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referred, in this passage, to the in To this objection, it may be restitution of the Sabbath on the plied, Mount; still, the reason assigned, First. That should we admit viz. God's resting on the Sabbath the fourth commandment to be of the day, is such as to bind, not the nature of a positive precept; this Israelites only, bat all mankind, to would not prove that it is not of the observance of one day in seven, perpetual obligation. There may as a day of holy rest.

be commands in force under the Another unanswerable argument gospel, and to the end of the world, in favour of the perpetual and uni- whích are not of a moral, but posversal obligation of the Sabbath, is itive nature. Of this sort are the derived from Exodus xx. 8, “Re-commands to administer baptism member the Sabbath day, to keep and the Lord's supper. And why it holy.” This is one of the Ten may not some positive commands Commandments, which were writ- and institutions be in force in all ten upon tables of stone, to denoto ages of the church, and under evetheir durability and perpetual ob- ry dispensation? But, ligation. These commandments Secondly. The duty of worshipdiffer materially from the injunc- ping God and of devoting some tions of the Ceremonial Law. This portion of time to religious serLaw was designed for the Israel- vices is founded in the reason of ites only; and not even for them, things, and results from that relaafter the death of the Messiah: tion, which subsists between manwhereas the Ten Commandments kind and their Creator and Moral were designed for all nations, down Governor. But if it be the duty to the end of time. Though Christ) of men, in all ages, to consecrate abolished the Ceremonial Law; a part of their time to holy rest and Fet he did not repeal the Ten the offices of devotion; then it is Coinmandments. These are, there important, that they should know, fore, still binding upon men; and what proportion of it they ought nust be so, while time lasts. To thus to consecrate. And since, by this argument, I know of but one their own, unassisted reason, they plausible objection; which is this: cannot ascertain and fix this; it

• The Fourth Commandment is of is necessary, that it should be done a positive and not of a moral na- by a Divine precept of universal ture. The other Nine Command- and perpetual obligation. And ments are of a moral nature. They hence it may be observed, are founded in the nature and rea- Thirdly. That the fourth comson of things, and would have al- mandment founded in the reason ways been binding upon mankind, and fitness of things, as well as the had they not been given at Sinai, others. There is a particular pro. or engraved upon tables of stone. portion of time, which it is fittest Bat, the Sabbath is a positive in- and best, in the nature of things, stitution, resting entirely upon the that men should keep holy. This will and pleasure of the Institutor, God knows, and this He has pointwithout any previous foundation in ed out.

ed out. By his command, he has the reason and nature of things. told us, that it is fittest and best, Although the other Commandments, that we should keep one day in therefore, are of universal and per- seven as holy time. And since he petual obligation; the Fourth is has told us so, we are as much temporary, and limited to the Jew-bound to keep one day in seven as jab natier.'

& Sabbath, as ve are to refrain from idolatry, or to obey any other Such is some of the evidence. of the ten commandments.

that it is the will of God that one The great stress which Gød lays day in seven should be observed as upon his precept to keep every

a Sabbath, by all men, in all ages seventh day holy, so much greater of the world. than he lays upon any precept of

REFLECTIONS. the Ceremonial Law, furnishes ev- 1. Those, who think the Sabbath idence, that it is his will, that abolished, under the Christian dismen, in all ages, should keep a pensation, are in a great errour. seventh part of time as a Sabbath. This is, professedly, the opinion He made this precept one of the of some, though, comparatively, Ten Commandments, engraved it of few, in the Christian world. with his own finger, upon stone, They consider the Sabbath as a and required it to be deposited, mere ceremonial observance, first with the others, in the Ark of tes- enjoined at Sinai, and done away timony. And the prophets, whom by the abrogation of the Mosaick he inspired to instruct and admon- ritual. But, we have seen, that ish his people, speak of the due the Sabbath was first instituted at observance of the Sabbath, as con- the creation of the world, and stituting a very material part of when re-enacted on the Mount, true religion. Thus we read in was made one of the Ten ComIsaiah, 58th chapter: “ If thou turn mandments, which, being of a moraway thy foot from the Sabbath, al nature, are of universal and perfrom doing thy pleasure on my petual obligation. The errour, holy day, and call the Sabbath a therefore, of such as hold that the delight, the holy of the Lord, hon- Sabbath is abolished, is great; as ourable, and shalt honour Him, not it sets aside a sacred moral duty, doing thine own ways, nor finding and emboldens men to transgress thine own pleasure, nor speaking the express command of God. thine own words: then shalt thou 2. Å violation of the holy Sabdelight thyself in the Lord, and I bath, must be very offensive to will cause thee to ride upon the God. The Sabbath is of moral obhigh places of the earth, and feed ligation, and the due observance thee with the heritage of Jacob thy of it, is enjoined by the posifather; for the mouth of the Lord tive command of God. hath spoken it.”

