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Their condition was also made worse by the aud the comparative misery or depression of fact, that the improvement of the more its inhabitants. southern counties of Scotland had driven At a dinner at Dornoch, given to Mr. into the mountains of Sutherland portions of Macleod, member of Parliament, soon after their population too idle or vicious to apply the death of the Duke of Sutherland, that themselves to the more regular and indus- gentleman, on a toast to his memory being trious habits which the improved circum- proposed, said among other things, that " no stances of those counties rendered necessary.
man of his time had contributed so much to Many also who, by the commission of offences, the happiness of so great a number of his were exposed to prosecutions, especially under fellow men.” On revisiting Sutherland in the revenue laws, found a refuge in the less 1827, when the vast improvements which his accessible parts of the Sutherland estate, in- exertions had brought about were in operaducing the original lessees to receive them tion, he was presented with a piece of plate, as sub-tenants, on their undertaking to pay of the value of eight hundred guineas, by his rents not to be realized out of the funds of tenants, on which was the following inscriphonest industry.
The Duke saw and resolved on putting an “This piece of plate was presented to the most end to a system in all respects so pernicious. noble George Granville, Marquess of the county of
Stafford, and Elizabeth, Marchioness of Stafford and His great object was to make all who lived
Countess of Sutherland, on their return to Sutherupon these estates immediate tenants of the
land, in June, 1826, by the tenantry of the Earldom landlord, so that the managers should become of Sutherland, amounting to one thousand two hun. acquainted with the wants of all, and the
dred and ten, in testimony of the attachment of a poorest tenant have a direct appeal to him- comfort, and supported amid the calamities which
people advanced to independence, industry, and self and the Duchess. He desired also to oppressed agriculture, by the wisdom, the justice, stimulate their industry, and rouse their ener
and the generosity of their beloved landlord.” gies, in the hope of raising their character, He died at Dunrobin Castle, in Sutherland, and giving them a desire for independence. in the summer of 1833. He had gone thither In all these beneficent and just objects, he on a visit from his English home; but Scoteminently succeeded.
land, by the affectionate wishes of her Success, however, was only to be achieved Highland inhabitants, who had so signally through difficult and laborious details not experienced the effects of his wisdom and ' necessary to be here recounted. Pecuniary goodness while living, and now wept over his and other sacrifices were also called for at death, became the home of his remains. first, which might have disheartened a com- These were deposited, without pomp or pagemon resolution ; but his seems to have been antry, in the ancient cathedral of Dornoch, of a stamp that never faltered in courses the place of interment of the Earls of Sutherthat it thought right, his whole life exhibit- land since the year 1248. The coffins were ing as much firmness as benevolence. He made by his own carpenter; the shroud by had the great satisfaction of living to see the females of his family and daughters of every cotter upon his estate holding imme- his tenants; but the presence at the funeral diately of himself, at reduced rents, and en- of ten thousand mourners, as a contemporary joying the entire fruits of his labour, freed account of the ceremony states, some of them from vexatious services attached, as remnants coming from a distance of sixty or seventy of ancient days, to the earldom of Suther- miles to show their reverence for the memory land.
