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A willing Quis numerare queat felicis praemia, Galle,

Militiae ? Nam si subeantur prospera castra,
Me pavidum excipiet tironem porta secundo
Sidere. Plus etenim fati valet hora benigni,
Quam si nos Veneris commendet epistola Marti 5
Et Samia genitrix quae

delectatur arena. The sol- Commoda tractemus primum communia, quorum dier's pri- Haud minimum illud erit, ne te pulsare togatus vileges.

Audeat; immo et, si pulsetur, dissimulet, nec
Audeat excussos Praetori ostendere dentes 10
Et nigram in facie tumidis livoribus offam

Atque oculos, medico nil promittente, relictos.
Causes Bardiacus judex datur haec punire volenti

prospera castra] “a successful who have a father living. division. A fortunate campaign 8. togatus] “a civilian." Cf. Sat. would of course raise the character viii. 240; x. 8, and Cicero's wellof a division, and give the recruits known “cedant arma togae.” See a better prospect both of credit and note on Sat. x. 122. prize-money.

11. offam] “ weal." 3. porta) scil. 'castrorum.'

12. oculos-relictos) “Left in the 5,6.] Than if a letter of intro- head, and that is all; the doctor duction from Venus (see note on promising nothing as to your ever Sat. x. 314) or his mother Juno had seeing with them again." recommended us to Mars himself.” 13, 14.] “Even if you have the

6. Samia-arena) Cf. Virg. Aen. courage to seek redress, the juror i. 15, 16, “Quam (Carthaginem) assigned you is the soldiers' shoe, Juno fertur terris magis omnibus and their huge ancles round the triunam Posthabita coluisse Samo.' bunal.” Causes in which soldiers The latter was her favourite resi- were concerned were tried by the dence.

centurions. For“ judex datur," see 7. communia] scil. to all soldiers. note on Sat. iii. 213, vadimonia.' Opposed to the privilege mentioned 13 Bardiacus] So called from in l. 51–61, which affects only those the Bardaei, a people of Dalmatia


tried in Calceus, et grandes magna ad subsellia surae,

Legibus antiquis castrorum et more Camilli 15
Servato, miles ne vallum litiget extra
Et procul a signis. Justissima centurionum
Cognitio est igitur de milite ; nec mihi deerit
Ultio, si justae defertur causa querelae.
Tota cohors tamen est inimica, omnesque manipli
Consensu magno officiunt; curabilis ut sit
Vindicta, et gravior, quam injuria. Dignum erit

Declamatoris Mutinensis corde Vagelli,
Quum duo crura habeas, offendere tot caligas, tot
Millia clavorum. Quis tam procul absit ab Urbe ?
Praeterea quis tam Pylades, molem aggeris ultra 26
Ut veniat? Lacrumae siccentur protenus, et se
Excusaturos non sollicitemus amicos.
Da testem ; judex quum dixerit, audeat ille
Nescio quis, pugnos qui vidit, dicere, Vid 30
Et credam dignum barba dignumque capillis
Majorum. Citius falsum producere testem
Contra paganum possis, quam vera loquentem

in Illyria. The shoes manufactured anxiety." there were probably imported for the 23. Vagelli] A rhetorician of the soldiers' use.

day, not known otherwise. 14. subsellia] These were the 24, 25. tot caligas clavorum] See benches of the tribunal' or court Sat. ii. 248 and note. of justice. See note on Sat. x. 35. 25. tam procul] i. e. so far as the

15. more Camilli] There is no camp, for the purpose of prosecuting account of such a mos'having his suit. See ). 15, 16. been established by Camillus. It is 26, 27. tam Pylades-veniat] “ so probable, however, that he may have much your friend as to come outside introduced it at the siege of Veii, the city wall;" i. e. as your advowhere the soldiers for the first time catus or witness. For molem agwent into winter-quarters instead of geris, see note on Sat. x.95 (head 4). returning to their homes.

The Praetorian guard (which is here 17 - 19. justissima querelae] referred to) were quartered just out“you will say," &c.

side the agger;" so that the term '18. cognitio] See note on Sat. "procul" is ironical. vii. 228.

27, 28. se excusaturis) “ who will 20, seqq.) Juvenals reply:

be certain to ..." 21, 22. curabilis - injuria] “So 29. da testem] even grant you that their vengeance is more for- have ..." midable than the original grievance." 31. barba - capillis] Sat. v. 30 “Curabilis" is literally "what causes and note. anxiety," as "securus' is "free from 33. paganum] “a civilian;" equi. Contra fortunam armati contraque pudorem.

