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received less than five dollars. Forty-seven per cent. received from five to ten dollars, while 24 per cent. received from ten to fifteen dollars, and only 18 per cent. received as much as fifteen dollars or over.

These proportions vary in different lines. For example in the stores, one-half of all the male employees are quoted at rates less than fourteen dollars per week. One-half of all the females in the stores throughout the State are quoted at rates of less than seven and one-half dollars a week. In shirts and paper boxes one-half of all the male employees are quoted at rates under twelve dollars a week and one-half of all the females employed at rates less than six dollars and a half a week. In the candy trade one-half of all the males are quoted at rates under ten dollars a week and one-half of all the females at rates less than six dollars a week.

Naturally these rates vary with occupations. They include all kinds of workers. They vary from the salesmen who will range from twelve to twenty dollars, and the cutters and candy makers who range from twelve to eighteen dollars, to the little messenger girl who ordinarily gets say $3.50 to $5.00, cr the helpers in the candy factories who get from $4.50 to $6.50. In the main, the range in men's wages that we have been studying are those between $10 and $15, and for the women those between $5 and $10. These are the general levels that we have been discussing.

Of course there are greater variations in the rates paid. I need not tell you they vary with localities. The rates are both higher and lower in New York City than up-State. That is, there are more people that get the very high rates here, and more people whe get the very low rates in New York City. Moreover, in different kinds of stores there is a variation. In the large department stores 53 per cent. of the female employees get less than $8 a week. In the smaller neighborhood stores, as we call them, 68 per cent. of the women and girls get less than $8 a week, while in the five and ten cent stores 99 per cent. of them get less than $8 a week. This may serve to indicate the basis and variations in rates.

Let us now consider the matter of age, for at once it will be said these people are paid low because they are young and experienced. We have figures with regard to the age and rate of

wages. I have said that the majority are young people. There is a very rapid dropping out after the age of thirty for women and after the age of forty for men. The majority of women in any five-year age group reach the $8 level only after thirty years. The majority of men reach the $15 dollar level after thirty-five years of age. I am now using medians. Though one-half in any age group may surpass these rates, one-half will fall below. There is a great difference in age between the different lines and different occupations. For instance, in the stores the average man reaches his maximum of $16 at forty years of age and the woman her maximum of $10 at thirty-five years of age. In the shirt and box industries the average man reaches his maximum of $15 at thirtyfive or forty years and the average woman her maximum of $9 at thirty years of age. In the candy trade the highest rate by age for men is that of $12 at forty years.

For women $7 at thirty years.

Q. Why didn't you take average wages? A. I will tell you if you are interested in this statistical detail. I will give you an example. The average wages of saleswomen in the large department stores is about $9.34, according to our returns. But the largest number of women actually received $7 — about 18 per cent. of all if I recollect correctly. Now between the rate which most of them received and the average is a variation of 33 per cent. I have used what is called the median. That is, if you were to take all the people in this room and line them up along the wall according to height, and pick out the one that was half way from both ends, the height of that person would be the median height of those in this room. That is this person is the farthest from both extremes. In the industries where we have a large number of high paid people and a very large number of low paid people this median falls between the high average and this low mode, as it is called.


Q. Then when you speak of the maximum you mean the median? A. I mean the median.

Q. You used the word maximum as if that were the extreme limit? A. No.


Q. May I ask you why from a statistical standpoint it isn't fair to take the average rate of wages ? A. Well suppose you had a foreman who received $100 a week and a number of workmen who received $10 a week. Suppose you had ten working men. There would be $100 for the working men and $100 for the foreman. Divided by eleven it would give you a wage that nobody received actually — much less than the foreman, much higher than the low paid workmen received.

Q. Give you $20 a week? A. Something like that, about twice what the workmen get. We have used distribution tables in our published report.

Q. So that an average wage, any statistics or any argument based on an average wage is statistically incorrect? A. It is apt to be misleading. I wouldn't say it is incorrect. There are many kinds of averages. Most people know only one -- the arithmetical average. There are many known to statisticians. The thing to do is to get the fairest representative figure, the one that shows best what the central tendency is.

