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Admoveas, cujus tunc munere retia misit. Our cha

Esse aliquid Manes et subterranea regna, under

Et contum, et Stygio ranas in gurgite nigras, 150 ground. Atque una transire vadum tot millia cymba,

Nec pueri credunt, nisi qui nondum aere lavantur.
Sed tu vera puta : Curius quid sentit, et ambo
Scipiadae, quid Fabricius manesque Camilli, 154
Quid Cremerae legio, et Cannis consumta juventus,
Tot bellorum animae, quoties hinc talis ad illos
Umbra venit? Cuperent lustrari, si qua

darentur Sulphura cum taedis, et si foret humida laurus. Blessings Illuc heu ! miseri traducimur. Arma quidem ultra of Roman Litora Juvernae promovimus, et modo captas 160 tion. Orcadas, ac minima contentos nocte Britannos :

perly, it means the wall which ran tomary price for admission to the round the arena, to protect the spec- public baths. Cf. Sat. vi. 447. tators from the wild beasts. The arena 153. Curius] See note on 1. 3. was itself excavated, and the top of 155. Cremerae legio) The Fabia the 'podium' 18 feet above its level. gens. During the Veientine war, the The more distinguished spectators whole gens, headed by the consul occupied three tiers of reserved seats. Kaeso, established a military fort on These were immediately behind the the Cremera, which flows into the podium,' and also called by that Tiber a few miles n. of Rome. name, which has descended to our After two years they were cut off by

pew.” The other spectators occu- the Veientes, with the exception of pied the higher tiers of benches. one boy, who had been left in Rome.

147. ipsum] “ The emperor him. The above is the legendary account. self:” whether Nero or Domitian is 158.] At a “lustratio' sulphur was uncertain. • Admoveas :' i. q. 'ad- burnt, and those present sprinkled jungas.'

from laurel-boughs dipped in water. 178. munere] A show of gladia- Special sacrifices were also offered. tors was a munus ;" — to exhibit For 'lustratio,' see note on Sat. xiii.

munus edere," and the 63. exhibitor "editor" or “munerator." 159. Illuctraducimur) “Down

ib. retia misit] Note on Sat. viii. there our character is quite gone.' 200_208.

Lit. “thither" (i. e. to the great of 149–159.] “Of course, no one antiquity) we are traduced.” Tranow-a-days believes in an existence ducere' is to lead by (in procession). after death. But just for argument Hence, exhibit, make notorious, and assume its truth ;—what must the from this latter meaning, “defame" dead think of us?”

traduce." Another rendering 150. contum] The pole of Charon. is, “To this point of infamy we are

Ipse ratem conto subigit.” Virg. brought.” But it is feebler. Aen. vi. 302.

160. Juvernae] Ireland. For the 152. nisi quilavantur] Children probable date of the Satire in conwere admitted free to the public baths. nexion with these lines, see Macleane

ib. aere] The “ quadrans;" see ad loc. Dict. Antiq. "as.' This was the cus- 161. minima contentos nocte Britan

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Sed quae nunc populi fiunt victoris in urbe,
Non faciunt illi, quos vicimus. Et tamen unus
Armenius Zalates cunctis narratur ephebis
Mollior ardenti sese indulsisse Tribuno.

165
Adspice, quid faciant commercia! Venerat obses.
Hic fiunt homines. Nam si mora longior Urbem
Indulsit pueris, non umquam deerit amator :
Mittentur braccae, cultelli, frena, flagellum.

Sic praetextatos referunt Artaxata mores. 170

Usual pre

nos] From the shortness of the eager Tribune." Caligula is meant summer night in high latitudes. It by“ tribunus" (sub. plebis) ;—it was would seem from this passage, and a one of the offices concentrated in the similar one in Tacitus (Agric. 12), emperors. that this was popularly believed to be 166. commercia] “ intercourse." the case throughout the year. Taci- 167. Hic fiunt homines] Ironitus, at any rate, suggests an explana- cally. tion which is inconsistent with any

169. braccae &c.] other view. He says, that the ex- sents to favourites. tremities of the earth are less moun- 170. praetextatosmores] “those tainous than its centre, and therefore of our Roman youth." See note on throw shorter shadows !

