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sant with material objects. This metaphysicks: “ This word, by is, indeed, armitted by the Re- common use, has now imperceptiviewer. He says, “ The science bly acquired a new signification.of the mind was once almost en What are we to understand here, tirely metaphysicks, and rightly by common use? No philosopher, bore that name, which it still er- who has written on the mind, if we roneously bears.” The fact is except the Reviewer, has, to my undeniable; but the Reviewer as- knowledge, used the word in his signs an imaginary and plausi- | new signification.” Certainly, ble,'' i. e. in bis sense, a metaphy. those Divines, who are reproached sical cause for it. Did intellec-as metaphysical, maintain, that tual philosophers give the name metaphysicks and the true philosmetaphysicks to the science of ophy of mind, are one and the mind, because they considered same. The unlettered multitude, that science, to which they devot- who read little and think less, are ed their time and talents, as al- sometimes in the practice of callmost whiplly made up of fanciful ing what they do not understand, conjecture and occult speculation? or do not like, metaphysical; but Had Locke and Edwards and they are as ignorant of the new Berkley and Stewart and Reid signification as of the true signifisuch a contemptible idea of that cation of the word metaphysicks. noble science, in which they made I know not who they are, that such achievements? Did they not commonly use the word in the rather call their favourite study Reviewer's sense, except a few metaphysicks, because it was the philosophers, who, perceiving the science of mind, in distinction word to have become a term of from the science of matter? reproach with certain opposers of

Suppose some Doctor should the doctrines of the Bible and of take it upon him to attach a new all reasoning in their defence, and signification to the word physiek, wishing to keep it so, have banishand represent it as meaning no ed it, with disgrace, from their more than the trial of experiments nomenclature, and branded it with with roots and herbs. "It would a new signification, no longer be easy for him to say, that the found in the dictionaries. But science of healing diseases was does it become philosophers thus once mere empiricism, and was, to adopt and foster vulgar prejutherefore, properly called physick; dices? but it is high time to cease con- I will now briefly state my obfounding the science of medicine jections to the disuse of the word with physick.' And so one might metaphysicks, or to the using of it say, that the science of the heav- in a new and dishonourable sense, enly bodies ought not to be called 1. It is the proper word, accordastronomy; for though this name ing to the usage of eminent wriwas proper enough, while the sci- ters, for ages past, to express the ence was little inore than telling science of mind, or intellectual fortunes by the stars, yet it ought philosophy. no longer to be confounded with 2. It is a convenient word, as it that sublime science, which calca- supercedes the necessity of a cirJates the magnitudes, distances cumlocution to express the meanand revolutions of the solar orbs. ing, which, by its etimology and

But, the Reviewer gives a spec- its long continued use, it is adaptial reason, why the science of the ed to convey to every enlightened mind should no longer be called mind.

3. To affix to this word a new with the science of mind, arc (caeand disreputable meaning, would teris paribus) best able to elucibe injurious to those philosophers, date and answer objections against who have used the term in its true the peculiar truths of the gospel. sense, and who, by their research- But, as these truths are ofiensive es and writings, have shed muca to impenitent, worldly men, they light upon the most important of desire to fix an odiuin upon the all subjects, and greatly benefitted explanations and reasopiogs of their fellow men. Let a new and such, as clearly aud forcibly deodious meaning be affixed to this clure and defend the evangelical word, and generally associated system. Hence, some of late, with it in the minds of the present have called them metaphysical; generation, and they would soon intending to have it understood, either be unable to understand the that this is a term of reproach. writings of the best philosophers Let it become really reproachfal; of preceding ages, or would look let philosophers combine to attach upon them as no better than vis

a new," strange and odious sig. ionary theorists, whom wuch vification to it; and let it coinlearning had made mad.'

monly be useil' to mean a false 4. My last and principal objec- and deceitful philosophy, which tivu to affixing a new and dishon-1: ascribes imaginary causes to erourable sense to the word, is, that isting appearances,' and employs it would tend to justify and con- itself in prying into things too firin the wicked in their opposition deep to be fathomed by the line of to the doctrines of the gospel and human intellect; and it would 09those who reason out of the scrip- ly be necessary, at any time, to Tares' in their defence. Most of raise the cry of metaphysicks! to the ductrines of divine revelation frighten people from the most iareiate to spirit, and not to matter. structive and profitable preaching, The means of explaining and vin- and to confirm them in their most dicating these doctrines, are fure fatal errors and sins. nished by intellectual philosophy: A LOVER OF TRUTH AND METAPHISICES. Those, who are best acquainted


fifty years ago, when Dr. Bellamy,

Dr. Hopkins, and others, began ESSAYS UPON HOPKINSIANISM.

