithful once : yet that momentary fall, terrible as it was, was but for a night, and scarcely removed me from the scene of the Redeemer's passion.” Certainly it led the apostle, when he had repented of his fall, to understand more fully the exceeding sinfulness of sin, and to admire the wondrous condescension and vastness of redeeming love. He repented, and was forgiven; he saw the Lord Jesus risen from the dead; he beheld Him ascend into heaven; and now by faith be sees Him enthroned in majesty. Therefore he can humbly say, “and also o partaker of the glory that shall be rerealed.Now comes his teaching.

Feed the flock of God which is among you.”—Among you, or aith you, there is a flock of God. None can be members of this flock of God who are living in sin. Carnally-minded persons cannot be counted with the flock of God, for they are dead in sin. “If any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His." But even the flock of God, with all the light and the heavenly teaching they enjoy, need the care of earthly shepherds ; sed such has God appointed for this very end. Truly there is a promise tha: they shall all be taught of God; but He who sent forth His disciples te teach all nations gave no intimation that He would ever teach the nations by an immediate efflux of the Holy Spirit, without employing human teaches These teachers must care for the flock committed to their charge, and keep it well; for the verb Toaivw, be it noted, does not merely signify to fees but to discharge all the duties of a shepherd, however diversified and laborios those duties

may be : and, although no man is of himself “sufficient for these things,” every faithful man can do all things which God requires to be done, through Christ who strengtheneth him. Now-a-days, however, may who confidently consider themselves to be members of the flock of God are

* Perhaps ev ipiv, both here and in verse 1, should be so rendered; • beint regarded as a Hebraism, equivalent with 2, of which there are very frequent examps in the New-Testament Scriptures, as in the Septuagint.

disdaining to accept the care or submit to the oversight of any shepherd, except, as they passionately say, the Lord Jesus Christ Himself. Confident that they are “in Christ,” they think themselves far advanced beyond the need of what they look down upon as merely human teaching, and proudly quote a sentence of St. John as confidently as if it were, in the sense they put upon it, spoken audibly to themselves : “Ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things.” “All things,” however, cannot be absolutely taken ; for no creature can know all things, neither can any creature do all things. Therefore “all things" can only be taken relatively to the subject of discourse, and not absolutely, as if a man could be omniscient.

“ But,” as our confident brethren persist in quoting, “the anointing which ye have received of Him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you : but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath, ye shall abide in Him.” (1 John ii. 27.) Thus they wrest the text from the context, which clearly exhibits the subject of discourse ; namely, the cautions that were given by St. John to sincere followers of Christ, whom wicked men were endeavouring to seduce ; (verse 26 ;) all which cautions were commended to the heart and judgment of those good men by the xéploua, the “spiritual gift," the anointing which enlightened them, and gave them grace to resist the seduction of the antinomians of their day, persons who boasted that they were in Cbrist even while they hated their brethren. It may seem to many readers in our time incredible, that wellmeaning men are to be found who can assume confidence enough to claim exemption from all earthly teachers, and pretend to a plenary illumination of the Holy Ghost, bringing such perfect knowledge of all things knowable, that the subjects of it need not that any man should teach them. But there are multitudes at this moment who openly maintain that they have, or hope to have, such an unction; and who believe it possible to attain to such perfect knowledge, in answer to prayer, without condescending to literal instruction.

We would not presume to limit the efficacy of prayer ; but still venture to suggest, that, if the Holy Ghost really taught these persons all things essential to Christianity, the same sovereign teaching would guide them into all truth, and consequently bring them to a state of perfect agreement. Yet it is notorious that they are far from exhibiting any such unity of sentiment. Howsoever guided, they differ widely from one another, they have already split into parties under different leaders ; and, as if truth were not clearly enough made known, they are continually seeking it, or, as they say, “ seeking light,” sure that light will come. Even so do some enthusiasts set empty chairs in their places of assemblage, sure that the Lord Jesus Christ will descend from heaven bodily to sit in them ; as if He had not yet been incarnate, and were now for the first time to be expected in the flesh. Most of these persons profess to be members of the Church of England, either considering that any latitude of belief or imagination may

find place within the all-inclusive boundary of that church, or else using that name as a conventional designation to serve the convenience of those who shun the restraints of church-communion ; and, when speaking of each other within their own circles, they assume the title of “ Brethren,"–, title rather less offensive to the prejudice of those without, than that of

Saints," which for many years they strove to appropriate for themselves alone. “ Christians” they also call themselves, to signify that they will have no head but Christ. If pressed to give a reason for withdrawing from the ministrations of the clergy of the church they generally call their own, they are wont to justify their conduct by alleging that they consider those gentlemen unfit to teach. Here and there a reverend brother, pose sessed with notions akin to theirs, may denude himself of his proper character, and be permitted to sit among them as a dear “ brother in the Lord;" but no learning, or diligence, or piety, will save him who refuses to receive the injurious compliment of brotherhood from being marked as no brother, and avoided. Living in a merely nominal connexion with the Church of England, they do their utmost to pull it down to the dust by decrying its ministers, and probably by teaching that all churches are human institutions, organizations which Christians hope to see dissolved, and which will inevitably perish when Christ shall reign. They deem themselves to be the flock of God; but, unlike the real Christians in the days of St. Peter, they will not have any elder to feed them, or any fold to enclose and shelter them. Their youngest novices are not in the least afraid lest they should be puffed up, and fall into the condemnation of the devil ; but, before they have had time to learn the first principles of the Gospel of Christ, make haste to teach, if indeed it be teaching, and if not rather a sort of attempted mutual instruction, where the blind misleads the blind. And so they grope after truth, to be discerned, they fondly dream, by the light that is within them.

For them, therefore, there are no spiritual shepherds of the flock, “taling the oversight.In their estimation most of the clergy, of all churches, are incompetent to take any oversight at all. They speak evil of their own, yet will not openly depart from them; and, as for others, they denounce the's office as an offence to “Christians," who fancy themselves exalted far abore all clergy, being themselves “a holy priesthood.” Let us hope, however, that many such persons, who are sincerely seeking light, will find it, sa! with light, charity to acknowledge that both among the ministers the abandon, and others whom they will not accept as worthy to exercise sor sort of spiritual oversight, there are many who fulfil the injunction of the apostle, and discharge their sacred duties faithfully, “not by constrains, be willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind.

Neither as being lords over God's heritage.”—Men, through the frailty of their common nature, are all given to the abuse of power and authority. Therefore the law of God limits all delegated authority, and the power to God visits with ultimate confusion the abuse of such power. Of this ados clergy have been guilty, no less than magistrates, kings, and masters

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