Sat. i. 78. For another rendering, 163–168.] Translate, “ And yet see Macleane ad loc. one, the Armenian Zalates, weaker ib. Artaxata] The Armenian than the other youths of his coun- capital. try, is said to have gratified our

SATIRA III.

LIFE IN ROME.

The last words of Umbricius.

Quamvis digressu veteris confusus amici,
Laudo tamen, vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis
Destinet, atque unum civem donare Sibyllae.
Janua Baiarum est et gratum litus amoeni
Secessus. Ego vel Prochytam praepono Suburae. 5
Nam quid tam miserum, tam solum vidimus, ut non
Deterius credas horrere incendia, lapsus
Tectorum assiduos, ac mille pericula saevae
Urbis, et Augusto recitantes mense poetas ?
Sed dum tota domus rheda componitur una, 10
Substitit ad veteres arcus madidamque Capenam.
Hic, ubi nocturnae Numa constituebat amicae ;-
Nunc sacri fontis nemus et delubra locantur

2. vacuis] Cumae was a quiet old and now waited for it at the Appiantown, on the road to (“ janua,” 1. 4) road gate. Capenam;" from its the more fashionable Baiae ; about leading to Capua. four miles N.w. of it.

ib. veteres arcus] Probably the 3. Sibyllae] “Euboïcis Cumarum arched tomb of Horatia, which was allabitur oris ... horrendaeque pro- near this gate. Livy i. 16. cul secreta Sibyllae, Antrum immane, ib. madidam] An aqueduct (the petit.” Virg. Aen. vi. init.

Aqua Appia) entered the city near 4, 5.) “ And an attractive coast of the gate. pleasant retirement."

12. noctur. amicae] i. e. the nymph 5. Prochytam] Now Procida ; Egeria, one of the Camenae. She was off Cape Misenum. See Macleane's alleged by Numa to have instructed description of this island.

him in the religious ceremonies he ib. Suburae] A street of low shops instituted. The grove near the Porta (principally green-grocers') running Capena was perhaps not the original, from the Forum to the Esquiline scene of these interviews : cf. Livy, hill.

i. 21. 9. Augusto rec. men. poetas] See ib. constituebat] “ made his assignote on Sat. i. 1-18.

nations." 11. substitit] Umbricius had walked 13. delubra] shrine (of the Caon before the furniture-van (rheda), menae). See note on l. 16.

cept for

Judaeis, quorum cophinus foenumque supellex,
(Omnis enim populo mercedem pendere jussa est 15
Arbor, et ejectis mendicat silva Camenis) ;
In vallem Egeriae descendimus et speluncas
Dissimiles veris. Quanto praestantius esset
Numen

aquae, viridi si margine clauderet undas "19 Herba, nec ingenuum violarent marmora tophum ! Why he

Hic tunc Umbricius, “ Quando artibus, inquit, quits

honestis Rome. No open- Nullus in Urbe locus, nulla emolumenta laborum, ing ex- Res hodieminorest, here quam fuit, atque eadem cras sordid Deteret exiguis aliquid : proponimus illuc arts, Ire, fatigatas ubi Daedalus exuit alas,

25 Dum nova canities, dum prima et recta senectus, Dum superest Lachesi, quod torqueat, et pedibus me Porto meis, nullo dextram subeunte bacillo. Cedamus patria : vivant Arturius istic

29 Et Catulus: maneant, qui nigrumin candida vertunt,

Quis facile est aedem conducere, flumina, portus, 13. locantur] “ Are farmed out: lia saxo," Aen. i. 167. the correlative term to “ conducere." 25.) See Virg. Aen. vi. 14

seqq. : See note on l. 31, "conducere.' “ Daedalus, ut fama est, fugiens supellex) whose Minoïa regna

Redditus his whole chattels are a basket and wisp primum terris, tibi, Phoehe, sacravit of hay:"—the former to go begging Remigium alarum." • His terris,' with, the latter to sleep on.

i. e. Cumae. 15, mercedem?

