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unsafe to Scribendi, quodcumque animo flagrante liberet attack

Simplicitas, cujus non audeo dicere nomen ? the dead, Quid refert, dictis ignoscat Mucius, an non? the satire Pone Tigellinum: taeda lucebis in illa, 155 restricted Qua stantes ardent, qui fixo gutture fumant, accord- Et latum media sulcum diducis arena. ing!y.

“Qui dedit ergo tribus patruis aconita, vehatur
Pensilibus plumis atque illinc despiciat nos ?”
Quum veniet contra, digito compesce labellum. 160
Accusator erit, qui verbum dixerit : Hic est !
Securus licet Aeneam Rutulumque ferocem
Committas : nulli gravis est percussus Achilles,
Aut multum quaesitus Hylas urnamque sequutus.
Ense velut stricto quoties Lucilius ardens 165
Infremuit, rubet auditor, cui frigida mens est
Criminibus ; tacita sudant praecordia culpa.
Inde irae et lacrumae. Tecum prius ergo voluta

153. dic, nomen] even to men- of the two verbs. The rendering tion the name.

will then be “ you are on your way 154–157. Mucius] i. e. one of to blaze (lit. you will blaze) in that the old nobility. * They would torch in which the wretches stand probably not be offended at it: and burn, who smoke with rigid But what good is that ?_Delineate neck, and you are already scooping Tigellinus and you will be tor- a wide furrow in the mid-sand;" i. e. tured.” Tigellinus was Nero's fa- on the hurdle. vourite and accomplice in the burn- 155. taeda] The words of Taciing of Rome : hence the reference tus (1. c. above) are “in usum nocin 1. 155_157.

turni luminis urerentur." 155–157.] There is a difficulty 159. plumis] “ down;" (lit. in this passage, from the verb in the feathers :)-the stuffed cushion of last line. Either “diducis" must the lectica.' Pensilibus ;' bebe read, and joined with the future cause carried on the bearer's shoul“Jucebis ;"

“ diducit,". joined ders. Translate " aloft on down." with the plural “fumant." The 16). Accusator erit] sub. “ejus, nieaning is however clear. The tor- qui,” &c. " There will soon be tures described were those inflicted some one to inform against him." on the Christians by Nero, on the 163, 164.] “ You may, compose charge of having caused the great on mythical subjects (cf. 1. 2—11) fire of Rome, A.D. 65 (Tac. Ann. as you will." xv. 38. 44): 1. 156, is the burning

163. Committas] · Pit," i. e. at the stake, a sword being placed make them to do battle in verse, as under the chin, so that they stood Virgil did. The term was used with rigid (fixo) neck : 1. 157, properly of gladiators. is the dragging on a hurdle to the

165. quoties)

“ But whenever." place of execution. Probably is 166. infremuit] The preterite best to adopt “ diducis," and keep the force of the Greek aorist. the strict future and present force


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Haec animo ante tubas. Galeatum sero duelli
Poenitet.—“Experiar, quid concedatur in illos,
Quorum Flaminia tegitur cinis atque Latina.” 171

169. ante tubas] “ Before be- “ Hominem in urbe ne sepelito ginning."

neve 'urito," Cic. Legg. ii. 23. "The 171. Flaminia (see note on 1. 61); (Via) Latina was the upper or inLatina.'] The main roads out of land road to Beneventum, where it Rome are lined with tombs for some joined the Via Appia, which was niles, intramural interment being the coast road. forbidden by the XII Tables :

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Austere Ultra Sauromatas fugere hinc libet et glacialem theories, Oceanum, quoties aliquid de moribus audent, practice. Qui Curios simulant et Bacchanalia vivunt:

Indocti primum ; quamquam plena omnia gypso
Chrysippi invenias. Nam perfectissimus horum est,
Si quis Aristotelem similem vel Pittacon emit, 6
Et jubet archetypos pluteum servare Cleanthas.
Rarus sermo illis et magna lubido tacendi,
Atque supercilio brevior coma.

15 Et magis ingenue Peribomius. Hunc


fatis Imputo, qui vultu morbum incessuque fatetur. Horum simplicitas miserabilis ; his furor ipse Dat veniam : sed pejores, qui talia verbis Herculis invadunt, et de virtute loquuti.

Verius ergo


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2. audent] sub." disserere." Cleanthas' see note on 1. 5. 3.) The reference is probably to 15. supercilio brevior coma] “hair M. Curjus Dentatus, the

conqueror clipped

shorter than the eyebrow.". of Pyrrhus. Cf. Hor. Ep. i. 1. 64 16. Peribomius] Some notorious ('maribus Curiis').

rake of the day : or perhaps a fic4. primum]

“ to begin with.” titious name from περιβώμιος. See ib. gypso ] i. e. busts of that mate- Liddell and Scott's' Gr. Dict. in rial.

5. Chrysippi? A well-known 16–18. Hunchorum-his] Men Stoic, pupil of Cleanthes, and often of the stamp of Peribomius. spoken of as if he had founded the 17. imputo] “ I put down to." school. See Hor. Sat. 3. 34, “ Chry- 19, 20. taliainvadunt] Engage sippi porticus et grex." It was really in practices similar to those of Perifounded by Zeno, the master of bomius. Verbis Herculis :' the reCleanthes

ference is probably to the well-known 6. similem] "counterpart;" i. e. “choice of Hercules," quoted in an exact likeness.

