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Institor hibernae tegetis niveique cadurci ;- 221
Dummodo non pereat, mediae quod noctis ab hora
Sedisti, qua nemo faber, qua nemo sedebat,
Qui docet obliquo lanam deducere ferro;
Dummodo non pereat totidem olfecisse lucernas,
Quot stabant pueri, quum totus decolor esset 226
Flaccus, et haereret nigro fuligo Maroni.
Rara tamen merces, quae cognitione tribuni
Non egeat. Sed vos saevas imponite leges,

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insistit.” At Rome, where trade Each scholar brought his own lamp. was considered discreditable, most 226. decolor] With the “black's" of the shops were kept by slaves, as from the lamps. their masters' agents; and in this 227. Flaccus-Maroni] Horace capacity they were termed “in- and Virgil were by this time estastitores.” So that the word usually blished as “school classics." means a shopkeeper or retail dealer. 228, 229.] “And yet, small as The shops were called “tabernae,' the fee is, it is seldom paid until and were on the ground floor of the you have been to law for it." large houses, by the side of the 228. cognitione] cognizance." gateway, or entrance-ball. See Sat. It was the technical term for the i. 105-106 ; iii. 304. There were hearing of a cause. tabernae' also in the forum.

ib. tribuni]

Not the tribuni 221. teyetis] For sleeping on. plebis,' who had no judicial funcSee Sat. v. 8, and note. For “ca- tions, but the 'tribuni aerarii.' durci," see Lat. Dict.

Originally, these were officers of 222. dummodo-quod], " that it the thirty plebeian tribes, for fiscal may not be wholly lost labour, your purposes, especially for collecting having sat.

and paying the soldiers' pay (stiib. mediaen. ab hora] The Ro- pendium')By the · Lex Aurelia' man schools opened before day- (B.c. 70), the judices' were chosen break. See Mart. Ep. ix. 69. 1-4, from the 'tribuni aerarii, as well as “Quid tibi nobiscum est, ludi sce

from the senators and knights. Julerate magister,

lius Caesar deprived them of their Invisum pueris virginibusque ca

functions as “judices,' but from the put?

present passage they would seem to Nondum cristati rupere silentia

have been restored under the emgalli :

pire. For ‘judices,' see note on Murmure jam saevo verberibus- Şat. iii. 213, vadimonia ;" also on

1. 116, 117, above.

229. vosimponite] 1. 237, “exi223, 224. qua-qua] The ante- gite." “Go then, you parents, in cedent is “hora," 1. 222. “An hour spite of all this, and impose, as you at which no mechanic even was do, your stern requirements; at work."

exact from the teacher," &c. 224. obliquo ferro] i. e. “to card An indignant mode of expressing wool.' The "obliquum ferrum” is that this is what the parents do ;the carmen,' or carding instru- perhaps adopted, because the indicament.

tives'imponitis' and 'exigitis' 225, 226, tot.-luc. quot-pueri] would not scan.

que tonas."

Ut praeceptori verborum regula constet, 230
Ut legat historias, auctores noverit omnes,
Tamquam ungues digitosque suos ; ut forte rogatus,
(Dum petit aut thermas aut Phoebi balnea,) dicat
Nutricem Anchisae, nomen patriamque novercae
Anchemoli; dicat, quot Acestes vixerit annos, 235
Quot Siculus Phrygibus vini donaverit urnas.
Exigite, ut mores teneros ceu pollice ducat,
Ut si quis cera vultum facit: exigite, ut sit
Et pater ipsius coetus.
Haec, inquit, cures, et, quum se verterit annus,
Accipe, victori populus quod postulat, aurum.

230. ut-constet] “ That the mas- ib. Phoebi] Probably Nero's freedter shall have the theory of language man. well settled."

234, 235. Nutricem Anchisae232. tanquamsuos) “at his fin- novercae Anchemoli] There is no gers' ends.

classical authority for either name, 233. thermas] “ Assembly rooms. and probably never was for the forThese were magnificent establish- mer, although the Scholiast calls ments for bathing and other pur- her Tisiphone. Servius (Virg. Aen. poses, erected under the empire in x. 389) states the“ noverca to have Rome, as well as in the principal been called Casperia. Virgil (1. c.) watering places. They took their only says, Anchemolum, thalamos name from the warm baths, which ausum incestare novercae. formed a leading feature in the in- 235. quot annos ) Acestes in stirution. In addition to these how- Virgil is always spoken of as aged. ever, the thermae' comprised gym- See Aen. v. 73, “aevi maturus nasia, libraries and rooms for reci- Acestes," and comites senioris tation, large pleasure grounds, and Acestae," 1. 301. porticoes adorned with paintings and 236. quotąurnas) See Virg. Aen. statuary. See Sat. xi. 4. Agrippa i. 195, * Vina, bonus quae deinde had large thermae' in the Campus cadis onerarat Acestes. Martius, which he bequeathed to ihe nas," see note on Sat. vi. 426. people, and the vestibule of these 242. et-annus] See note on Sat. now forms the Pantheon. The bal- x. 115. nea' differed from the thermae,' in 243. victori] in the Circensian being confined to bathing purposes games. See l. 114, and note. only.

