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The visible scene
eye of this picturesque elysium is Rydal atmosphere, and motions of the lightest Lake, with its gracefully indented boundary- breeze, and subject to agitation only from the line, and its pair of clustered islets. Though winds small, this is in many respects, one of the most interesting lakes in the north of Would enter unawares into his mind
With all its solenın imagery, its rocks, England; for, its comparatively small size is Its woods, and that uncertain heaven received favourable to the production of variegated luto the busom of the steady lake. landscape. It lies, like the eye, or window, Rydal Lake almost to a certainty will of this lovely scene: its form appears to be attract the eye of the traveller, when about a that of the perfect lake, when it least resem- mile and a half from Ambleside, on the road bles that of a river ;—when being looked at to Keswick. The water is principally fed by from any given point, where the whole may the river Rotha,* flowing from Grasmere Lake be seen at once, the width of it bears such a on the west, which makes its exit on the oppoproportion to the length, that, however the site side, and falls into Windermere. outline may be diversified by far-shooting At the foot of Rydal Mount, on the right bays, it never assumes the shape of a river ; of our Engraving, has WORDSWORTH, the and is contemplated with that placid and poet of nature, fixed his abode for several quiet feeling which belongs peculiarly to the years past. Rydal Head, the summit of the lake—as a body of still water under the in- mountain, is of great height, its craggy peaks fuence of no current; reflecting, therefore, being intermixed with small trees and bushes; the clouds, the light, and all the imagery of
* Wordsworth has sung a sonnet to this river :the sky and surrounding hills; expressing “ Rotha, my Spiritual Child! this head was grey also, and making visible the changes of the When at the sacred Font for Thee I stood," &c. 2 F
lower down, thick copse-wood clothes the mony with the autumnal woods; bright yellow sides, which are studded with small ivied or lemon colour, at the base of the mountains, cottages. The hills on the opposite side of melting gradually, through orange, to a dark the lake are less lofty, but equally variegated russet brown towards the summits, where the in their forms and tints; their bases being plant being more exposed to the weather, is in thickly covered with dark wood, and stretch- a more advanced state of decay. Neither heath ing to the water's edge.
nor furze are generally found upon the sides But, the beauties of this portion will be of these mountains, though in some places better told in Wordsworth's 01 poetic they are richly adorned by them. We may prose :
add, that the mountains are of height sufThe form of the mountains are endlessly ficient to have the surface towards the sumdiversified, sweeping easily or buldly in sim. mits softened by distance, and to imbibe the ple majesty, abrupt and precipitous, or soft finest aëriel hues. In common also with and elegant. In magnitude and grandeur other mountains, their apparent forms and they are individually inferior to the most colours are perpetually changed by the clouds celebrated of those in some other parts of and vapours which float round them : the efthis island; but, in the combinations which fect, indeed, of mist or haze, in a country of they make, towering above each other, or this character, is like that of magic. I have lifting themselves in ridges like the waves of seen six or seven rigdes rising above each a tumultuous sea, and in the beauty and va- other, all created in a moment by the vapours riety of their surfaces and their colours, they upon the side of a mountain, which, in its are surpassed by none.
ordinary appearance, showed not a projecting The general surface of the mountains is point to furnish even a hint for such an opeturf, rendered rich and green by the moisture ration.* of the climate. Sometimes the turf, as in How congenial must such scenery be to the neighbourhood of Newlands, is little the poet who, as Mr. Hazlitt says, “has made broken, the whole covering being soft and nature a kind of home, and may be said to downy pasturage. In other places rocks pre- take a personal interest in the universe. dominate; the soil is laid bare by torrents There is no image so insignificant that it has and burstings of water from the sides of the not in some mood or other found the way mountains in heavy rains; and occasionally into his heart: no sound that does not their perpendicular sides are seamed by awaken the memory of other years.ravines (formed also by rains and torrents) “To him the meanest flower that blows can give which, meeting in angular points, intrench Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears.' and scar over the surface with numerous The daisy looks up to him with sparkling figures like the letters W and Y.
