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after the ascension of our Lord, concert in order to change, and of and during the lifetime of his im-course, that they have never changmediate disciples. If the Jews, ed the evening which they originat that period, changed the even- ally observed as holy time? If they ing which they had observed as now observe as holy time, the holy time, they must have seen, evening preceding the day, is it that the Christians among them not almost demonstrably certain, would know, and be able to prove that the evening, preceding the

, that the evening substituted was day, was originally sanctified as pot the evening formerly observ- holy time? If the Sabbath origined. They must have known, ally began at sun-set: and if noththerefore, that instead of gaining, ing is said in the New Testament, in this way, any advantage over with respect to changing the bour Christians, Christians must gain a at which the Sabbath begins, what very great advantage over them. authority have we for begining the

They must have known, that if Sabbath at another hour? Mikros they made the change, they could says, it is hardly worth while for neither escape nor refute the charge us Christians, to go to th m (the of having broken the fourth com- Jews) to learn gospelinstitutions." mandment, through malice against Admitting that gospel instituChristians, without the least hope tions are not to be learned from of gaining by it: notwithstanding the Jews, still if the Sabbath be the Jews pretended to be much not a gospel institution, it does. more conscientious, than Chris- not follow, that the hour at which tians were, with regard to observ- the Sabbath begins, cannot be ing the Sabbath day. Did the learned from the Jews. But if MiJews change the evening, after kros believes the Sabbath to be a they had been conquered by the gospel institution, how can he beRomans, and dispersed into all the lieve, that this institution can be kingdoms of the world? How found in the Old Testament? If he could they all agree with respect does not believe that the instituto making a change; agree with tion can be found in the Old Tesrespect to the nature of that tament, why has he adduced a change; and agree likewise with passage in Nehemiah, to prove, respect to the time when the that the Sabbath does not comchange should be carried into ef- mence at sun-set? fect, if they did not enter into a The passage alluded to, is in concert? And how could they en-Nehemiah thirteenth chapter.ter into a concert, while separated “ The men of Tyre brought fish from each other, and dispersed in and all manner of wares, and sold to all the nations of the earth? them in Jerusalem on the Sabbath.” Mikros seems to think, that the Therefore, “ when the gates of dispersion of the Jews is a good Jerusalem began to be dark before reason, why we should place no : the Sabbath, Nehemiah commanddependence upon the considera- led, that the gates should be shut.” tion of their observing as holy On this passage, Mikros founds time, the evening preceding the his first argument. The gates, it seventh day of the week. But is appears, were shut before the not the consideration, that, ever Sabbath, and when they began to since the destruction of Jerusalem, be dark. Mikros infers that the the Jews have been very widely Sabbath did not begin at sun-set: dispersed, a sufficient proof, that for he says, that the gates could they have never entered into al not begin to be dark till after sun

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set. But Jerusalem was sur- it was killed as soon as that day rounded with mountains, which began. If it was killed when the before sun-set, cast a shade over fourteenth day began, and killed the walls and gates of the city.-- also at sun-set, then the fourteenth It was undoubtedly when the day of the month began at sungates began to be shaded, that Ne- set. If the evening when the lamb hemiah commanded them to be was killed, was the beginning of shut. Else why is it not said, the fourteenth day of the month, when it began to be dark, Nehemi- then that day might be called the ah caused the gates to be shut ! first day of unleavened bread. If Why is it said, * When the gates this evening was the beginning of began to be dark?” It appears, the fourteenth day, then it could therefore, that Nehemiah com- not have been the evening followmanded the gates to be shut be- ing that day. It must have been fore sun-set. If he did, it was the evening following the thirundoubtedly because the Sabbath teenth day of the month. commenced at sun-set.

Mikros thinks, that "the cir. · Mikros seems to think, that "if cumstances attending the crucifisthe Tyrians had been permitted ion, burial and resurrection of to enter the city after dark, they Christ, afford strong and decisive could not have sold their wares evidence, that the Sabbath did not that night; but would have lodged ' begin at sun-set,” When the in the city, and sold them on the even was coine, Joseph, of ArimaSabbath." But how does Mikros' thea, came to Pilate, and begged know, that they could not have the body of Jesus.”