of their departed landlord, was a remarkable The great benefits thus derived were at. spectacle. The simplicity of his funeral was tested, not to mention other proofs, by the at his own request, under a beautiful allusion wonderful improvements in the appearance in his will to Tacitus's remarks respecting and dress of those upon whom the changes the funeral of Germanicus. The respect and operated; by the style and cleanliness of their afiection in which he was held in districts houses ; by the introduction of gardens; and where, from his large possessions and freby the new cultivation of thousands of acres quent presence, his character was likely to of land before untilled, and thenceforward be most severely canvassed and justly estienjoyed by them without any increase of mated, were powerfully shown in the fact,
Who does not here think of what that immediately after his funeral, meetings Swift said, of making two blades of grass were held in Staffordshire, Shropshire, and grow where only one grew before ? Such Sutherland, at each of which it was deterwere the rich results, moral, social, and even mined to erect a monument to his memory, national, of individual sagacity, knowledge, to be placed on some suitable site in each of and perseverance, allied to benevolence and those counties respectively. The sum coljustice, in planning and carrying into effect lected by voluntary subscription in these agricultural and other improvements through- districts for the erection of the monuments out a great district of country; which, before was upwards of three thousand pounds sterthe reforming hand was applied to it, ex- ling. The contributions from several thoubited so much to deplore in its rudeness, sands of contributors were chiefly in small sums — five pounds and under. In very in any well-authenticated instance of want or many instances, they did not exceed a shil- distress. ling. All these were touching memorials to Such, under various aspects of character exalted virtue and worth. Mere rank, title, and usefulness, was this enlightened and and wealth, never commanded them in such estimable nobleman. Exemplary in all his ways, or to such an extent.
domestic and social relations, beloved by his The Duke was a highly accomplished as family, steady in his friendships, just and well as an eminently useful man, England wisely generous in all his dealings, faithful had reason to be proud of such a subject. He and able in the public trusts confided to him, was a fine classic; knew Latin critically; with a train of private virtues that shed spoke French with remarkable purity and comfort and happiness before the path of elegance; was thoroughly versed in English, thousands who were under his influence, in French, and Italian literature ; a good bota. which offices of beneficence, he was ever nist, and acquainted with all the modern and actively aided by his amiable and acdiscoveries in chemistry. These were but a complished Duchess. Such a man may well part of his attainments. It is to his honour be accounted an honour and a blessing to that they were chiefly self-acquired, although the country to which he belonged. The forehe had been at Westminster and Oxford. going notices of his life have been taken, He was in the House of Commons before he generally in its own words, from a printed was of age; ambassador at Paris from 1790 but unpublished memoir of him drawn up by to 1792, the most critical period of the French Mr. Loch, a member of the House of Comrevolution; in all which public situations, mons, which the writer of this abridgment and others that he held, he gave uniform has received from England. proofs, (although in Parliament neither a fre- His family is among the most ancient in quent nor a copious speaker,) of a sound and England. It stands at the present day allied, discriminating understanding, pure patrio- probably, to more of the great families of tism, and noble disinterestedness. In Paris, the nation than any other of the peerage. he appointed Mr. Huskisson, whom he found One of his estates, the ancient Gower estate in that metropolis, a young Englishman en- of Stittenham, in Yorkshire, has been in the gaged in the study of medicine, his secretary; family by actual legal ownership since the and, on returning to England, became in- twelfth century, and the tradition is, that it strumental in procuring him a place in the belonged to them before the Norman ConWar and Colonial Offices, then under the quest. His person was of the middle size ; direction of Mr. Dundas, afterwards Lord his countenance and features expressive of Melville. He thus contributed, by his early benignity and decision; his conversation, and right appreciation of the character of from the variety of his knowledge, adequate Mr. Huskisson, to the future advancement of to almost all topics, but generally restrained that powerful statesman. Those who re- and unostentatious; his manners grave, member the kind and elegant hospitalities of simple, dignified and courteous ; it would the Duke, are fond also of remembering how be only common praise to add, those of a that illustrious pair, Huskisson and Canning, perfect gentleman. Such was this eminent were wont to share them.
