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parties in the grounds of the colleges, a conversazione, and probably a water-party on the river.
The town of Cambridge has many attractions, and the Local Committee will be glad to find sleeping accommodation for any professional brethren who may cross the seas and care to spend a few nights in college.
Through the pages of the Dental Cosmos we extend a hearty invitation to American dentists who may be visiting Europe to attend. The Local Committee consists of all the practitioners in Cambridge. Geo. Cunningham, D.M.D.,
W. A. Ehodes, L.D.S.L,
NORTHWESTERN DENTAL ASSOCIATION.
The third annual meeting of the Northwestern Dental Association will be held at Fargo, Dakota, commencing Friday, August 7, 1885, the sessions to continue for two days.
The Territorial Board of Examiners will meet in special session if there should be any applicants for examination.
Members and dentists attending the meetings of the Minnesota State Dental Society and American Dental Association are cordially invited to attend our meeting, Saturday, August 8, the next day after the American Dental Association closes in Minneapolis.
S. J. Hill, Secretary,
HARVARD UNIVERSITY-DENTAL DEPARTMENT. At the annual commencement of Harvard University, held June 24, 1885, the following named students were graduated from the Dental Department:
Charles Henry Abbot,
Henry Webster Gillett,
OALIFOBIIA DENTAL LAW. The following is the text of "an act to insure the better education of practitioners of dental surgery and to regulate the practice of dentistry in the State of California:"
The People of the State of California, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows: Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any person who is not at the time of the passage of this act engaged in the practice of dentistry in this State to commence such practice, unless he or she shall have obtained a certificate as hereinafter provided.
Sec. 2. A Board of Examiners, to consist of seven practicing dentists, i§ hereby created, whose duty it shall be to carry out the purposes and enforce the provisions of this act. The members of said board shall be appointed by the Governor from the dental profession of the State at large. The term for which the members of said board shall hold their offices shall be four years, except that two of the members of the board, first to be appointed under this act, shall hold their office for the term of one year, two for the term of two years, two for the term of three years, and one for the term of four years, respectively, and until their successors shall be duly appointed and qualified. In case of a vacancy occurring in said board, such vacancy shall be filled by the Governor in conformity with this section.
Sec. 8. Said board shall choose one of its members president and one the secretary thereof, and it shall meet at least once in each year, and as much oftener and at such times and places as it may deem necessary. A majority of said board shall at all times constitute a quorum, and the proceedings thereof shall at all reasonable times be open to public inspection.
Sec. 4. Within six months from the time that this act takes effect it shall be the duty of every person who is now engaged ia the practice of dentistry in this State to cause his or her name and residence or place of business to be registered with said Board of Examiners, who shall keep a book for that purpose. The statement of every such person shall be verified under oath before a notary public or justice of the peace in such manner as may be prescribed by the Board of Examiners. Every person who shall so register with said board as a practitioner of dentistry shall receive a certificate to that effect, and may continue to practice as such without incurring any of the liabilities or penalties provided in this act, and shall pay to the Board of Examiners for such registration a fee of one dollar. It shall be the duty of the Board of Examiners to forward to the county clerk of each county in the State a certified list of the names of all persons residing in his county who have registered in accordance with the provinous of this act, and it shall be the duty of all county clerks to register such names in a book to be kept for that purpose.
Sec. 5. Any and all persons who shall so desire may appear before said board at any of its regular meetings and be examined with reference to their knowledge and skill in dental surgery, and if the examination of any such person or persons shall prove satisfactory to said board, the Board of Examiners shall issue to such persons as they shall find to possess the requisite qualifications a certificate to that effect, in accordance with the provisions of this act. Said board shall also indorse as satisfactory diplomas from any reputable dental college, when satisfied of the character of such institution, upon the holder furnishing evidence satisfactory to the board of his or her right to the same, and shall issue certificates to that effect within ten days thereafter. All certificates issued by said board shall be signed by its officers, and such certificates shall be prima facie evidence of the right of the holder to practice dentistry in the State of California.
Sec. 6. Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, may be fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than two hundred dollars, or confined six months in the county jail, for each and every offense. All fines recovered under this act shall be paid into the common-school fund of the county in which such conviction takes place.
Sec. 7. In order to provide the means for carrying out and maintaining the provisions of this act, the said Board of Examiners shall charge each person applying to or appearing before them for examination for a certificate of qualifications a fee often dollars, which fee shall in no case he returned, and out of the funds coming into possession of the board from the fees so charged, and penalties received under the provisions of this act, all legitimate and necessary expenses incurred in attending the meetings of said board shall be paid. And no part of the expenses of the board shall ever be paid out of the State treasury. All moneys received in excess of expense, above provided for, shall be held by the secretary of said board as a special fund for meeting the expenses of said board, and carrying out the provisions of this act, he giving such bonds as the board shall from time to time direct. And said board shall make an annual report of its proceedings to the Governor, by the first of December of each year, together with an account of all moneys received and disbursed by them pursuant to this act.
Sec. 8. Any person who shall receive a certificate from said board to practice dentistry shall cause his or her certificate to be registered with the county clerk of the county in which such person may reside, and the county clerk shall charge for registering such certificate a fee of one dollar. Any failure, neglect, or refusal on the part of any person holding such certificate to register the same with the county clerk as above directed, for a period of six months, shall work a forfeiture of the certificate, and no certificate, when once forfeited, shall be restored, except upon the payment to the said Board of Examiners of the sum of twentyfive dollars, as a penalty for such neglect, failure, or refusal.