Mikros says, disposed of their wares that night, it was three o'clock in the afterprovided they had entered the / noon, when Jesus cried the first city? If the Jews wanted the time. Hence he infers, that it wares so mnch, as to buy them was at sun-set, or when the secon the Sabbath, they undoubtedly ond evening was come, that Joseph wanted them enough, to buy them asked the body of Jesus. Several that evening; especially if, as women saw where he was laid, Mikros supposes, that evening then prepared their spices, and was not observed as holy time. still rested the Sabbath-day,

Mikros founds his second argu- cording to the commandment.--ment upon two passages of scrip- Mikros infers that the Sabbath did ture, in which the fourteenth day not begin at sun-set. He thinks of the month is called the first it did not begin before midnight. day of unleavened bread. He Luke, after mentioning the burimakes it appear, that unleavened al of Christ, says, “.that day was bread was not used, until after the preparation, and the Sabbath the passover was eaten. But the drew on.” That is, the Sabbath passover, he tells us, was eaten had almost arrived. But who supin the evening following the four-/ poses, that it was almost midnight, teenth day. Hence he infers, when Jesus was buried? and that that the fourteenth day of the after this, the women prepared month could not be called the first their spices, before the Sabbath day of unleavened bread, if that commenced? “ When the even was day ended at sun-set. But if the come.One signification of the paschal lamb was to be kept up word which is here translated even, only until the fourteenth day of is serum diei, a late hour of the the month, as appears froin the day. But Mikros says, that when twelfth chapter of Exodus; then Joseph came to Pilate, “ Jesus had

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been palai, a long time dead."-, point of view, and short in another.

, . The first meaning of palai is olim, A minute is a long time compared formerly, or before ihis. It will with a second; and a short time bear such a rendering, in each of compared with an hour. A perthose passages which Mikros has son drowning generally rises in cited to prove, that it means a long two or three seconds after he first while. It was three o'clock, P. sinks. Hence if he be under waM. when Jesus cried the first time. ter two or three minutes before he Mikros allows, that he probably rises the first time, one would say, died not long after. After his he is under water a long time.death, perhaps half an hour, or an By the phrase a long time, is hour after it, came Joseph of Ari- sometimes to be anderstood severmathea, and begged the body of al minules, sometimes, several Jesus." And Pilate marvelled if hours, sometimes, several days, he were already dead. And call. weeks, months, years, or centuing unto him the Centurion, he ries: according to the space of asked him whether he had been pa- time, with which the time desig. lai, any while dead” The word nated is implicitly compared. It palai dues not necessarily mean a is vain for Mikros, therefore, to long time. The meaning seems to attempt to determine the length of be fully conveyed in our English time denoted by the phrase alludversion. Pilate asked, " whether ed to, by referring to other pasbe had been any while dead:” sages, where the same phrase is whether he had been previously used. It appears from John, that dead, or dead before this. “ And Jesus died before the malefactors when he knew it of the Centu- who were crucified with him. If rion, he gave the body to Joseph.” he died only half an hour before, The word it, in this last phrase, is he might be said, with respect to supplied by the translators. So them, to have been dead a long that if palai does mean here a long time. We have no good reason to time, still it does not follow, that suppose it was past four o'clock, Jesus had been dead a long time. P. M. when the body of Jesus “ And calling unto bim the Cen- was put into the sepulchre. The turion, he asked him, whether he body might have been, and it probhad been,” as Mikros would ren- ably was in the sepulchre, about der it, a long time dead.' “ And two hours before sun-set. It was, when he knew of the Centurion, indeed, when the even was come; he gave the body to Joseph.”- or as it might be rendered, when a That is, when he knew, of the late hour of the day was come, Centurion, whether he had been that Joseph came to Pilate and dead a long time or not; when he begged the body of Jesus. But had received answer to his ques- I this would have been true, had Jotion, he gave the body to Joseph. seph come at four o'clock, in the But even if the passage did assert, afternoon. “And the Sabbath drew that Jesus bad been dead a long on;" or had almost arrived. If Nime,, it would not follow, that he the Sabbath commenced at sun-set; had been dead more than half an and if Christ was buried half an hour. The signification of the hour, an hour, or two hours before phrase a long time, varies accord- sun-set, it would certainly be more ing to the nature of the subject of proper to say, with respect to the which we are speaking. The word time when he was buried, "the long is a comparative term. A Sabbath drew on,” than it would space of time may be long in one l be proper to say it, if he was

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buried after sun-set, and if week, and not the evening precedthe Sabbath commenced at mid- ing; still it would not follow, that night. Now if the body was they kept that evening as holy put into the sepulchre, only time. Christians, who keep Saihalf an hour before sun-set, the wo- urday evening, as holy time, very men would have had time, one seldom meet that evening for rewould naturally think, just to step ligious worship; though many of into the city, and buy their spices, this class meet every Sabbath before sun-set. Joseph and Nich- evening for religious purposes.