Praemia nunc alia, atque alia emolumenta notemus a speedy Sacramentorum. Convallem ruris aviti

36 hearing; Improbus aut campum mihi si vicinus ademit,

Aut sacrum effodit medio de limite saxum,
Quod mea cum vetulo coluit puls annua libo,
Debitor aut sumtos pergit non reddere numos, 40
Vana supervacui dicens chirographa ligni :
Exspectandus erit, qui lites inchoet, annus
Totius populi: sed tunc quoque mille ferenda
Taedia, mille morae ; toties subsellia tantum
Sternuntur; jam facundo ponente lacernas 45
Caedicio et Fusco jam micturiente, parati
Digredimur, lentaque fori pugnamus arena.
Ast illis, quos arma tegunt et balteus ambit,
Quod placitum est ipsis, praestatur tempus agendi,
Nec res atteritur longo sufflamine litis.



valent to “togatus," 1. 8. The first fields were unenclosed, and their meaning of 'paganus' is “one who boundaries marked by a statue of lives in the country.” The term was Terminus, which usually consisted derived from the 'pagi,' or fortified of merely an upright stone or post. towns, which were distributed over On the fête of the Terminalia' an the country districts for the protec- altar was erected near this, and tion of those engaged in agriculture. boneycombs, corn, and wine offered Gradually, however, it came to be on it, with a lamb or sucking-pig; applied to civilians, whether living The Terminalia' were celebrated in the country or not; so that the every 23rd of February, at the sixth classification milites et pagani' is milestone on the road to Laurentum. of frequent occurrence.

41. vana— ligni] Repeated from 34. contra pudorem] “in deroga. Sat. xiii. 137. See note there. tion of a soldier's fortune and ho- 42. exspectandus erit) “ I, as a ci

(which would suffer by the vilian, must wait for.” Opposed to evidence).

the soldiers' (“illis—ambit," 1. 48) 36. sacramentorum] i. e. of sol- privilege, a speedy hearing. diers. The sacramentum' was the ib. annus) i. e. a year's cause-list. well-known military oath. It was I must wait its being gone through, taken on the ‘signa,' and considered for it to reach (lit. begin) my case. especially sacred;—a soldier who vio- 43. tunc) “even at the year's

end." lated it might be put to death with- 44. subsellia] See on 1. 14 above. out formal trial. ..Cf. Hor. Od. ii. 45. ponente lacernas] i. e. to as17. 9–12, “Non ego perfidum Dixi sume the judicial robe. sacramentum : ibimus, ibimus, Ut- 46. Caedicio] Sat. xiii. 197. cunque praecedes."

ib. Fusco] Probably the 'Fuscus' 36, 37. convallem ruris aviti~_aut of Sat. iv. 112; see note there. сатрит]. a slope or level of my “Micturiente :" transl.“ growing patrimonial land.

impatient.” 38, 39. saorum-libo] The Roman 48. illis ambit] i. e. the soldiers.



Testa- Solis praeterea testandi militibus jus mentari Vivo patre datur: nam, quae sunt parta labore the fa- Militiae, placuit non esse in corpore census ther’s life. Omne tenet cujus regimen pater. Ergo Coranum,

Signorum comitem castrorumque aera merentem,
Quamvis jam tremulus, captat pater. Hunc labor

Provehit, et pulcro reddit sua dona labori.
Ipsius certe ducis hoc referre videtur,
Ut, qui fortis erit, sit felicissimus idem,
Ut laeti phaleris omnes, et torquibus omnes. 60

51–54.) By the strict rule of law above. a son was incapable, during his fa- ib. hunc] scil. “Coranus." ther's lifetime, of acquiring property, ib. aequus) i. e. 'non iniquus.' and consequently of bequeathing it to Kindly toil, which brings him some others. Whatever he did acquire was personal advantage. " in corpore census (* property ') cu- 57. provehit]

« leads to promojus tenet regimen pater;"_belonged tion.” The repetition of the word "lato the father absolutely. Under Ău- bori" in this line is unaccountable; gustus an exception to the rule was but the satire is feeble throughout, made in favour of property acquired and on this account is often conby military service, which a son was sidered spurious. It perhaps more allowed to treat as his own, and ac- resembles the production of advanced cordingly to bequeath. It was called life. * castrense peculium.”

58. hoc] i. e. “ut, qui fortis erit, 54. Coranum] The name may sit felicissimus," amplifying 1. 57. have been suggested by Hor. Sat. ii. 58–60.] “It is certainly the ge5, which is a compendium of the neral's interest that this should be practice of legacy-hunters ('capta- 80,--that merit should be rewarded." tores'). See note on Sat. iv. 18- Laeti,” sub. “ sint." 22. Coranus,' in the satire of Ho- 60. phaleris torquibus] These race, is a rich man who takes in one were frequently given as good serof these captatores.'

vice decorations. See Livy xxxix. 55. aera merentem), i. e. 'sti- 31 fin., “Pro concione laudati pospendia. It is the technical term for tero die, donatique a C. Calpurnio military service.

equites phaleris. 56. captat] See note on 1. 54



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