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SATIRA VIII.

OUR ARISTOCRACY.

Birth and worth.

Stemmata quid faciunt ? quid prodest, Pontice,

longo Sanguine censeri, pictosque ostendere vultus Majorum, et stantes in curribus Aemilianos, Et Curios jam dimidios, humeroque minorem Corvinum, et Galbam auriculis nasoque carentem? Quis fructus generis tabula jactare capaci 6 [Corvinum, posthac multa contingere virga]

1. stemmata] “pedigrees.” Lit. "Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemi" wreaths." In addition to the 'ima- lianus Africanus Minor." He subgines' of their ancestors (see note on dued Carthage in the third Punic Sat. v. 110), the noble families had war, and afterwards reduced Nugenealogical tables with portraits, mantia by siege, B.c. 133; hence also and wreaths twined round them. called Numantinus. See 1. 11. He Hence “generis tabula," 1. 6. The was the son of L. Aemilius Paulus, word is thus equivalent to ancestry;' the conqueror of Macedonia, and 1. l-ll, and 18-22, amplifying was adopted by a son of Scipio Afrithe same idea. Gradually the word canus Major, the conqueror of Han"stemma came to be used for the nibal. For“ Curios," see Sat. ii. 3, table of descent itself.

and note. “Corvinus " was the cog2. censeri] A man's 'ordo' at nomen of the Valeria gens, from its Rome, as senator, eques, &c., de- founder the well-known M. Valerius pended on the amount of his 'cen- Corvus. He was so called from his sus,' or property qualification. See single combat with a Gaul while note on Sat. v. 57. It was ascer- serving as military tribune under tained by the censor, and entered in Camillus. A raven perched on the a register which constituted the sole helmet of Valerius, and flew at the evidence of it. “Censeri," therefore, face of the Gaul, thus securing his acquired the meaning of “to be antagonist the victory: Galba," classed," and hence simply, “ to be.” cognomen of the Sulpicia gens. So that “ longo sanguine censeri " is 4. dimidios] Only half of them “ to be of old blood."

left. Sat. v. 84, and note; and see ib. pictos-rultus] The reference note on 1. 19. now is to the imagines,' which were 6. generis tabula] See note on 1. 1 often painted. See on Sat. v. 110. above.

3, 4. Aemil.Cur.] Used for any 7.] This line is undoubtedly spunoble families. Aemilianos," i. e. rious. If it had any meaning“ multa

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Fumosos Equitum cum Dictatore magistros,
Si coram Lepidis male vivitur? Effigies quo
Tot bellatorum, si luditur alea pernox

10
Ante Numantinos ; si dormire incipis ortu
Luciferi, quo signa duces et castra movebant ?
Cur Allobrogicis et Magna gaudeat Ara
Natus in Herculeo Fabius lare, si cupidus, si
Vanus et Euganea quantumvis mollior agna 15
Squalentes traducit avos, emtorque veneni
Frangenda miseram funestat imagine gentem ?
Tota licet veteres exornent undique cerae
Atria, nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus. 20
Paulus vel Cossus vel Drusus moribus esto:
Hos ante effigies majorum pone tuorum :
Praecedant ipsas illi te Consule virgas :
Prima mihi debes animi bona. Sanctus haberi

Justitiaeque tenax factis dictisque mereris? 25 virga" would be the “stemmata." 18. frangenda_imagine] By the See note on l. 1.

Lex Cornelia de Sicariis et vene8, 9–11. Equit. Dictat. mag. ficis' (passed, B.C. 82) a poisoner, - Lepidis-Numuntinos) i. e. their veneficus,' was punished with out'imagines.' See note on I. 3. Hence lawry ('interdictio ignis et aquae '). “ funiosos.”

Under the empire, the punishnient 11. Numantinos] See on 1. 3, 4. was deportatio in insulam.' See note

13. Allobrog.] Q. Fabius Maxi- on Sat. i. 73. Both classes of punishmus Allobrogicus. He took that ment deprived the offender of his name from his victory over the Allo- caput or citizenship, so that his broges, B.c. 121. The Fabius in the statue would naturally be removed next line is his son, equally eminent from the family imagines.' The for his profligacy. For“ Allobroges, emtor veneni," l. 16, is used as see note on Sat. vii. 214.