be assigned, why a I add, that it is foretold, that breach of the Sabbath should not the Sabbath should be observed, be as displeasing to God, as a breach under the Christian dispensation. of any other of the Ten CommandThus, in Isaiah, 56th chapter, ments. They all rest on the same God says, speaking of the recep- foundation, the nature and fitness tion of the Gentiles into the of things, and are all sanctioned Church, under the New. Testa- by the same Divine authority. It ment, “ Also the sons of the stran- | is presumption, therefore, for any ger, that join themselves to the to flatter' themselves, that God Lord, to serve Him, and to love will hold those guiltless, who transthe name of the Lord, to be his ser- gress the fourth, any more than vants, every one

that keepeth those who transgress any, or all of the Sabbath from polluting it, and the rest: for, as the apostle says, eth hold

my covenant; even He that keepeth the whole Law, them will. I bring to my holy moun- and yet offendeth in one point, is tain, and make them joyful, in my guilty of all.” house of prayer."

3. No reason can be assigned,

No rea



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why the Sabbath should not be ob- the duty of speaking the truth, the served as strictly, under the Christ- duty of dealing justly, or any othian, as under the Mosaick dispen- er moral duty whatever. And if sation. The obligation of men to rulers have a right, it is manifestobserve the Sabbath, neither began ly their duty to enforce the obpor ended with the Law of Moses. servance of the Sabbath by legal The institution of the Sabbath, is sanctions. For as nothing is more of prior and of higher obligation, conducive to the welfare of a comthan the Ceremonial Law. Nei-munity, than a due observance of ther the duty of keeping the Sab- the holy Sabbath; so nothing is bath, nor the manner of keeping it, more injurious to the publick inhas any necessary connexion with terest, than an unrestrained violathe rites and ceremonies of the tion of it. To violate the Sabbath Mosaick economy. It is the duty is to be cruel to the beasts, to

opof Christians, as well as of the press the labouring class of the Israelites, to keep the Sabbath day community, to interrupt those, holy: and that which was implied who are engaged in the sacred duin keeping it holy, before the Law, ties of the day, and to remove the and under the Law, is implied in highest moral restraint from every keeping it holy under the Gospel. species of vice and crime. It would

4. It is right for civil rulers to seem, therefore, that if Legislators enforce the external observance of and Magistrates would be a terthe Sabbath, by law. To keep the rour to evil doers, and not bear Sabbath, is a moral duty, and to the sword in vain, they must en

break it, is a crime. It is not seen, force the external observance of - therefore, why civil rulers have the Sabbath. not as good a right, to enforce the

MORALIS. duty of observing the Sabbath, as


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kind of men, to mention the seve

ral properties or circumstances, in ESSAYS UPON HOPKINSIANISM.

which they agree among themselves, No. III.

and in which they differ from men The propriety and utility of the of other classes or kinds. This

would render discourse and writappellation HOPKINSIAN.

ing so prolix, as to be extremely The true design of names, is, to tedious and burdensome. Hence, prevent the necessity of a circum- in the original formation of lanlocution, or description of the guage, it appears, that next to things signified by them. If no verbs, which express the action of proper names were used, it would the senses in perception, or the, be necessary, in speaking or writ- states of mind consequent upon it, ing of an individual person, to men- proper names, applied to individual tion the several qualities or pro- persons or things, came next in perties, which distinguish that in the order of invention; to which dividual from others; such as his succeeded appellatives, or names shape, size, colour, place of resi- common to sorts or kinds of perdence, occupation, &c. And if no sons and things. The utility, and appellatives, or common names, even necessity of common names, were used, it would be necessary, will hardly be called in question. in speaking or writing of a class or And there can be no impropriety

in the use of them, except when to a trinity of persong, and others they are applied as terms of re- only to a trinity of attributes; of proach ; an application of them, the latter, some held that Christ often very unjust and injurious, was above Angels, and others, that and seldom, if ever, proper and he was a mere inan. Hence, to justifiable. But, as words in all designate these different sects, and living languages, often change their avoid a tedious description, whenmeaning, and, in process of time, ever they were mentioned, it become to be used for purposes very came necessary to use names more different from those for which they particular and discriminating, than were first invented; so it not un- that of Christian: and nothing was frequently happens, that appella- more natural or proper, than to tions first designed as terms of call the different sects after the reproach, become, at length, mere names of their leaders, or such as terms of distinction.