to publish their writings on the (Continued from p 323. These Es. says have been interrupted by the in

peculiar doctrines of the Gospel; disposition and special engagements of which much alarmed Antinomians, the writer. ED.)

on the one hand, and Arminians,

on the other, and led them to apNo. IX.

prehend, or, at least, to express OBJECTIONS ANSWERED. an apprehension, that there was OBJECTION III.

danger of schism in the Church. The Hopkinsian system is of a To express an apprehension of this gectarian nature, and tends to cre- ; kind, whether in sincerity or prelile divisions in the churches of tence, was no new thing. It has Christ.

been the practice of the opposers of This objection is heard less fre- | truth, in every age, to represent queitiy, perlaps, than li was soine sound doctrine as of a contracted,

dissocial and exclusive nature, there is always a wayward tendenand as tending directly to destroy cy, in every visible church, to deinutual fellowship among the visi- part from the faith which was ble members of Christ, and to di- once delivered to the saints.' This vide his visible family into sects tendency can be counteracted onand parties. The reason of this ly by the plain and forcible exhipractice is obvious. Sound doc- bition of the doctrines of the Gostrine, such as the inspired writers pel, from the pulpit and the press. teach, and such as we believe the But, such an exhibition, wherevHopkinsian system comprises, sub- er and whenever made, will natuverts and condemos every false rally excite a cry of schism, loud and selfish scheme of sentiments and general, just in proportion to ever embraced either in the Chris- the degree and extent to which tian or Pagan world, and with the professed followers of Christ draws the hand of fellowship from have departed from the pure and all, who openly avow their appro- essential truths of his gospel. But bation of fundamental error, and this cry of schism always was and appear to reject and disobey the always will be without reason.truth.

Separations and divisions are ever The doctrine of John, the bap- made by those who reject and optizer, was viewed, by a majority pose the true doctrines of the Gosof the visible church of God, as pel, and not by those who receive, sectarian, because it drew a line propagate, and defend them. If all of separation between such as thuse who heard John and Christ • brought forth fruits meet for re- and the apostles preach, had pospentance,' and such as, while they sessed an honest and good heart, called Abraham their father, re- they would have been of one acfused to do the works of Abraham. cord,' as the primitive disciples When Christ preached his own were, and there would have been gospel, his doctrive was viewed as no occasion or inotive for separareproaching the most learned, wise tions and divisions. The preachand godly in the Church, and as ing of the Reformers would have tending to alienate the affections produced no schism in the cathoof the people from their constitut- lic church, had the members of it ed rulers and teachers, and to been generally willing to come to produce divisions and separations the light and renounce their eramong the professed children

rours, superstitions and unchrisof God. The doctrine of the apos- tian practices. At this day, the ties was represented as having a Hopkinsian system of sentiments, similar tendency; and hence they which is not a novelty, but the anand their followers were called a cient and true faith delivered to sect every where spoken against the saints, produces no divisions Luther, Calvin, and the other in- in any church, except when more trepid reformers of the sixteenth or less of its members hate the century, were denounced by the light, and will not come to the rulers of the Catholic church, as light, lest their dee's should be schismaties, whose doctrines tend reproved.' The opposers of truth, ed to sow discord and divisions and not its friends and defenders, among the visible people of Christ. must be answerable for all the

Owing to the imperfection of evils arising from divisions and Christians and the latred of unbeschisms in the churns of Christ. lievers to the light of Divine truth, As there is nothing a tlie Hopkinsian system of a sectarian na- ent senses. There are two senses, ture or tendency; so there has in particular, in which the word been little or nothing of this kind may be used, with application to a in the practice of Hopkinsians. system of religious sentiments; They have never formed them- it may mean that which is pleasing selves into a sect or denomination, to the people, or that which is suitdistinct from other professing able to the common people. Christians. Their peculiarites re- In the first of the above sepses, spect the fundamental doctrines I admit that the Hopkinsian sysand duties of religion, and not ex- tem is not popular, It is not, in ternal rites, modes and forms. itself, pleasing to the mass of peo. Hence they are found interspersed ple. It is a system of truth and among various denominations of duty, which must be displeasing to evangelical Christians, such as all, who have not received the Presbyterians, Baptists and Con- love of the truth,' or who feel ingregationalists. Instead of separ. disposed to do their duty. The ating from the churches to which Hopkinsian system sets the charthey belonged, they have generally acter, designs and works of God remained, and endeavoured to in a true and scriptural light, and 'strengthen the things that were must, therefore, be offensive to ready to die.' They have, in.. those, who have the carnal mind deed, it is apprehended, been which is enmity against God.' much too fond of union and inter- This system pourtrays the native course with those whose views of character of men, as void of holithe leading doctrines and precepts ness and full of sin; which must, of Christianity materially differ of course, be displeasing to such from their ownWhether this be as “think more highly of themowing to a want of a just sense of selves, than they ought to think, the importance of divine truth, or and are going about to establish of a sufficiently constant and ar- their own righteousness.' This dent love to it ; or to a want of system includes the duty of disinthat self-denial, which elevates the terested love to God and men; soul above the frowns and flatte- which cannot fail to offend such ries, the reproaches and honours as are • lovers of pleasures, rather of the world, I leave every reader than lovers of God, and who all to form his own judgment, simply seek their own things. To add subjoining the interrogations of no more, the Hopkinsian system Paul, What communion hath teaches the way of salvation by light with darkness? Or what part grace, through faith in the atonehath he that believeth with an in- ment of Christ; which can never fidel?