and meritorious man. He died in his 76th After succeeding, in 1803, as heir to the year. last Duke of Bridgewater, to the Bridgewater Canal and estates connected with it, he set
Antiquariana. the example, which has been improved by others, of opening his splendid collection of paintings to the public on stated days, at Cleveland-house, St. James's. His patrio- Our last volume, (p. 325,) contained so mitism and courtesy were extended much farther nute a description of the private houses of to artists, to whom he afforded a liberal the ancient Egyptians, that in introducing facility of access to this magnificent collec- the present illustrative specimen, we shall tion of private art, for the purpose of enabling merely state the circumstances under which them to pursue their studies and increase this extraordinary relic of antiquity has been their acquaintance with the works and styles brought to light. of the ancient masters. He was the presi- The Engraving shows the Model of an dent and munificent patron of the British Egyptian House, with its Courtyard : it is Institution. To the national gallery of paint- 17 inches long by 17 inches broad, and 21 ings, he presented a magnificent work of inches high. "It formed Lot 515 in Mr. Rubens, from the Doria Palace at Genoa, for Salt's Collection of Egyptian Antiquities, which he had paid three thousand pounds; sold in July last by the Messrs. Sotheby ; he was in many other ways judiciously and and the reader will, "doubtless, rejoice
to hear extensively an encourager of the fine arts in that this interesting relic was purchased by England. Nor did any solicitors of public Mr. Hawkins, for the British Museum; its or private charity ever sue to him in vain, cost being eighty-four pounds. It was found
with the models of two funereal boats in one of a small stream, and at once contracted with of the tombs at Necropolis, appropriated for two men to build a house and clear ten acres the reception of the mummied bodies of of land for me. foreigners.
On the third week I entered on my land, In the sketch, in front of the courtyard, the house having been put up and the greater on the left, is the door, fastened by a bolt; part of my bargain finished. I had provided in the yard is represented a female preparing myself with the necessary woodman's uten
The ground-floor consists of three sils, and having seen the progress of the store-rooms, with sliding doors. There is a men I had hired, now thought myself capable ladder or staircase, which leads from the of cutting down the trees that grew around. courtyard up into a gallery, at the extremity I had resolved to follow their modes in of which is a covered apartment, wherein is everything, and, among others, had noticed seated in a chair the master of the house. that they never wore coats (I was afterwards
told that they were at the time in pledge for The Public Journals. whisky); accordingly, I took off mine, and
worked hard for the first two days, when I
began to feel pains in my back and arms. THE METROPOLITAN EMIGRANT..
I with great difficulty managed, however, to (Concluded from page 191.)
continue throughout the third ; but the next I PROPOSED that we should dispose of all morning I suffered so acutely on attempting our goods and betake ourselves to farming. to rise, that I was certain I had got the She, however, to do her justice, said that she rheumatism by going without my coat. All was certain we could not succeed in making that day I lay in bed, and had warm cloths money that way; but I silenced her by ask- and fannels swathed about me, and, ing her to show what way we could do better. suggestion of my wife, suffered a mustard
Accordingly, that same day, I went to our blister to be applied. These remedies, in rival in the village trade, and struck a bar. five days, succeeded in allaying the pains, gain with him for both the goods and the and on the sixth I left my room, but could house.
not stand upright; on the contrary, I had to The next week I left Labois, but with a get two sticks, and move forward, stooping much smaller retinue than when I entered it very much, only now and then lifting my a month before, being only attended by one head to see I did not run against stumps. wagon. During the week I had come to the That evening I was, in spite of the exhortdetermination to settle in the township of ations of my well-meaning spouse, round the Inverness; and, having arrived there, pur- edge of my clearing, and examining the chased a two hundred acre lot on the banks place where I thought I could best renew my
on the say
operations. After moving about a little in a distance of about seventy yards. Although my stooping manner, I lifted up my head to I knew it was a very cold morning, yet I see where I was going, and to my horror thought as it was so near it would be needperceived a great bear wriggling its jaws and less to put on a greatcoat or gloves, therefore advancing towards me. I chose the lesser I rushed forth, and was instantly enveloped evil of the two, and disregarding the pain in in a violent poudre, which almost blinded my back, rushed to the house at the top of me, and cut my face to the bone. Though my speed.