eye as an old acquaintance: the cuckoo The mountains are composed of the stone, haunts him with sounds of early youth not to by mineralogists, termed schist, which, as be expressed: a linnet's nest starties him you approach the plain country, gives place with boyish delight: an old, withered thorn to lime-stone and free-stone; but schist being is weighed down with a heap of recollections: the substance of the mountains, the predo. a grey cloak, seen on some wild moor, torn by minant colour of their rocky parts is bluish, the wind, or drenched in the rain, afterwards or hoary grey-the general tint of the lichens becomes an object of imagination to him: with which the bare stone is incrusted. With even the lichens on the rock have a life and this blue or grey colour is frequently inter- being in his thoughts. He has described all mixed a red tinge, proceeding from the iron these objects in a way, and with an intensity that interveins the stone, and impregnates of feeling, that no one else had done before the soil. The iron is the principle of decom- him, and has given a new view or aspect of position in these rocks; and hence, when nature. He is, in this sense, the most orithey become pulverized, the elementary parti- ginal poet now living, and the one whose cles crumbling down overspread in many writings could the least be spared; for they places the steep and almost precipitous sides have no substitute elsewhere. of the mountains with an intermixture of There is a lofty philosophic tone, a thoughtful colours, like the compound hues of a dove's humanity, infused into his pastoral vein. neck. When, in the heat of advancing sum. Remote from the passions and events of the mer, the fresh green tint of the herbage has great world, he has communicated interest somewhat faced, it is again revived by the and dignity to the primal mo veinents of the appearance of the fern profusely spread every heart of man, and ingrafted his own conscious where; and, upon this plant, more than upou reflections on the casual thoughts of hinds anything else, do the changes which the sea. and shepherds. Nursed amicast the grandeur sons make in the colouring of the mountains of mouutain scenery, he has stooped to have depend. About the first week in October, the a nearer view of the daisy under his feet, or rich green, which prevailed through the whole plucked a branch of white thorn from the summer is usually passed away. The brilliant and various colours of the fern are then in har- pended to the River Duddon Salounets.
* Description of the Countr dy of the Lakes, ap
COLOGNE AND BONN.
spray: but in describing it, his mind seems NOTES FROM RECENT TOURS. imbued with the majesty and solemnity of the objects around him – the tall rock lifts its In Cologne there is much to amuse during a head in the erectness of his spirit; the cata.
short ract roars in the sound of his verse ; and in dral and the numerous and interesting churches
sojourn ; say nothing of the catheits dim and mysterious meaning, the mists of various dates, their pictures and their relics, seem to gather in the hollows of Helvellyn, and the forked Skiddaw hovers in the dis- dustry of its original possessors, the Romans,
- the many remaining monuments of the intance. There is little mention of mountainous offer subjects for investigation to the inquiring scenery in Mr. Wordsworth's poetry; but by traveller of no common interest, and afford internal evidence one might be almost sure
matter for much and wholesome reflection; that it was written in a mountainous country, Cologne is not, however, a clean town; the from its bareness, its simplicity, its loftiness, open
drains, by which the streets are everyand its depth !" We could quote further to the purpose, but of offensive odours, and though I cannot to
where traversed, fill the air with a multitude must reserve for our Notice of the Poet's
the letter verify the words of Coleridge, who Life, to accompany a Portrait of Mr. Words. worth, which forms the Frontispiece to the
says present volume. Meanwhile, the prefixed In Koëln, a town of monks and bones, view of the Poet's Retreat will, doubtless, be
And pavements fanged with murderous stones,
And hags, and rags, and dirty wenches, acceptable to all lovers of poetry and the I counted two and seventy stenches. picturesque. The original is one of Mr. Westall's admirable Views of Great Britain. I did most certainly define and clearly iden
tify from twenty-five to thirty.
