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1. " It gave great suspicion of his being murdered, as the king and the duke of York were, at the very time, within the Tower, where they had not been for near 15 years before. And when the jury was impaneld, and one of them insisting to see his lordships cloaths in which he died; the coroner was sent for, and, on his return, he told the jury, it was the body and not the cloaths they were to sit on; and that the king had sent for the inquisition, and would not rise from the council-board till it was brought. It also happened on the very morning when the lord Russel was on his tryal, and particular care was taken to give immediate notice of it to the court at the Old Baily; and the kings council made a direct use of it to confirm the plot, and thereby lord Russel was condemned. After the Revolution, the earls of Devonshire, Bedford, Monmouth, and Warrington, were appointed, by the house of peers, to examine into the death of Essex; but made no report to the house; it being said, that, on the examination, it appeared so black on king James, that queen Mary requested it might die in silence."

2. Rapin assures us, lord Essex, son of this unfortunate nobleman, said, in his hearing, " that he believed his father was murdered ; and that a French footman, -who then served his father, was strongly suspected, and disappeared immediately after the fact b.”—This seems to be confirmed by the following anecdote." Harry Guy was then secretary to the treasury, and a sure agent to the king, or duke, if any dirty work was to be done. He paid and dispersed the secret-service money, of which payments he kept a regular account in a book which is still extant, and now is (1762), or lately was, * in the possession of a gentleman of Chelsea, who made no scruple of shewing it to particular persons. In this book of accounts appears a minute of 500l. paid to one Bomini, a valet de chambre of the earl of Essex during his lords confinement in the Tower, and previous to his death. This Bomini was never heard of after the earls death a." -There was a Paul. Bameny, servant to his lordship, who, before the coroner, swore, " that hè, looking through a chink, saw blood and part of a razor; whereupon he called a warder, and went down to call for help: and the warder pushed the door open, and there they saw Essex all along the floor, without a perriwig, and all full of blood, and the razor by him, which razor had before been delivered by him to his lordship. The same person appeared on the trial of Braddon, and Speke, who had given out, on doubtful evidence, that Essex was murdered; and therefore cannot, with exactness, be said never to have been heard of after the earl's death : though, doubtless, the sum given him was for some very particular

* Collins's Peerage, vol. III. p. 376.

b Rapin's Hist. vol. II. p. 729. fol, S

reason.

3. "By many eminent doctors and chirurgions, the wound was thought to be naturally impossible to be done by Essex himself; because, upon cutting the first jugular artery, such an effusion of blood and spirit would have immediately thereupon followed, that nature would not have been strong enough to cut through the other jugular artery to the neck bone on the other side; much less tu make so many and so large notches in the razor against the neck bone.”

Let us now hear what is said on the other side of the question.

1.“ As to the late earl of Essex's murdering himself, his majesty,” says Sprat, “ cannot think it becomes him to descend to any particular justification of his own or his ministers innocency in that calamitous accident. Though his majesty is not ignorant, that divers most malicious pamphlets have been lately spread abroad, in English and other languages, which with an unparalleld impudence, have accused several persons of eminent virtue and honor about his majesty, not sparing even his royal highness; nay, scarce freeing the king himself from being personally conscious of so base and barbarous an action. But after the truth of the whole matter has been carefully examined and asserted by the coroners inquest, whose proper business it was; and after Braddon has suffered the punishment of the law, for suborning even children to bear false witness in the case; and after the notoriety of the fact, and all the circumstances of it, have been so clearly made out, that there is not a man in all England, of an honest mind or sound sense, who does in the least doubt it; his majesty disdains to enter into dispute with every petulant scribbler, or to answer the villainous suggestions and horrid calumnies contained, particularly, in the libel, called, The Detection, and in the Epitome of it. As for the deplorable end of the said earl, his majesty freely owns, there was no man in his dominions more deeply afflicted with it than himself: his majesty having been thereby deprived of an extraordinary opportunity to exercise his royal clemency; and to testify, to all his loyal subjects and old friends, how highly he valued the memory and sufferings of the jord Capel. Next to himself, his majesty thinks he is also bound, in common justice, to declare, that his entirely beloved brother was most tenderly concerned and grieved at that lamentable effect of the earl of Essex's despair: his majesty being best able, upon his own knowledge, to vouch for the duke of York, that he never deserved ill of the said earl, and was always most readily inclined, for both their fathers sakes, to have forgiven whatever ill the earl had done him ?."

* Grey's Debates, vol. VIII. p. 342. in the note. Innocenoy and Truth vindicated, p. 5. 4to. Lond. 1681. VOL. y.

Aa"

Braddon's * Id. p. 99.

2. It does not appear that Essex's brother, or his lady, believed that he was murdered. Sir Henry Capel did not want sense or spirit; and lady Essex had much fortitude of mind. “ When she heard of the reports concerning the manner of her lords death, she ordered a strict enquiry about it, and sent what she found to me,” says Burnet,“ to whom she had trusted all the messages that had past between her lord and her while he was in the Tower. When I perused all, I thought there was not a colour to found any prosecution on; which she would have done, with all possible zeal, if she had found any appearances of truth in the matter b.”

-After the Revolution, this matter came under examination; and the lords of the committee, appointed to hear and report, were such as must have had the memory of Essex in honour : but no report was made; and, consequently, no proofs of his murder appeared: for tenderness for king James had little place with their lordships, or his daughters. Nor was there, indeed, any manner of occasion for it: they had, in fact, judged him a tyrant by placing his crown on the head of another; and týranny includes almost every kind of wickedness, at least is equivalent in de merit to all wickedness. What cause for tenderness of the reputation of such a man?

3. Though Braddon appears to have been af honest man, and to have meant well by his enquiries into the circumstances of this unhappy affair; yet were the ma

Burnet,

• Sprat's Account of the Conspiracy, p. 145, & seq. tol. Ili p. 569,

terials he collected sometimes not absolutely to be relied on. This appears from the following certificate, published in the Gazette, after the Revolution, by the countess of Essex, and the bishop of Salisbury (Buroet].

4 Whereas in a Letter to a Friend, written by Mr. Lawrence Braddon, touching the murder of the late earl of Essex, an account is given, p. 54 & 55, of some discourse that the countess dowager of Essex, and the bishop of Salisbury, had upon that subject, at a meeting with several lords: the countess dowager, and the bishop, find themselves so much wronged in that relation, that they have thought it became them to disavow it entirely; the whole discourse fastened on them being false, and nothing to that purpose having been upon that occasion mentioned by either of them. “July 24, 1690.

E. ESSEX,

GI. SARUM," After this, we must not expect much reliance on Braddon's authorities.

4. In the Diary of Henry, earl of Clarendon, we find these words: “May 27 (1689), Monday, -In the afternoon, my wife and I went to Chelsea, to the duchess of Beaufort; whom we found alone. She told me the whole story, how lady Essex had sent for her and her lord, and all the relations, lord Bedford, Devonshire, bishop Burnet, and young Mr. Hampden, about the matter relating to lord Essex's death, now depending before the committee of lords: that she had declared, she believed he killed himself; and there. fore desired the business might fall. She told me, Burnet and Hampden both owned the conspiracy against King Charles the Second. I should have been there if I had been in town. Brother Capel excused

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