please such as are seeking justiOBJECTION IV.

fication by the deeds of the law, The Hopkinsian system is un- and will not come unto Christ, popular.

that they may have life.' And what if it is? Popularity is All unregenerate men, all imnot the test of truth, any more penitent sinners and unbelievers, than ridicule. Was the system of are averse to both truth and duty. sentiments advanced by the pro- And they are the vast majority in phets, by Christ and his apostles, the Christian world, and a great popular?

majority, even in those places, The word popular, however, where there is most of the spirit needs explanation. It is used, and power of religion. That the and may be understood, in differs | Hopkinsian system of sentiments,



therefore, is generally displeasing instructions of the sanctuary, than to the people, is an evidence, not those of any other clergymen. of its falschood and impurity, but When He, who spake as never rather of its truth and goodness. man spake, preached the word, Every scheme of religion of hu- the common people heard him man invention, is pleasing to some gladly;' and though they someclasses of wicked, worldly men ; times called his words. hard say-, for every such scheme is bottomed ings,' and even • took up stones upon selfish principles. But the to stone him;' yet they flocked in Hopkinsian system, like the light multitudes to hear him preach. which beamed from the Sun of The hearers of the apostles were Righteousness, is hateful to all pricked in the heart, and somesorts of evil-doers. If it ever times 'gnashed on the preacher seems to be viewed with compla- with their teeth;' but still, these cency by the ungodly, it is either champions of truth, who used when they misunderstand it, or great plainness of speech,' and feign a cordiality which they do opened their mouths with boldnot feel,

ness to declare all the counsel of In the second sense of the word, God,' were thronged with hearers; mentioned above, I maintain, that so mightily grew the word of the the Hopkinsian system is, of all Lord and prevailed.” systems, the most popular. It is

OBJECTION V. suited to the common people, and The Hopkinsian system tends to to all classes of people, in every make atheists and infidels. age and every place. It is a con- That atheists and infidcls may sistent system, and therefore in- be found, where Hopkinsian sentelligible to the common people: 1timents are inculcated, will not it is agreeable to right reason, and be denied; and that individuals so carries a conviction of its truth are sometimes impelled, by the to the understandings of all, who clear exhibition and demonstration attentively and candidly examine of those sentiments, openly to it: this scheme enforces the law avow atheistical and deistical prinof God and condenins every self- ciples, will be granted. But it ish affection, while it proclaims will not be admitted, that Hoppardon to the penitent and holy; kinsian sentiments, however exand thus it .commends itself to plicitly and fully declared, ever every man's conscience in the make men atheists and infidels. sight of God.' . This gives Hop- Men do not need to be made athe- . kinsianism a strong hold upon the ists and infidels, for this is their minds of the people, in spite of nalive character. “ The fool,” their hearts. For this reason it by which is meant the unrenewed is, that thousands consent to hear, sinner, “hath said in his heart, while they hate the truth. This there is no God." 6. The world will account for two facts; first, by wisdom knew not God, because that the most clear, discriminat. they did not like to retain Him in ing and unreserved preachers of their knowledge ;' or, retaining Hopkinsian sentiments, are more some faint knowledge of Him, they easily settled and less frequently glorified Him not as God.'dismissed, than any other class of Hence the apostle represents the evangelical ministers; and second, Ephesians, in their natural state, that the congregations of such as " without God,” in the origipreachers are generally larger and nal, "atheists, in the world.” And more uniformly attentive to the | as mankind are naturally atheists;

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