Nothing, perhaps, appears more singular THE NIGER.
to the stranger, on entering the town, than The following interesting letter on the sub- the number
of establishments for the sale of ject of the Niger, from a medical officer on
that, according to their account, universal board his Majesty's ship Dryad, to a gentle- panacea, and not-to-be-too-much-valued menman in Arbroath, appeared some time since, struum--Eau de Cologne ; each professing to in the Montrose Review : -"The river Nurin, have no connexion with the other, but all
conducted under one name—that of the reyou will perceive on examining the map, is situated among a cluster of other rivers, a
nowned and apparently everywhere present little to the eastward of Cape Formosa, Jean Marie Farina. Some are undoubtedly which forins the eastern boundary of the branches of the parent tree-chips of the old Bight of Benin. From some circuinstances block-but many, ay the greater part, have which occurred, I was induced to make a
not the least relationship. The way in few inquiries concerning the termination of which the imposition is, with some show of these rivers, and I have ascertained, by the justice, maintained, is this :—when a new most unquestionable evidence, that all the speculator purposes to open a boutique for the streams which fall into the sea, from Cape other cognomen failure would be certain, he
sale of this water, knowing that under any Formosa to the old Calabar river, inclusive, are united together by cross branches and sends to a particular district in Italy, where intermediate streams, at no great distance the name of Farina is common, and thence from the sea, and that consequently, they
obtains a child from parents who bear it, may all be said to be mouths of the Niger. mostly in extreme poverty, under whose title
the establishment is conducted. Such a fact is interesting, and the following are some of my proofs :—The extreme flat- with its cathedral, its museum, its school, and
A ride of two hours brings you to Bonn, ness of the country, and the numerous
scholars. streams which may be seen to intersect it in
Bonn scholars !-what a host of all directions, even by ships landing close to strange forms are conjured up to recollection the shore; the frequent and well-known by the words: figure to yourself, gentle arrival at the river Bonny of canoes from reader, a stalwart youth, of twenty-two or Duke Ephraim, (a chief of the old Calabar thereabouts, encased by a coat of velveteen river,) by some inland branch, without even
with many and oddly situated pockets; his seeing the ocean ; the frequent arrival also of cheeks and eyes but indistinctly seen through canoes from the Nunn at the Bonny by the dark and curling hair with which his similar means; and the statements of some
face and neck, discovered by his loosely-tied of the most intelligent natives, who assure
cravat, are covered ; and on his head, a hat me that there is a great inland trade in of straw with long arıd pointed crown, around slaves, ivory, palm-oil, and British manufac- the sides of which, flowers of divers hue are tures, carried on through the medium of wound fantastically. In one hand place a these streams uniting the principal rivers."
pipe from three to four feet long, in the other W. G. C.
a portfolio, and on his heels spurs of curious make; figure to yourself, I say, a being thus
accoutred, ofttimes followed by a bull.dog of 2 F 2
SUNSET ON THE LAKE LEMAN.
monstrous size, and you will have a generally on our expedition to the summit of the Rigi, correct notion of a Bonn student. A skull. some of our party being on horseback and cap, of ordinary make, in some cases takes others on foot. the place of the beflowered hat, but in all Arriving at the foot of the mountain, we other points the description will universally began our ascent by a steep and precipitous apply. In their thoughts and habits they path through wooded scenery, which became are as strange as in their dress: they travel more and more wild and interesting as we much on foot and, habited as I have said, proceeded. The advance of our cavalcade, with knapsack on their backs and pipe in (consisting of ladies, the lively colours of their mouths, may be met hundreds of miles whose shawls and dresses mingled very agreefrom their college, seeking information and ably with the green luxuriance of the trees,) beer; in which latter they mostly so indulge, as it wound slowly up the steep ascent above that by 100 students who went, during my our heads, not a little added to the romantic stay amongst them, for a day's excursion on appearance of the scene. Half way up we the mountains, no less than a thousand bot- stopped to refresh ourselves and our horses at tles of beer were drunk. With them, whatever a chalêt, and after night-fall arrived at the is, is wrong! their amusements, their modes Hospice, (an establishment somewhat reof study, are not as others—they are by them- sembling the celebrated one of St. Bernard's,) selves, and henceforth I will divide humanity where we procured lights, and thence contiinto men, women, and Bonn students.