Now I have quoted the median rate at each age and showed where it was highest. We found three thousand adult women in the stores quoted at rates under $6.

Q. Three thousand out of how many ? A. In all the stores there were about seventy thousand persons, two-fifths of whom were adult females say, thirty thousand women. We found about two thousand four hundred women in the shirt trade quoted at rates under $6. We found in the candy trade that the median rates for adult men are under $11 and for adult women less than $6.50.

Q. That is a week ? A. A week. Now these are rates

Commissioner DREIER: Is that the median rate.

Dr. WOOLSTON: Yes. They vary up and down. We found people getting less than $3 a week.

Q. I didn't quite hear that. A. We found people getting less than $3 a week. We also found buyers in department stores getting more than $10,000 a year. Neither is typical.

These rates are what people are supposed to get. What do they


actually get? What are their actual earnings? Without boring you with any more figures than I can help, let me say that the actual earnings are below the rates in most lines, especially in the low levels of payment. Because of loss of time, because the workers could not complete the task, they fall below the rate. Although this is made up in certain cases by premiums and by commissions, still, as a whole, the actual earnings fall below the rates that are quoted. Let me give you an example. In the stores we found 99 persons were quoted as receiving a weekly rate of less than $3. For the given week, when we went to the store we found that over two thousand persons actually received less than $3 for that week. Now the cause is not here considered. It may have been due to shiftlessness or due to industrial causes. Nevertheless, more than two thousand people got less than $3 for that week. Let me show you by another example in the confectionery trade, 13 per cent. of the people were supposed to get less than $5 a week, according to the rates. Actually, however, 22 per cent. of all the employees got less than $5 for one week.

Q. How many is that 22 per cent. in numbers? A. One thousand nine hundred.

Mr. BLOOMINGDALE: Will you ask him why?

Dr. WOOLSTON: I have stated, Mr. Bloomingdale, that the causes of reduction need not enter here. Many of these people were absent.

But as a matter of fact they got less than three dollars a week no matter why.

Mr. BLOOMINGDALE: During that week?

Dr. WOOLSTON: During that week only.

Let me summarize with regard to the workers in New York city. Out of 42,000 people in the stock and sales departments of the larger stores and in the factories of the three lines mentioned half got less than eight dollars for a week when we investigated these plants.

Mr. BLOOMINGDALE: Wouldn't it be more exact if he should say got that during the week instead of for the week?

66 for "

Dr. WOOLSTON: Will you please translate when I say to“ during " the week?

Mr. BLOOMINGDALE: It makes a difference on the record.

Commissioner DREIER: Point out the difference for the record,

Mr. BLOOMINGDALE: If a person worked but four days a week they got it during that week but not for the week.

Dr. WOOLSTON: What did they get it for?

Mr. BLOOMINGDALE: They got it for four days' work, or as the case may be.

Dr. WOOLSTON: Let me give you another illustration. Of 15,000 women and girls employed in the industrial lines mentioned about 8,000 received less than $6.50 during that week and nearly 4,000 got less than $5 for the work performed during that week. This gives you some idea of the difference between rates and the actual earnings.

Now I have said that the difference is due to certain causes. First, there are premiums and commissions paid in many of the stores. These vary widely from one per cent. on all sales to two per cent. above the department average. They vary widely. They do bring up the receipts of the more skilled sales people. For example, here is the largest commission we found — one per cent. on all sales. Whereas at the rates quoted, the average rate for salesmen in this store was $9.93 for a full week's work, because of the commission that was earned on a week preceding Christmas, the average man actually earned a little over $14. Among the saleswomen the average rate for a full week's work was quoted at $5.76, and because of the commission the payment was raised to $8.85. This is the largest commission that we have found.

There are also deductions, deductions for the time lost, which I will come to presently, and also deductions from other causes. Out of 831 women interviewed in 20 New York stores, 194, that is 23 per cent., testified to having been fined from 10 cents to half a day's pay for lateness. Forty-one testified to other fines for shortages and for errors. A number of men also stated that part of their wages was withheld for loss of packages or breakage.

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