had been most influential in propaThe Disciples of Christ were gating their peculiar tenets. Thus called Christians first at Antioch. we find the names Sabellian, AriWe are not informed, whether they an, Socinian, 84. early applied to were called so by themselves, or different sects of professed Christby their enemies; or whether the ians. These and various other appellation was originally meant denominations, some expressive of to be honourable or reproachful. the doctrines embraced, and others But, with whatever design this ap- expressive of the modes of discipellation was first given, it was pline and worship observed by the found very useful to designate the various sects of nominal Christians, friends and followers of Christ, were found needful, and continued and to distinguish them from all in general use, during the dark others, who considered themselves ages, to the time of the Reformaas saints, whether among the Jews m, in the sixteenth century. or Pagans. The common name, This ever memorable and happy Christian, has been claimed by all event, as it occasioned the neces. the professed followers of Christ, sity of a new name to designate and generally applied to them, the authors and subjects of reform; from the time it was first used, to so it gave rise to the name Protesthe present day. And had all the tant, which soon became the comprofessed followers of Christ, con- mon appellation of all the reformtinued to embrace the same doc- ers and the reformed. trines, and to observe the same But, it was not long, before the discipline and mode of worship, as Protestants became divided among the apostles and primitive disci- themselves, both as to belief and ples, the term, Christian, would practice; which rendered it neceshave remained sufficiently discrimsary to adopt new names and apinating, and would have superced-pellations. Some embraced the ed the invention of any other name tenets of Calvin, and hence were or denomination. But it has been called Calvinists; some embraced far otherwise. While all the pro the tenets of Luther, and were fessed followers of Christ, claimed hence called Lutherans; some aand gloried in the name of Christ- dopted the mode of government by ian, they soon became greatly di- diocesan bishops, and were hence vided, both as to sentiment and called Episcopalians; others adoptpractice. Some retained, and oth-ed the mode of government by ers rejected, the doctrine of the presbyters or elders, and hence Trinity; of the former, some held were called Presbyterians; while

others, again, adopted the mode of the name, Hopkinsian, was the Congregational government, and most proper, that could have been were hence called Independents. applied to the sentiments of the

The followers of Calvin soon consistent Calvinists; and that for became very numerous and respect the reason already mentioned in able, and the name Calvinist, or my last essay, that Dr. Hopkins Calvinistick, which was, at first, explained and confirmed a greater generally considered as a stigma, number of the doctrines and duties became, at length, a title of hon- of Revealed Religion, than his preour; and, consequently, this name decessors, and did much more to was coveted and tenaciously re- remove prejudices against them, tained by very many, who had and to disseminate them among the videly departed from Calvin's churches. views, not only of the mode of But, if the name, Hopkinsian, ecclesiastical government, but also were not the most proper, at first; of the leading doctrines of the Gos- still it would be so now, in conpel. The name, Calvinist, there- sequence of general usage and confore, became, in time, as indefinite sent. and ambiguous, as the name, Pro- Though, by calling ourselves testant, had been before it. This Christians, we profess to receive was the state of things, when those Christ as our Lord and King; great lights, BELLAMY, EDWARDS, yet, by calling ourselves Hopkinsand Hopkins, were lit up in the ians, we do not profess to receive American churches. It was the Dr. Hopkins, as our Father and aim of these Divines, and their co- Master, any more than our orthoadjutors, to clear the doctrines, dox brethren, by calling themselves taught by Calvin, of the misrepre- Calvinists, profess to receive Calsentations and perversions of many vin in that high and sacred charof his professed admirers, as well acter. The appellation is used as of some trifling mistakes and merely for the sake of distinction, inconsistencies in his own writ- and to save a tedious circumlocuings, and to carry them out, more tion; and it is, perhaps, as free fully, into their legitimate conse- from ambiguity, as any appellation quences. But, in doing this, they used by professing Christians. differed so much from many, who How long it will remain so, may be called themselves Calvinists, that i doubtful; since the same cause, a new name, to designate their which has rendered the term Calviews and explanations, became as vinist indefinite, may, in time, necessary as that of Calvinist was, render the term Hopkinsian equal at the commencement of the Re- | ly so. formation from Popery.

That this name is unpopular, The only question now, is, whe- and even reproachful, in some plather consistent Calvinists (as I shall ces, is no reason why it should be take the liberty to call them) ought laid aside; for the way to shun the to rceive their denomination from reproach, is not to disown the Dr. Bellamy, or President Ed- name, of which we cannot rid our wards, or Dr. Hopkins? And, with selves, but to explain and vindiall due deference to the ingeniouscate the system of sentiments, Author of the “ Triangle," who which it properly denotes. was pleased to say, that the sen- Names of distinction will be timents falsely called new divinity, necessary in the churches, until were very unappropriately called the professed followers of Christ Hopkinsian," I would answer, that shall all speak the same things

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