Xenophon, Mem. ii. 1. 21, from the 7. archetypos) (adject.) originals; orator Prodicus ; and cf. Cic. de as distinguished from a copy. For Offic. i. 32. In early youth virtue

Loripedem rectus derideat, Aethiopem albus.
Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes ?
Quis coelum terris non misceat et mare coelo, 25
Si fur displiceat Verri, homicida Miloni,
Clodius accuset moechos, Catilina Cethegum ?
In tabulam Sullae si dicant discipuli tres ?
Qualis erat nuper tragico pollutus adulter
Concubitu, qui tunc leges revocabat amaras
Omnibus, atque ipsis Veneri Martique timendas.
Nonne igitur jure ac merito vitia ultima fictos
Contemnunt Scauros, et castigata remordent? 35

Non tulit ex illis torvum Lauronia quemdam
Clamantem toties: “Ubi nunc lex Julia ? dormis ?"
Ad quem subridens : " Felicia tempora, quae te
Moribus opponunt ! Habeat jam Roma pudorem !


Female sentiments on the subject.


and pleasure appeared as competitors furtherance of the designs of Au-. for his choice, in the form of two gustus, who thought it best to tembeautiful women. He listened to porize with Antony. The triumthe arguments on both sides, and virs commenced by a proscription eventually decided for virtue. of the republican party almost as

23. rectusalbus) i. e. let their bloody as that of Sulla ; hence “disopposites, not their counterparts, cipuli." sneer at &c.

29. adulter] Domitian, who se25.] Cf. Sat. vi. 283, “Clames duced his niece Julia, the grandlicet, et mare coelo Confundas, homo daughter of Vespasian. See Mac

The phrase is from Virg. leane ad loc. Aen. v. 790.

29, 30. tragico-concubitu] Trans27. Cat. Cethegum] Note on Sat. late, “ by a frightful connexion :" viii. 232.

Jit. "tragic;" i. e. as fit a subject 28. tab. Sullae] The famous" pro- for tragedy as Oedipus. scription," lit. " list." After the 30. leges revocabat amaras] Rebattle under the walls of Rome enacted the Lex Julia (of Augustus) (B.C. 82), which finally crushed the de adulteriis' (1. 37). Marian party, Sulla, who was now 31. ipsis_timendas] Note on Sat. master of Rome, published lists of out- x. 314. lawry (proscriptio”), comprising all 34. ultima] “extreme.” “Vitia ;' the leading names of the opposite used for those who practise them. faction. The property of any one 34, 35.] “ these counterfeit Scauthus named was ipso faclo confis- ri;" i. e. great men; as in Hor. Od. cated, and he might be killed with i. 12. 37, * Regulum et Scauros reimpunity. Several thousands pe- feram.” The reference is to the two rished in the “Reign of Terror” thus M. Aemilii Scauri, father and son; established.

the former censor and twice consul, ib. discipuli tres] i. e. the trium- and the latter famous for his magvirate of Antony, Lepidus, and nificent celebration of the public Augustus. It was formed B.C. 43; games in his aedileship, B.C. 58. avowedly, to prosecute the war against 36. Lauronia) Some licentious the murderers of Caesar, but really in lady of the day.

Tertius e coelo cecidit Cato. Sed tamen unde 40
Haec emis, hirsuto spirant opobalsama collo
Quae tibi ? Ne pudeat dominum monstrare taber-


Quod si vexantur leges ac jura, citari
Ante omnes debet Scatinia. Respice primum
Et scrutare viros : faciunt hi plura ; sed illos 45
Defendit numerus junctaeque umbone phalanges.

Magna inter molles concordia. Non erit ullum Male imi

Exemplum in nostro tam detestabile sexu. tations of Numquid nos agimus causas ? civilia jura 51

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42. tabernae) Note on Sat. vii. the other hand, the greatest weight 220, 221 (extr.).

was attached to the opinions of 43. vexantur] are raked up.” 'juris consulti,' which came to the ib. leges ac juru]

“ enactments same thing and rules of law."

Combining the above remarks, it At Rome, as with ourselves, the will be seen that what the law in primary sources of law were two- fact was on any given point, would fold: legislative enactment (“lex"), be ascertained, partly from the "statute

written law, written “leges,” (with which may and immemorial custom (“mos"), be classed "senatus consulta," and

common," customary, or praetors' edicts,) and partly from “ unwritten” law; whether as affect- these authoritative expositions as ing the whole community, or par- well of the “mos" itself as of the ticular places or persous. The developments in detail both of the “ lex” was of course comprised in

and “lex." The entire the collection of “

leges " like our body of law thus ascertained was Acts of Parliament;" while the “jus," or "jus civile." Leges' and “mos" was ascertained by authori- 'jura' were its subdivisions, the tative decisions either affirming or former comprising what was ascerimplying it. In this sense the tained from the written law; the terms are distinguished by Horace, latter, what was ascertained from the “Mos et lex maculosum edomuit other sources above referred to. (It nefas." Od. iv. 5. 22.

should be observed, that jura' Besides these two sources, however, means also the several provisions of there will necessarily be a third, viz. alex.'). the development of the general 44. Scatinia] sub. “lex,” An principles, both of “ lex” and early law against effeminate persons;

mos," by their application, in the the "molles' of l. 47. course of litigation, to the features 46. junctae umbone (for 'umboniof particular cases : thus, practically, bus;' i.e. clypeis') phalanges] The evolving from day to day, a body of well-known testudo,' made by joinnew law. With us, this is the ex- ing the shields, under cover of which clusive province of the Law Courts, a scaling party advanced to the as whose decisions, until reversed, are sault. The meaning here of course of binding authority in all similar is, “ your number and combination

At Rome, as on the Con- protects you." tinent now, the decisions of the 51-57.] “You cannot say (51— Courts had not this force; but on 53) that we, except in rare cases,


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