'odemus did not stay, as Mikros Mikros says, that Christ appear. tells us they did, lo embalm the ed to the apostles when assembled body. This the women made pre- the evening succeeding the first paration to do, as soon as they day of the week. But there is had seen where the body was laid. reason to believe, that those who Nichodemus brought a mixture of assemble in Christ's name, almyrrh and aloes, about a hundred ways enjoy his presence, whether pounds weight, and Joseph wound assembled during holy time, or the body in clean linen, as the not. There is reason to believe, manner of the Jews was to bu- that Christians, while assembled ry. When he had laid the body for religious worship, on Sabbathin the sepulchre, he rolled å evening, have often enjoyed the great stone to the door. - gracious presence of Christ, even How does Mikros know that all though they did not observe that this could not have been done in evening as holy time. If Christ's ten minutes ? The sepulchre was granting his gracious presence to very near the place of crucifixion; Christians, Sabbath evening, does and we have reason to believe, not prove, that they observe that that before Joseph asked the body evening as holy time; then his of Pilate, he had made every nec- granting his visible presence to essary preparation for burying the the apostles, that evening, does body immediately. On the suppo- not prove, that they observed that sition, therefore, that the Sabbath evening as holy time. commenced at sun-set, Mikros has To prove that the apostles met not proved, as he thinks he bas, Sabbath evening for religious woreither that the women did not rest ship, Mikros quotes John xs. 19, on the Sabbath, according to the " Then the same day at even, becommandment: or that Jesus was ing the first day of the week, when not in the sepulchre " a part of the doors were shut, where the three days, and a part of three disciples were gathered together, nights.”

for fear of the Jews, came Jesus Mikros says, “The apostles and and stood in the midst of them." primitive Christians met for re- Were the disciples gathered toligious worship on the evening gether, for religious worship, or succeeding and not preceding the for fear of the Jews? Mikros tells day which was called the first day us, that “this was the evening of the week.” Mikros has adduc- succeeding the first day of the ed no evidence to show, that they week.” 'Yet he says, "it belonged did not meet for religious worship to the first day of the week."the evening preceding that day, as From the passage cited, it appears, well as the evening succeeding.- that the disciples were assembled But admitting that they did meet the first day of the week at even, for religious worship the evening when Jesus appeared to them.succeeding the first day of the If this was at even, it was un

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doubtedly when the evening com related those particulars, in a very menced; at the going down of few minutes. ' Besides, it was not, the sun; at the close of the first as Mikros says it was, after they day of the week. If he appeared had related all those particulars, to them at the close of the day; but while they thus spake, that Jestill he might be said to appear sus stood in the midst of them. to them the first day of the week; How does Mikros know, that Jesus though that day ended at sun- did not appear to his disciples alset. Bat Mikros says, “it was mnost as soon as those brethren had really in the evening when Jesus arrived? How does he know that appeared to them.'

When the Jesus did not appear to them at two brethren arrived at Emmaus, even?” as the evening commencit was indeed towards evening, ed at the going down of the sun? and the day was far spent. They as the first day of the week was took supper there, and then went closing? back seven miles to Jerusalem. Mikros quotes Acts xx. 7. Mikros thinks that this must have “And upon the first day of the taken at least two hours. He says, week, when the disciples came toChrist did not appear to the dis- gether to break bread, Paul preachciples, till after these two breth-ed to them, ready to depart on the ren had returned, and “told what morrow; and continued' his speech things were done in the way, and until midnight.” Mikros'says how that he was known to them we have no account, that the disin the breaking of bread.” Mikros ciples met to celebrate the Lord's thinks, that by this time, the even- supper before evening;" and Scott ing must have been considerably thinks they did not. I answer, we advanced. But how does he know, have no account, and no evidence, that it was not two hours before that the disciples did not meet to suo-setwhen those two brethren celebrate the Lord's supper, an took supper at Emmaus? Pehaps hour, or two hours before sun-set. he would say, that they would Neither Mikros, nor Dr. Scott, not be likely to take lodging and has any right to take it for grantsupper go early. But how does ed, that they did not meet for this he know, that they had any far- purpose till after sun-sét; and ther to go? How does he know, then infer that they kept Sabbath that they did not také refresh- evening as holy time. For ought ment at this early hour, because Mikros, or Dr. Scott, or any oththey had not dined that day? er person can prove to the contraMight it not be said two hours be- ry, they met to break bread before fore sun-set, that it drew towards sun-sét; and Paul immediately evening; and that the day was far commenced preaching to them. spent? How does Mikros' know, Should it be asked, why the aposthat it took them two hours to go tle did not administer the Lord's seven miles, while so much ani- supper before sun-set, if the Sabmated, as they must have been, bath ended at that hour? I ask, with what they were going to re. why did he not do it before mida later Mikros speaks, as though it night, if the Sabbath ended at must have taken the two brethren that hour? He continued his a great while to tell, "how Jesus speech until midnight ; then had appeared to them in the way; , restored Eutichus to life; and and how he was known' unto them afterwards administered this boly in the breaking of bread.” One ordinance. Should it be said, would think, that they might have that Paul was so much engaged in

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