nued our journey along the ridge, which forms Immediately at the back of the town is the a gradual ascent to the Rigi Culm, or summit mountain of Kreuzberg, from which is obtain- of the Rigi. In traversing this ridge the ed a view most varied and superb; and under pedestrians of our party, ignorant of course the chapel on its summit is the often-men- of the road, were in no small danger of falling tioned cave, containing bodies of deceased down a precipice which bounds one side of it. monks (once thereto appertaining), which They were obliged to feel their way with the are in perfect preservation: of this, however, poles, since the lantern carried by the guide,
G. G. JUN. afforded barely light sufficient to show the Darmstadt.
danger, without enabling us to avoid it. We arrived late at the inn which is built on the
highest point of the Rigi–5,676 feet above Leaving Lausanne in the after.
the level of the sea, and 4,356 above the Lake noon, we passed slowly, (Voituriers are not remarkable for speed) along the margin of ber rendered doubly sound by the fatigues of
The next morning, while wrapt in a slum. the Lake.
The air was cool and pleasant the previous day, we were suddenly roused by the scenery most enlivening: the waters of the Lake were gently ruffled by the zephyr rising!" Eager to behold the sight we all
a cry of “The sun is rising! the sun is which skimmed over its surface; on the rushed out upon the platform at the side of opposite shore rose towering to the skies the the inn. We there beheld a singularly magsnow-clad members of the gigantic Alps-. nificent spectacle : above was a clear, blue most appropriate scenery for the display of that magnificence which the two rulers of sky – below rolled the clouds, resembling a
vast and troubled ocean, out of which rose, day and night put forth on that evening. At the extremity of the Lake toward Ge- of Mount Pilate, the Simplon chain, and other
like precipitous and barren islets, the summits neva, the sun was setting, arrayed in glory, giants of the Alpine family; the country bebehind the Alps, whose bold outline was
low was concealed from our view—we seemed, finely penciled on a sky of deepening red. indeed, to stand in another world. Upon The Lake below glittered with gold in the this chaotic scene rose the sun in all its broad line of light,
which the declining lumi- splendour, tinging with a roseate hue, the nary threw across its waters. Ảt the other extremity the moon was rising After the sun had risen about an hour, a
distant summits of the snow-capped Alps. behind mountains, whose dark and myste- rainbow appeared in the clouds beneath, rious forms were dimly shadowed out in the leaving to us above merely the form of a gloom. Here a broad belt of glistening
silver small arch. seemed to gird the Lake, as its waters gently
The clouds dispersing, revealed the coun. rippled in the moonbeam. No description, much less the imperfect try beneath, which was spread out like a map
At our feet was the Lake of Luone here presented, can possibly give an ade
cerne, or rather the Lake of the Four Cantons. quate idea of the magnificence of the scene.
The eye wandering over an immense tract of country, took in at one view the Lakes of Brieng, Thun, and many others, (we counted
at least eight), which were here and there From the village of Art, accompanied by a spread upon the face of a landscape, unduguide and furnished with poles, we set out lated with green valleys, dotted with towns
SUNRISE ON THE RIGI.
and villages, and intersected with innumerable stepped from branch to branch, every now streams.
anul then getting an imperfect sight of the In the course of the morning we descended snake. Sometimes I heailed him, and somethe Rigi by a path far more precipitous than times I was behind him, as he rose and sank, that by which we had ascended the moun- and lurked in the muddy water. During all tain, to Kusnach, passing, on our way, a this time, he never once attempted to spring chapel built on the spot where the hero of at ine, because I took care to maneuvre in a Switzerland shot Gesler.