“ rent.” Pen- 27. Dum superest Lach. quod tordere,' “ produce," lit.“ pay." queat). While Lachesis has some

*16. silva mendicat] i. e. its occu- thing left to spin (lit. turn);" i. e. pants do. The Jews went out beg- “while I have some life left.” In the ging and fortune-telling (see Sat. vi. Roman writers all the three fates, 543) all day, and returned to the Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropis, spun wood to sleep.

the thread of human destiny. In the ib. ejectis Camenis] The grove Greek poets this is the office of Clotho was consecrated to the four Camenae, only. In Homer there is usually only Egeria being herself one. See above. one Moipa, who has no other name. These Camenae are not the same as 29, 30. Arturius-Catulus) Rich " the Muses," although confounded contractors of the day, of low origin. with them by the later Roman poets. 31. aedemflumina, portus) şub The names of the other three are Car- “faciendam, -da, -dos." Aedes,' menta, Antevorta, and Postvorta. being singular, a temple.” 20. ingenuum) '“ the natural (lit.

ib. conducere] “to contract for." home-born') tufa ;” i. e. the rock These public works were let out by from which the spring flowed, op- the aediles' to contractors (reposed to the marmora,' which had demptores '). Cf. Hor. Ep. i. 1. 76, been brought there to ornament the “Pars hominum gestit conducere margin. Cf. Virgil's " vivoque sedi- publica." Under the empire the

14. quorum

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Siccandam eluviem, portandum ad busta cadaver,
Et praebere caput domina venale sub hasta.
Quondam hi cornicines et municipalis arenae
Perpetui comites, notaeque per oppida buccae, 35
Munera nunc edunt et verso pollice vulgi
Quem libet occidunt populariter: inde reversi
Conducunt foricas ; et cur non omnia ? quum

sint
Quales ex humili magna ad fastigia rerum
Extollit, quoties voluit Fortuna jocari.

40 or crime. Quid Romae faciam ? Mentiri nescio: librum,

Si malus est, nequeo laudare et poscere: motus
Astrorum ignoro: funus promittere patris

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letting was managed by the 'cura- band. Municipium" corresponds tores operum publicorum,' the office to our country-town.” Strictly, it of aedile' having lost much of its is the term for such of the conquered importance. See note on l. 162. or federated townships of Italy as

31. flumina] The drainage of the retained an internal government of surface or rain-water from a house their own, while admitted at the into the public cloacae.' 'Flumen' same time (partially or altogether) is thus distinguished from 'stillici- to the Roman citizenship. The dium,' which was the private right term came to be employed, however, of the running of water through the where the internal self-government drain of an adjacent house.

had ceased. 32. siccandam eluviem empty- ib. arenae] See note on Sat. ii. ing (lit. drying) a sewer.'

147,“ podium." ib. portandum-cudaver] This 35. buccae] The cheeks puffed would be on some occasion of a pub- out with blowing the cornu.' lic funeral.

36. munera] See note on Sat. ii. 33.) “ And offer themselves 148. (caput') for sale under the despotic ib. verso pollice] The life of a spear;" 'i. e. for sale by auction. A conquered gladiator was literally in spear was stuck up when an auction the hands of the spectators. If they was going on, much as with us a car- wished him to live, they pressed pet is hung out of the window. The down their thumbs. So Hor. Ep. i. first auctions were probably for dis- 18. 66,“ utroque tuum laudabit polposing of the booty taken in war, lice ludum." "If the contrary, they which would account for the spear turned them up; hence 'verso. being thus used. “Domina,' because 38. foricas] Public urinals and the article sold is peremptorily privies. The proper keeping of these knocked down to the highest bidder. was one of the objects of contract The line of course means, “ do any from the ' aediles or curatores;' see servile work you choose."

note on 1. 31. But there is ground " These (men, who were) for thinking that the word means a once cornicines,' &c."

publicbonded warehouse" for goods, ib. municipalis arenae] "of the the dues from which were called provincial amphitheatre." There 'foriculiarium.' were gladiators' shows at the chief 42, 43. motus astrorum] i. e. ascountry-towns in Italy, as well as at trology. Cf. Sat. vi. 553_-567. Rome, each of which had its orchestral 43, 44. funus promittere putris]

34.)

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