Page images

1st. Buccal surface. 2d. Lingual surface. 3d. Proximal surface. 4th. Occluding or grinding surface. 3d. Division of surfaces longitudinally. 1st. Grinding or occluding surface third. 2d. Middle third. 3d. Cervical third. This division embraces the tooth from and including the cutting edge to the alveolar process.

4th. Subdivision of surfaces of the individual teeth.
1st. Eight and Left Central Incisors, above and below.

'a' Labial surface.

<b> Lingual surface.

'c' Occluding surface.

{d' Centro-proximal surface.

'e' Latero-proximal surface.

(Occluding, middle, and cervical thirds). 2d. Eight or Left Lateral Incisors, upper and lower.

*a' Labial surface.

'b' Lingual surface.

{c' Occluding surface.

'd' Centro-proximal surface.

{e' Cuspo-proximal surface.

(Occluding, middle, and cervical thirds.) 3d. Cuspids, right or left, upper and lower.

4a' Labial surface.

'b' Lingual surface.

*c' Occluding surface.

{d' Latero-Proximal surface.

<e' Bicuspo-proximal surface.

(Occluding, middle, and cervical thirds.) 4th. 1st right or left Bicuspids, upper and lower.

4a' Buccal surface.

*b' Lingual surface.

*c' Grinding surface.

'd' Cuspo-proximal surface.

'e' Bicuspo-proximal surface.

<f Bicuspo-flssure.

*g' Buccal cusp.

'h' Lingual cusp.

(Grinding, middle, and cervical thirds.) 5th. 2d right or left Bicuspids, upper and lower.

(a' Buccal surface.

4b' Lingual surface.

*c' Grinding surface.

'd' Bicuspo-proximal surface.

<e7 Molo-proximal surface.

'f Bieuspo-fissure.

{g' Buccal cusp.

*h' Lingual cusp.

(Grinding, middle, and cervical thirds.) 6th. 1st upper Molars, right and left. <a; Buccal surface, 'ty Lingual surface. <c' Grinding surface. {d' Molo-proximal surface. le' Bieuspo-proximal surface, 'f' Central fissure, 'g' Cross fissure.

'h' Posterior buccal prominence. H' Anterior buccal prominence, 'j' Lingual prominence. (Grinding, middle, and cervical thirds.) 7th. 2nd upper Molars, right and left sides, 'a' Buccal surface, 'b' Lingual surface. lc' Grinding surface. <d' Molo-proximal surface. *e' 3d Molo-proximal surface. <f' Central fissure. <g' Cross fissure. <h' Anterior buccal prominence, 'i' Posterior buccal prominence. iy Lingual prominence. (Grinding, middle, and cervical thirds.) 8th. 3d upper Molars, right and left sides, 'a' Buccal surface. <b' Lingual surface. <c' Grinding surface. {d' Molo-proximal surface. ie) Posterior surface, 'f' Central fissure.

(Grinding, middle, and cervical thirds.) As the forms of the lower molars differ somewhat from those of the upper, and the locations of attacks of caries vary somewhat,^ found it necessary to extend the classification, to cover only the grinding and buccal surfaces, all other surfaces coming under the same names as the upper molars. 9th. Lower Molars, right and left sides.

'a' Buccal surface.

(b' Lingual surface.

'c' Grinding surface.

<d' Proximal surface, as in upper molars.

'e' Buccal pit fissure.

'f1 Central fissure.

'g' Lingual cross fissures.

'h' Buccal cross fissure.

(i' Posterior fissure.

'j' Anterior fissure.

<k' Lingual posterior prominence.

lV Lingual anterior prominence.

<m' Buccal prominences, same as in upper molars.

Dr. 0. W. Spalding, St. Louis. There has long been felt—most severely by those engaged in teaching—the want of an exact definition of terms, especially in the mechanical and manipulative departments. Dr. Kulp's paper was carefully considered* and the terms were made as brief as possible in the short time at the disposal of the section. The paper is only a beginning, but he hoped the study of it would lead to the extension of the work in other directions.

Dr. A. H. Thompson, Topeka, Kansas. Why does Dr. Kulp reject "mesial" and "distal "?

Dr. Kulp replied that the main object in preparing the original list of terms, which was arranged for the use of his class, was to enable the students to comprehend more quickly what he was teaching in his lectures. If " mesial" or "distal" were used, many students would have to hunt up the dictionary; while, if the terms given in the paper were used, they knew at once what was meant. The scheme can be extended far beyond the limits laid down in the paper.

Dr. J. Taft, Cincinnati, thought the subject of correct nomenclature one of very great importance. With regard to the nominations which have been suggested by Dr. Kulp, the}7 are certainly more definite than any that have been offered heretofore. Many of the terms have been in use before, but they have nowhere else been systematized. It might be well, to save tautology, to have more than one word, in some cases, to signify the same thing, to allow an opportunity for the interchange of the two. For example, Dr. Kulp uses the term "occluding surfaces" frequently. The speaker would suggest, also, for the same surfaces the word ■" masticating." Dr. Taft thought "proximal," which Dr. Kulp substitutes for " distal," a better word for the purpose than the latter.