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66

equivalent to . veneficus.' ib. Magna Aral An altar of 19. cerae] The 'imagines' were Hercules near the Forum Boarium, commonly of this material, which said to have been dedicated by Evan- may account for the dilapidations reder. The Fabia gens traced its de- ferred to 1. 4, 5. scent from a child of Hercules by 20.) “Virtus" is subject; “nobiVinduna, Evander's daughter. litas," praedicate. 15. mollior] “ more effeminate." 21. Paulus - Cossus Drusus ]

ib. Euganea] From the Euganei Cognomina of the Aemilian, Corin Cisalpine Gaul, near the Adige. nelian, and Livian families; used for So Hor. Od. iii. 16. 35, “pinguia any eminent men. “ Be illustrious Gallicis Crescunt vellera pascuis.' in character."

16. squalentes--avos] “his rough 22, 23. hosilli] scil. "mores. ancestors. Their “imagines' look 22. poneante ] “ erect in front 80 by the side of his foppish de- of.” A similar metaphor to the more scendant.

obvious“ praecedant," 1. 23. ib. traducit] Sat. ii. 159, and 23. virgas) i. e. the 'fasces.' See

note on Sat. v. 110.

note.

connec

you will."

Agnosco procerem. Salve, Gaetulice, seu tu
Silanus, quocumque alio de sanguine !—rarus
Civis et egregius patriae contingis ovanti

.
Exclamare libet, populus quod clamat, Osiri
Invento. Quis enim generosum dixerit hunc, qui
Indignus genere est, praeclaro nomine tantum 31
Insignis? Nanum cujusdam Atlanta vocamus,
Aethiopem cycnum, pravam extortamque puellam
Europen: canibus pigris scabieque vetusta
Levibus et siccae lambentibus ora lucernae 35
Nomen erit tigris, pardus, leo, si quid adhuc est,
Quod fremit in terris, violentius.

Ergo cavebis Et metues, ne tu sis Creticus aut Camerinus. A youth His ego quem monui ? Tecum est mihi sermo, of high

Rubelli tions.

Blande. Tumes alto Drusorum sanguine, tamquam 26, 27.] “If this be so, we will lus, who took this agnomen from salute you by what illustrious name his conquest of Crete, B.C. 67.'

ib. Camerinus] This was a cog26. Gaetulice) i.e. Cossus Corne- nomen of the Sulpicia gens. lins Lentulus. He took the agnomen

39. his]

“ In all this." of Gaetulicus from his victory over 39, 40. Rubelli Blanıle] There are the Gaetuli in Africa, A.D. 6.

three difficulties in this passage. 27. Silanus] Cognomen of the 1. The Ruhellii were connected with

Nero through Julia, (“quae sanguine 29. populus) scil. of Egypt. fulget lüli," 1. 42,) the daughter of

29, 30. Osiri invento] i. e. on the Drusus, and granddaughter of Tibebirth of "an Apis," who was sup- rius. But Rubellius Blandus was her posed to be the soul of Osiris. The husband; her son (see l. 42, “ut te public rejoicings on this occasion are conciperet ") was Rubellius Plaudescribed by Herodotus, iii. 27, 28. tus. 2. Assuming the above difThe exclamation is said to have ficulty disposed of by, substitutbeen ευρήκαμεν συγχαίρωμεν. The ing

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for “ Blande” in meaning of the lines is, 'So rare is l. 40, a second arises on the chrothe union of merit with high birth, nology of the passage.

Rubellius that we might cry kúpilkanev over it.” (Plautus) was banished, and even

32—38] “ Nicknames, I need not tually murdered by Nero, who was tell you, often go by opposites. We jealous of him as his probable succall a man's dwarf Atlas, and so on. cessor. This was A.1). 62; while JuTake care that somebody does not venal was probably born A.D. 54, call you a great man.” Dwarfs were only eight years before. And yet kept in rich families as a source of Juvenal is clearly speaking of a coamusement.

temporary (see “vivas," I. 46), and 33. pravam)" mis-shapen.” “ Ex: that a young man. 3. The arrogance tortam," lit. “ dislocated;" i. e. all here ascribed to Rubeldius is quite awry. There is an obvious distinc- inconsistent with his character tion between the two epithets. Tacitus, Ann. xiv. 22, “ Habitu se

38. Creticus] Q. Cæcilius Metel- vero, casta et secreta domo, quan

Julia gens.

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