On getting in, I locked and the wood was, as I have said, so close at bolted the door, and went up to the bedroom hand, it was full three minutes before I window (for we had that unusual thing—a reached it. Having loaded myself, I again two-story house), from which I saw the bear entered the whirlwind of ice and snow; and very scientifically pull down the pig-sty, and though my hands were dreadfully cold, yet I remove a fine fat pig we were intending
to managed to carry my load almost to the dour, have killed for our Christmas dinner. The where, being unable to retain it any longer, squeaking of the victim brought my wife, I let go, and tumbled in half frozen to death; who, with great daring but little prudence, both my hands and the tip of my ear were ran towards the thief, but, fortunately for frozen, which it took some time to get into herself, fell before she was up to it, having their original state. Meanwhile Amelia ran put her toe under the exposed root of a tree; out and brought in the firewood; yet it was
fortunately, although she broke her so green and wet with melted snow, that it arm in the descent; but to our great satis- was full three quarters of an hour before it faction it was soon healed, though the doctor's was kindled, during which period we were in bill was anything but a trifle.
a lamentable state, cold and comfortless Every one who knows anything of Canada within, while we could hear the bleak biting must have heard of the shocking winters of wind rushing without, whirling the small the Lower Province; and as the cold weather frozen snow into every cranny and crevice approached, I began to get rather terrified that it could get near, and threatening deas to the result, it being the first winter I struction to any one who should attempt to had been there. Accordingly I hired five go out. immense stoves, one for the kitchen, one for During this winter an unusual quantity of the parlour, and the rest for the bedrooms, snow fell, and covered the roofs of the houses for which I paid five-and-twenty dollars. for some depth. While the frost lasted it Indeed, this way I found was common with was prevented from sliding off; but when those who were not determined as to their spring approached and the days grew warmer, stay; and as I had moved so much of late, it loosened its hold on the roof, and would I thought it was better than to purchase slide off in a great heap. One night, having them. I then busied myself in cutting occasion to go for something or other to the firewood, but the trees on my lot were un- store, Amelia went out while I waited for her fortunately soft wood, which does not burn return. As the store was not more than ten well; and what with being green, and what minutes' walk, she had not thought it needwith being soft, we were placed in rather ful that I should go with her, though the a disagreeable situation, as will be seen night was as black as pitch. in the sequel. But, to tell the truth, I For at least half an hour I sat ruminating must say that my constitution was more beside the stove, listening to the snow falling adapted to cut and measure cords of lacings off the roof, when my attention was roused by than cords of wood. It was while I was hearing a great portion slide off with a vast thus engaged, that I discovered that what din, and at the same instant I imagined I I and
my wife had imagined to be the rheu- heard a faint outcry; but as nothing followed, matism, was merely the pains occasioned I sat still, greatly rejoicing that so much had by such unusual hard work, and not at all to fallen, as its melting on the roof made the be regarded, though it was no joke at the house very damp, and lịkewise thinking it time.
would greatly lessen my labour in throwing It was about the middle of January, and a the remainder off, as I had intended to do bitter cold morning, for a piercing north wind on the morrow. that nothing could repel, having arisen, we, I waited for about ten minutes longer, reas may be expected, instantly set about light- flecting on my fortunes in Canada, and reing a fire. Shivering and shaking with cold volving in my mind the events that had hapdid I view Amelia’s vain efforts to strike a pened within the last twelvemonths — my light, in trying to effect which she only twofold emigration, first from England, and bruised her fingers, and failed in eliciting a then from the village where I had kept store, single spark for at least five minutes. When and hoping that I was now fairly settled for at length that desirable object was attained, life, when I suddenly recollected my wife, a candle having been lighted, we discovered who I found had been absent some time more that there was no wood in the house, and I than was necessary. Wondering what could had therefore to go to the shed where it was, have delayed her, I stepped to the window
and looked out: all was dark and dismal, grace; which he perceived, and gave rent to and I could not see further than an immense shouts of laughter, whereof I was in a manner mnound of snow that had slid off the roof. On constrained to ask the cause ; upon which he finding how useless it was to remain looking answered, still laughing, “Why, Mr. Needles, for her from the window, I shut it and re- we saw you were a coward, and therefore turned to the stove ; but becoming uneasy, I determined among ourselves to have some silently, and with a kind of stealth, reached sport with you; and I was just amusing my hat and coat from the peg, and putting myself with you the whole time." them on, resolved to go out and look for the On hearing this, I asked him in and gave missing Amelia. As the road was straight him a dram to say nothing more about it; I was under no apprehensions of losing my but, notwithstanding, the story was in every. way, and therefore, climbing over the afore- body's mouth two days after, and it was said high pile of snow, I hastened towards always in my ears for a month. But to the store, hoping to meet her on the road, continue. when the thought struck me that she was The next morning my wife awoke with a lying buried under the heap before my house. very bad cold, that confined her to the house Having, therefore, called a neighbour, we for a fortnight; by which time the snow was procured torches, and looked for her tracks in nearly all off the ground, and the spring the snow.