E. C. way not to alarm him. At last, having ob
served a favourable opportunity, I made a The Naturalist.
thrust at him with the lance; but I did it in a bungling manner, for I only gave him a
slight wound. I had no sooner done this, It often happens that a man turns round than he instantly sprang at my left buttock, and runs away when he has come suddenly seized the Russia sheeting trousers with his upon a snake, “retroque pedem cum voce teeth, and coiled his tail round my right arm. repressit;" while the disturbed snake itself All this was the work of a moment. Thus is obliged, through necessity, (as I shall accoutred, I made my way out of the swamp, show by and by,) to glide in the same path while the serpent kept his hold of my arm which the man has taken. The man, seeing and trousers with the tenacity of a bull-dog. this, runs away at double speed, fancying As many travellers are now going up and that he is pursued by the snake. If he would down the world in quest of zoological advenonly have the courage to stand still, and tures, I could wish to persuade them that would step sideways on the snake's coming they run no manner of risk in being seized up to him, he might rest secure that it would ferociously by an American racer snake, pironot attack him, provided that he, on his part, vided they be not the aggressors: neither abstained from provoking it. I once laid need they fear of being called to an account hold of a serpent's tail as it was crossing the for intruding upon the amours of the rattlepath before me; and then, as might be ex
snake. The racer's exploits must evidently pected, it immediately raised itself and came have been invented long ago, by some anxious, at me, and I had to fight it for my pains; old grandmother, in the back woods of the but, until I had seized its tail, it showed no United States, to deter her grandchildren inclination whatever either to chase me or to from straying into the wilds. The account of attack me.
Had I been ignorant of the the rattlesnake's amours is an idle fabrication habits of snakes, I should certainly have as old as the hills. When I was a lad, it taken myself off as soon as I perceived was said, how that, in the plains of Cayenne, that it was approaching the place where quantities of snakes were to be seen knotted I was standing; and then I should have together, and how that, on the approach of told every body that I had been pursued nian, they would immediately dissolve comby a serpent, and had had to run for my life. pany, and make the rash intruder pay for his This snake was ten feet long.
curiosity far more severely than Diana of old In 1820, on my way to the interior of Gui- made Actæon pay for an ill-timed peep. She ana, I accompanied Mr. President Rough to merely changed the hunter into a stag: they the hospitable house of Archibald Edmon- chased the man, and barbarously stung him stone, Esq., in Hobbabba Creek, which falls to death. into the river Demerara. We had just sat When a man is ranging the forest, and down to breakfast. I was in the act of apo- sees a serpent gliding towards him, (which logizing for appearing barefoot, and in a is a very rare occurrence,) he has only to check shirt, alleging, by way of excuse, that take off in a side direction, and he may be we were now in the forest, when a negro perfectly assured that it will not follow him. came running up from the swamp, and in. Should the man, however, stand still, and formed us that a large snake had just seized should the snake be one of those overgrown a tame Muscovy duck. My lance, which was monsters capable of making a meal of a an old bayonet on the end of a long stick, man, in these cases, the snake wonld pursue being luckily in a corner of the room, I laid its course ; and, when it got sufficiently near hold of it in passing, and immediately ran to the place where the man was standing, down to the morass. The president and his would raise the fore part of its body in a reson followed; and I think that Mr. Edmon- tiring attitude, and then dart at him, and stone, and his late lamented brother joined seize him. A man may pass within a yard them. As the scene of action was within a of rattlesnakes with sa.ety, provided he goes few yards of the ground on which they stood, quietly; but, should he irritate a rattlesnake, they had a full view of all that passed, from or tread incautiously upon it, he would infal. the commencement of the fray up to its final libly receive a wound from its fang; though, close. A number of trees had been felled in by the by, with the point of that fang curved the swamp, and the snake had retreated downwards, not upwards. Should I ever be among them. I walked on their boles, and chased by a snake, I should really be inclined