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clinics to be held will be made an important feature, and considerable time and attention has been given towards an exhibition of new and important surgical and mechanical appliances for use in dentistry. It is in contemplation to give a grand reception to the visiting members of the profession, on one evening to be arranged for. The place is easy of access; the cuisine the best, at $2.50 per day; the location superb, within fifty feet of the surf. The hall for the session is attached to the hotel; commodious and cool. Come and meet with us. Chas. A. Meeker, D.D.S., Secretary,
27 Fulton street, Newark, IS. J.
MISSOUEI STATE DENTAL ASSOCIATION.
The twenty-first annual meeting of the Missouri State Dental Association will be held at Sweet Springs, commencing Tuesday, July 7, 1885.
J. D. Patterson, Chairman Executive Committee,
Kansas City, Mo.
MISSISSIPPI DENTAL ASSOCIATION.
The annual meeting of the Mississippi Dental Association will be held in Jackson, Miss., commencing Tuesday, August 4, 1885, the sessions to be continued for three days.
The State Board of Dental Examiners will meet at the same time and place.
Eeduced rates will be obtained from railroads and hotels. Arrangements have been made for clinics, and the meeting promises to be one of unusual interest.
W. W. Westmoreland, Corresponding Secretary,
PENNSYLVANIA STATE DENTAL SOCIETY. The seventeenth annual meeting of the Pennsylvania State Dental Society will convene at Cresson Springs, Pa., Tuesday, July 28, 1885, at 10 A. M., its sessions continuing for three days.
Eates at the Mountain House have been reduced from $4.00 to $3.00 per day to delegates and their families, dating from Saturday, July 25, and continuing as long as desired. Orders for special excursion tickets will be issued over all lines of the Pennsylvania and A. Y. K. E. Usual excursion rates over other roads. Orders or general information can be obtained by addressing
W. H. Fundenberg, Corresponding Secretary,
958 Penn avenue, Pittsburg, Pa.
WISCONSIN STATE DENTAL SOCIETY AND EXAMINING BOAED. The fifteenth annual meeting of the Wisconsin State Dental Society will be held at La Crosse, July 28 to 31, 1885. All members of the profession are cordially invited to be present.
C. A. Smith, Chairman Ex. Com., La Crosse, Wis.
The next regular meeting of the Wisconsin State Dental Examining Board will be held at La Crosse, on Tuesday, July 28, 1885, during the sessions of the State Dental Society.
C. C. Chittenden, President.
Edgar Palmer, Secretary.
00EEE0TI0N. To The Editor Of The Dental Cosmos:
Sir :—In the May number of the Dental Cosmos, page 282, your reporter makes me say, "The dried skeleton weighs six pounds, of which one-third is lime." I tried to say something over six pounds, of which one-third is phospate of lime.
Again, "Eice, which is one of the poorest foods in lime-salts, contains 1T6^ per cent, lime-salts. A man who consumes two pounds of rice per day gets in a year about three pounds of lime." I said that rice contains about nine-tenths of one per cent, of mineral matter (not lime-salts). I am not responsible for the arithmetic in this clause either. Please correct and oblige,
W. H. Morgan.
Nashville, Tenn., May 16, 1885.
OVERPLUS OF MATTER. This issue of the Dental Cosmos is largely taken up with reports of dental societies. The papers and discussions are, however, well worthy of publication. The discussions have been considerably abbreviated, but have still been afforded more than usual space because of their practical value. This has compelled the laying over of important communications, for which we must ask the indulgence of contributors.
MIOESOTA DENTAL LAW-CJOEREOTION, WE^are'requested to state that the name of S. T. Clements, L.D.S., Faribault, Minn., instead of J. I. Clements, D.D.S., should have been given as president of the Board of Examiners appointed by the Governor under the Minnesota dental law, as printed on page 380 of our June number.
Urinary And Eenal Derangements And Calculous Disorders. Hints on Diagnosis and Treatment. By Lionel S. Beale,' M.D. Small octavo, pp. 356. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co.r 1885. Price, cloth, $1.75.
The topics suggested by the title of this unusually compact and comprehensive work are taken up and treated in a systematic and orderly manner. One can but wonder that any fairly satisfactoiy presentation of the many sub-divisions of the subject could be made within the compass of a book of this size, and yet we think the discussion of the various lesions will be found not only terse, but full enough for the practical guidance of the practioner. It cannot be read but with profit by student or physician.
ELLEESLIE WALLACE, M. D. At a special meeting of the corporators of the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery, held March 20, 1885, resolutions were adopted in reference to the death of their fellow member, Dr. Ellerslie Wallace; expressing appreciation of his helpful, manly co-operation in the work of dental advancement, respect for his memory and character, and tendering sympathy and condolence to the family, to whom a copy of the resolutions was ordered to be transmitted.
HINTS AND QUERIES.
An Exhaust Syringe.—This age is prolific in the production of means and appliances for facilitating operations in dental surgery, and it is not an infrequent occurence that such devices are found to be of general utility when conceived after a thoughtful consideration of the pathognomonic principles involved in lesions that corae within the purview of the general practitioner. An instance of this kind is observable in the recent and ingenious devices of a young dentist, Dr E. "Walter Starr, of Philadelphia, whose apparatus is here described and illustrated with reference to its special employment in the treatment of alveolar abscess. In ordinary practice it is usual to inject medicaments through the pulp canal into the abscess sac, and thence by its sinus into the oral cavity, and as such therapeutical agents are commonly of an escharotic nature, the parts adjacent to the fistulous opening are more or less excoriated by the overflowing fluid,—an undesirable result, which the new method almost wholly prevents.