fairly set in. The persons who had maple As we were going along, my companion trees on their lots now commenced making eyeing me in a curious manner, said -- sugar for their consumption during the rest
“ Between neighbours I don't intend to of the year. But I was unable to do this, as say anything, but you had better make off my lot was covered with magnificent pines, before it's known."
and similar unprofitable trees; the sight of “ What's known ?” answered I, much which, growing in great luxuriance, had inastonished at his words.
duced me in my inexperience to take my “Oh,” said he, “ you are quite safe with present land in preference to that covered me; you need not fear my informing." with far better trees. But the not being
“What do you mean ?" cried I, in some able to make sugar was the first and least of alarm.
my manifold misfortunes while engaged in “ Only that you might not have met with farming. any other person so accommodating. I have This season happening to be a very bad killed a man myself.”
one, my crops, when harvested, produced so I started back from him in horror, and little, and that little of such bad quality, that then asked, though almost choked by fear- I found myself out of pocket; which was a “ Do you suppose I've killed my wife ?” very discouraging thing to a new settler, and
Certainly,” said he; or what are these occasioned many sad reminiscences of my spades for?' but you ought to have chosen a shop in the Borough, both to myself and better time-waited till the frost was out of Amelia. But we knew that, now we were the ground; it will be hard work to dig out, we could not easily get back; so we through.”
mutually desisted from speaking on the I was quite thunderstruck; so much so, subject. that I dropped my spade, which he perceiv- In the spring I suffered the loss of one of ing, added,
my oxen by the falling of a tree: and it was * You may rely on me; only be off as impossible to repair its loss, as I had hardly quick as you can, for all the people here. sufficient money left to crop my land. While abouts are expecting it, as they saw that yon in this deplorable situation, I received 201 could be here for no other reason than to get from my father, accompanied with many rid of her, being nothing of a farmer.” hopes that we were succeeding in the farm;
Here I interrupted him, having recovered for he knew that I had left the store-keeping. my breath and faculty of speech, both which This money restored me in some degree, and had deserted me; and after some time made I managed to live to the autumn ; when I him understand that it was to dig her up that again had a miserable crop, although my I required his assistance.
neighbours had very good ones. Having by this time reached the mound of On my expressing my wonder at this cirsnow, the mystery of her disappearance was cumstance, one of them had the kindness to cleared up by our perceiving one of her feet tell me that I never would make a shilling sticking up. We soon extricated her, almost out of my land, it was so poor; adding, “ And dead with bruises, wet, and want of air : in- those pine stumps will hold up their heads deed, she would have been suffocated, had for at least twenty years to come, in spite of not her head got beneath the platform before all you can do. I advise you to clear out for the house.
some better location." As I had received something of a fright On hearing this opinion from one who when my auxiliary said he had killed a man, ought to know, and as I had no reason to I asked him to come in with a very bad disbelieve him, as every pains had been taken