Sec. 9. Any person who shall knowingly and falsely claim or pretend to have or hold a certificate of license, diploma, or degree, granted by any society organized under and pursuant to the provisions of this act, or who shall falsely and with intent to deceive the public, claim or pretend to"be a graduate from any incorporated dental college, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be liable to the same penalty as provided in section six.
Sec. 10. Nothing in this act shall be so construed as to prohibit any practicing physician from extracting teeth.
Sec. 11. This act shall take effect immediately.
The act was approved March 12, 1885, and the following Board'of Examiners was appointed by the Governor: S. W. Dennis, M.D., D.D.S., president, San Francisco; E. W. Biddle, Healdsburg; J. W. Hollingsworth, Los Angeles; Thomas Morffew, D.D.S., San Francisco; S. S. South worth, Sacramento; M. J. Sullivan, D.D.S., San Francisco; and Charles W. Hibbard, D.D.S, secretary, San Francisco.
Das FiiLLEN Der Zahne Mit Gold, Etc., Nach Deutscher Methode.
Von Wilhelm Herbst, Zahnarzt in Bremen. Verlag Von C. Ash
& Sons, Berlin, 1885.
This work of 43 pages is the full statement of the mode of procedure in filling after the " German method," of which the author is the originator. He devotes, in the preface, considerable space to
thanking his many friends and co-workers in Germany and foreign lands, and believes that no parallel can be drawn between his method of " rotation," which he calls the "German," and that which is called the "American." He closes this preface by stating his general conclusions as to the value of the process: "I claim to-day for our German method, in opposition to the American, the following advantages: You can work with equal facility by the latter in execution of the work, and from two to three times as fast. You shorten, therefore, in equal proportion the pain of the operation to the patient. You remove opposition to proceeding with diseased teeth, to the concussion of the mallet blow, and the filling from that time on becomes wholly painless. You save to dentists more than half the time and the nerve-straining work. These results are well worth consideration."
The author then takes up the instruments for rotation and those used for the same process under hand-pressure or hand-rotation. This latter seems to be a modification of the original plan.
The results of operations in cavities in steel plates is next considered, in which he endeavors to prove that the worth of a filling is in the close adherence to the walls of the cavity and a dense surface,— two requisites for a good filling which no one, perhaps, will dispute.
The author then describes his methods of retaining the rubberdam, which in some respects is peculiar, but has little of interest to those familiar with modes now generally adopted.
In the chapter on the management of gold he says, "For the method of rotation I regard the cylinder as the proper form, as it saves unnecessary labor. Leaf gold can be used, but must not be folded with a knife, as it becomes too hard when heated." He advises rolling the sheet. He does not regard Wolrab's gold as the only suitable form for this purpose, and makes the remarkable statement that "Wolrab sends more gold now to America than he sells in Europe." The writer of this was one of the first to recognize the value of this as equal to American gold preparations, and so informed the manufacturer some six years ago, but he cannot but regard it as a mistake to suppose it better. At that time it was prepared in the common form of leaves, with the well-known krinkled surface, formed by heating the leaves under pressure. This is a form common to many manufacturers and valuable in its place, but pure gold is practically the same whether it is manufactured in America or Germany, provided the same quality of intelligence superintends the manipulation.
The chapter on "Filling in General" may be passed over to give the author's mode of preparation and filling of incisor teeth, as these are perhaps the best representative cavities we have to deal with: "I invest all the front teeth with the rubber-dam. I then test the space between the teeth by passing a peice of sand-paper through where the teeth are to be filled. If I find this impossible, I force a spatula-formed instrument between them, to sufficiently move them, and then fix them with a steel needle on hard wood, which I insert near the gum border. Then I draw the sand-paper through, which gives me a better view of both cavities. After the decayed border is removed with chisels, and the entrance to the cavities enlarged, the preparation of the gold is taken up. It may be said here that the rotation method requires no more room than is necessary for the excavation of the cavity. This may be ever so small and difficult to reach; if it can be entered by the drill, it is suitable for the rotation instrument. I fill all front teeth from the labial surface where it is possible so to do, and with the same instruments, and have not employed rubber for more than a year in separating, and very seldom have used cotton for this purpose * * * Now fasten in the hand-piece of the engine bit No. 5. This must be of a size to reach all parts of the wails of the cavity. A second finer instrument, No. 5, is laid aside for the purpose of condensing in the small angles. Of hand instruments, a heavy and fine instrument of No. 5 must be selected. It often happens that the latter is not small enough for minute cavities, in which case it is better to use a broken excavator smoothed off with sand-paper.
* * * For condensing and polishing the filling use can be made often with advantage of one of the intruments for the engine, from 8-10.n
The author then describes a steel strip that he makes use of as a matrix, but the mode of using it is not made very clear, and he then continues: "Before bringing the steel strip into place, after excavating, everything should be at hand necessary for the filling, so that the operation should proceed without interruption from beginning to the end. Two or more cylinders, or leaf-gold, are inserted with the thicker instrument, and pressed against the floor of the cavity with a quarter or half turn. This layer is condensed by the instrument adapted to the engine, and with a finer and smaller instrument defective places are sought for and filled. Every layer must be hard, and adapted to the walls of the cavity and the steel wall (matrix). The second layer is arranged as the first. (By the floor of the cavity, I wish to be understood as meaning not only that part, but also the palatine wall and the steel band which closes it.)
* * * When the cavity is filled the surface should be gone over with one of the instruments adapted for the engine, 8-10. This should be repeated several times." He then proceeds to finish in the usual manner. The balance of this chapter might profitably be translated, but it is believed sufficient has been given to enable the intelligent operator to follow his methods. He then takes up cavities in the