Dr. W. N". Morrison, St. Louis. Some seventeen or eighteen years ago Drs. Homer Jndd and M. S. Dean produced a little monograph on terminology. The terms there given have been quite extensively employed in St. Louis and Chicago. They used "me-, sial" and "distal," instead of the more complicated terms given here.

Dr. W. H. Morgan. One word as to "occluding surfaces." As applied to the twelve front teeth, it is incorrect. The incisors do not occlude when in a natural position; neither do the cuspids, which have practically no occluding surfaces. These teeth do not occlude when at rest, and very frequently they do not when in use.

Dr. Spalding. When the report was under consideration by the section, it was suggested that but one word be used to apply to the corresponding surface of all the teeth. We were aware that "occluding" does not properly apply to the front teeth, but there seemed to be fewer objections to it than to any other term which was suggested. If any of the others had been adopted, we should have had to multiply the terms, which it seemed important to avoid. With regard to " mesial " and " distal," the objections to them are that they are not plain English; they have no particular advantage over the term proposed as a substitute, and they would be more liable to mislead.

Dr. Atkinson. Whenever we attempt to classify we should have but one standard,—nature's. Occlusion is the one word to express the coming together of teeth. ~No one ever had teeth worn down without occlusion and friction.

The subject was passed, and Section IV, Operative Dentistry, was called. Dr. E. T. Darby, chairman, read the report, which was brief, submitting a paper by Dr. J. A. Eobinson, of Jackson, Michigan, and recommending discussion of the following subjects: "Bridgework," to be opened by Dr. E. Parmly Brown ; the "Herbst Method," to be opened by Dr. M. L. Ehein; the "Perry Separators" and "Matrices," to be opened by Dr. E. T. Darby. The section reported also that Dr. H. B. Noble would explain his method of adjusting a porcelain half bicuspid crown; Dr. C. C. Southwell would show and describe his "breath-guard," and Dr. A. E. Matteson would explain a new dental splint invented by him.

Dr. Eobinson's paper, which was entitled "The Painless Operation," was read by Dr. Barrett. It expressed the writer's belief that of all the preparations in use by dentists nothing else is equal to carbolized potash to give relief from pain. When the pulp is alive and bleeding, it can be capped with impunity with any of the oxyphosphates, by applying clear carbolic acid to paralyze the pulp and then the carbolized potash to cauterize it and form a hard eschar. When the pulp has been devitalized it can usually be extracted painlessly by making an application of hydrochlorate of cocaine solution on cotton for ten minutes before opening the pulp-cavity; then a second application of the solution, pressing the cotton hard against the root containing the pulp and allowing it to remain for ten minutes before inserting the broach.

Dr. E. Parmly Brown, Flushing, L. I. In considering the subject of "Bridge-work," it is well to commence about 2300 years back to see how new it is. Dr. Yan Marter has presented in the Independent Practitioner some evidences of the art as practiced more than 2000 years ago. But you can imagine from his description what a "giveaway" it was when the person wearing the piece laughed. The modern lady, with a piece of bridge-work in her mouth, can raise her lip and smile, but she must not laugh or talk, or she will show the golden horseshoe encircling her teeth. The speaker had devised a style of bridge-work which allows the wearer to laugh, or talk, or eat, or gape, without exhibiting artificiality. The case here shown embraces six teeth. The metal band is not seen, because it is baked into the piece. In ordinary bridge-work the pins are the weakest point, and teeth are frequently broken from them. In the style which the speaker advocates, to cause a break it would be necessary to fracture the whole tooth from the shaft which runs through the piece. In addition to having the band baked in them, the teeth are fused together.

Dr. G. E. Thomas, Detroit, Mich. How about the strain on the natural teeth, from so many artificial teeth being made dependent on one, two, or three natural teeth?

Dr. Brown. That applies to all bridge-work. There is no special difference between the plan just described and other methods in that respect.

Dr. M. L. Ehein, New York. When the Herbst method of filling teeth was discussed at the Saratoga meeting, none of us really knew the true principle of the work. Since that time he had seen Dr. Bodecker operate, and had spent a good deal of time in learning the method, and had now used it for the last nine months. He had modified the method in his practice, in that he does not complete the work according to Herbst's plan. The chief advantage of the Herbst method is the better adaptation of the gold to the walls of the cavity which it secures,—a fact that has been established by clinics before the First District Dental Society. Another advantage is that the work can be done in a shorter time. A third advantage is that the patient will suffer less while the tooth is being filled; there will be less nervous shock. Another recommendation is that, in approximal cavities in bicuspids and molars, the more extensive the operation the easier and quicker in proportion can it be accomplished by this method. The only disadvantage, and it is a great one, in the speaker's opinion, is that the gold is not as thoroughly condensed as by the mallet, especially the electric; and it was for this reason he had modified his application of the Herbst method, as had Dr. Bodecker and others who used it. The modification consists in putting in a certain portion of the filling with the burnishers, and then completing it with the mallet, thus getting on the surface all the density required, while having the advantages of the ease of manipulation and the saving of time for the greater part of the work which the Herbst method bestows. He believed that by this plan all the disadvantage above spoken of, if it is a disadvantage, is got rid of. Dr. Herbst does not admit that more gold can be packed into a given space with the electric mallet than by his method; but none of us, on this side the Atlantic, have been able to condense gold as per

« PreviousContinue »