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Copyright, 1901, by Donald L. Morrill.

ROBT. O. LAW CO., PRINTERS AND BINDERS, CHICAGO.

PREFACE.

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In offering this volume to the public, the author considers it his duty to explain briefly the scope of the work and the method employed in treating the subject. Such a statement is particularly necessary in the case of an elementary text-book on civil government, for the increased attention which has been given in recent years to that study has caused the publication of numerous text-books, possessing many meritorious features. Therefore, should be given for writing upon a subject which has been discussed so often by other authors.

The first text-books upon the subject dealt with the Federal government solely, and the study of civics was limited to a consideration of the Constitution and some of the laws of the United States Government. Later, it was found that, however useful and necessary a knowledge of the national government may be, something more is needed to prepare the student for the duties of citizenship, and that it is equally important that he should understand the systems of local and State government under which the citizen lives and which regulate most of his daily transactions.

Recognizing this demand, other books were written, whose contents embraced a consideration of the different

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forms of government to which the individual is subjected from infancy to manhood, including family, school, church, social, municipal, State and national government. In the opinion of competent critics, writers of these books have gone to extremes in their efforts to observe the pedagogic precept of commencing instruction upon any subject with those features which are nearest to the pupil. Under this theory, in many text-books the study of civics is commenced with chapters upon domestic and social topics, which have no place in a work devoted to the study of civil government.

This book is designed for use by students who are sufficiently advanced to take up the study of United States history. It should be used in the higher grades of the elementary school, or the first year of the high school, or both, according to the course of study pursued. It is divided into two parts; the first is devoted to a study of the Federal government and political system; the second to the State government and local institutions of Michigan.

In the first part of the book, it has been the author's aim to furnish aid to students commencing the study of our national political institutions. Therefore, definite and specific information is given as to the essential features of the Federal system, derived from sources not readily accessible to either teacher or pupil. No attempt has been made to analyze the provisions of the Federal Constitution, or to present controversies as to its construction, but there has been an endeavor to show the actual working of our national government, and to describe the same in a manner which can be comprehended by beginners.

The second part of the book is intended as a practical guide to the student upon important matters which are regulated by the local and State government. Other books

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