Number 1 shows a small glass cylinder, having its reduced portion bent at an acute angle, and terminating in a thin platinum pipe which has the glass tube fused upon it. This vessel is designed for use in the superior teeth.
Number 2 exhibits a similar vessel having a bayonet-shaped pipe, and is intended for use in the inferior teeth.
Number 3 is a common glass dropper with its compressible rubber bulb.
Number 4 illustrates what may be not inaptly termed an artificial leech, and it ■consists of a compressible rubber bulb, fixed on a hollow cylinder of glass, which has on its other end a rubber collet, terminating in a very thin annular flange. By compressing the bulb, placing the flange on a flat, smooth surface, and then releasing the bulb from pressure, it will be found that through atmospheric pressure on the flange considerable force will be required to detach the leech from the surface; and this capability of being made to produce suction constitutes the operative function of the simple device.
Number 5 shows a vertical section of the soft parts, alveolus, and maxilla, contiguous to a carious superior bicuspid, which by the putrescence of its dead pulp has occasioned the abscess that, with its sinus, is also shown in the sectional view; and with reference to this figure, the method of using the apparatus will now be described, it being assumed that the carious cavity has been properly prepared.
The platinum pipe of the vessel (1) is first to be surrounded with gutta-percha, softened by heat; the pipe immediately inserted in the mouth of the pulp canal, and the gutta-percha packed into the cavity around the pipe, which, upon the
subsequent cooling of the packing, will thus be firmly and hermetically held in place. The proper quantity of a suitable fluid medicament is then taken up in the dropper (3), and discharged into the vessel (1); and after compressing the bulb of the leech, its flanged mouth is placed over the fistulous opening, pressure gradually removed from the bulb, and the fluid visibly drawn from the vessel (1) through the pulp canal into the sac, and out from the sinus into the leech cylinder, which, with its contents, may then be readily removed from the gum by a simultaneous depression of and slight pressure upon the bulb ; so that but a very little overflow from the sinus will be perceptible. A little practice will enable the operator to so nearly exhaust the fluid from the vessel (1) and the pulp canal that, upon the removal of the pipe after softening the gutta-percha with a warm plugger, there will be but a slight extravasation of the fluid from the crown cavity, which may then be sealed to await a repetition of the operation, if that shall be found necessary. It is, however, by many dentists deemed the best practice in such cases to at once and permanently fill the pulp canal and crown cavity.
The exhaustive action of the artificial leech is designed to promote the collapse of the sac walls, in contradistinction to the distending effects of the common forcepump process, and may presumably hasten the obliteration of the sac.
Number 6 is a like sectional view of a similar lesion in the inferior maxilla, and
in this instance the adaptation of the vessel (2) to the inferior molar is made apparent by the cut without further description ; yet in such cases gravitation assists the action of the leech and renders a slightly modified manipulation requisite, in so detaching the leech as to prevent excessive outflow from the sinus.
The correlative applications of this leech will suggest themselves to appreciative dentists and surgeons, but it may be well to indicate its adaptation to the facile and cleanly evacuation of a large class of cavities having fistulous openings, and it may also be used in local blood-letting, as a substitute for or adjunct to the repulsive and troublesome hirudo medicinalis.
To The Editor Of The Dental Cosmos:
Dear Sir: Referring to the report of the meeting of the New York Odontological Society, published in the Dental Cosmos for April, 1885, I would like to discuss a few points which time did not permit of at the meeting.
Dr. Clowes thinks that the tincture of the chloride of iron is the most ruthless tiger concerned in the destruction of human teeth. I am convinced that millions of people whose teeth show the ravages of decay never have suffered from that particular tiger. Decayed teeth are found in almost every Indian skull yet discovered. Is it supposable that those Indians used the horrible tinctura ferri chloridi? Moreover, this tincture is prescribed extensively only in English countries, and yet the teeth of the French and Germans show nearly as much decay as those of the English people. It cannot be denied that the tincture of iron may do harm^but to generalize from exceptional cases does not seem quite admissible. Is it not a fact that generally tincture of iron is prescribed by physicians in cases of "broken down " constitution, and is it not often given to an extent which produces gastritis and the eructation of acid fluids into the mouth and into contact with the teeth? Here is a combination of circumstances favorable to the beginning of caries. The erosion of a tooth by an acid prepares the way for the beginning of decay. It is admitted that chloride of iron, allowed to come freely and frequently into contact with teeth, will injure them seriously, as would any other strong acid; but the effect produced is not caries,—a burn is not a papula.
Dr. Thomson's remarks showed that he was in a state of uncertainty about matters which we presumed had been pretty well settled. The subject of fermentation by yeast has been investigated as extensively, perhaps, as any subject in physiology. The doctor asked, "How can fermentation produce bacteria (!) termo when alcohol destroys or arrests the further development of all life that may be immersed therein?" Fermentation never was claimed to produce bacterium termo, which follows but is not produced by it. The alcohol produced by fermentation is not of greater strength than from 10° to 20°,—not sufficient to "destroy further development of life." The question would have been pertinent if fermentation produced absolute alcohol, or if any one had claimed that fermentation produced bacterium termo.
Dr. Dwindle is not ready to give up the acid theory easily. However much capillary attraction may be considered able to distribute the fluids throughout the entire animal economy, yet the action of vinegar, for instance, is quick enough to dissolve a certain amount of tooth-substance before it has been rendered harmless by distribution. But dissolving is not decay. The acids which creep into the cavities of the human body do not come there through capillary action, but are carried there by the circulation. A very interesting observation—and certainly not without foundation—was made by Dr. Dwindle, viz., that iodide of potassium has the effect of grooving teeth at the cervical borders. This is analogous with