Page images
PDF
EPUB

It will be noticed in the preceding table, that each figure in the right-hand or units' place expresses only its simple value, or so many units; but, when standing in the second place, it denotes so many tens, or ten times its simple value ; and when in the third place, so many hundreds, or one hundred times its simple value; when in the fourth place, so many thousands, or a thousand times its simple value, and so on; the value of any figure being always increased ten-fold by each removal of it one place to the left hand.

NUMERATION.

ART. 8. NUMERATION is the art of reading numbers when expressed by figures.

ART. 9. There are two methods of numeration in common use : the French and the English.

ART. 10. The French method is that in general use on the continent of Europe and in the United States. It separates figures into divisions called periods, of three places each, and gives a distinct name to each period.

FRENCH NUMERATION TABLE.

Hundreds of Sextillions.
A Tens of Sextillions.

Hundreds of Quintillions.
o Tens of Quintillions.

Hundreds of Quadrillions.

Sextillions.
- Quintillions.
co Tens of Quadrillions.

Quadrillions.

Hundreds of Trillions
• Tens of Trillions.

Trillions.

Hundreds of Billions.
No Tens of Billions.

Hundreds of Millions.

Tens of Millions. A Hundreds of Thousands. co Billions. co Millions. ~ Tens of Thousands. oo Thousands. o Hundreds. cu Tens.

Units.

1 2 7, 8 9 4, 2 3 7, 8 6 7, 123, 678, 478,

[blocks in formation]

QUESTIONS. Art. 7. What value has a figure standing in the right-hand or units' place? What in the second place ? What in the third ? How do figures increase from the right toward the left ? - Art. 8. What is numeration ? What are the two methods of numeration in common use? Where is the French method more generally used ? Repeat the French Numeration Table. What are the names of the different periods in the table? What is the value of the numbers in the table expressed in words ?

The value of the numbers represented in this table, expressed in words, is, One hundred twenty-seven sextillions, eight hundred ninety-four.quintillions, two hundred thirty-seven quadrillions, eight hundred sixty-seven trillions, one hundred twenty-three billions, six hundred seventy-eight millions, four hundred seventyeight thousand, six hundred thirty-eight.

The names of the periods above Sextillions, in their order, are, Septillions, Octillions, Nonillions, Decillions, Undecillions, Duodecillions, Tredecillions, Quatuordecillions, Quindecillions, Sexdecillious, Septendecillions, Octodecillions, Novemdecillions, Vigintillions, &c.

Art. 11. The successive places occupied by figures are often called orders. Hence, a figure in the right-hand or units’ place is called a figure of the first order, or of the order of units ; a figure in the second place is a figure of the second order, or of the order of tens; in the third place, of the order of hundreds, and so on. Thus, in the number 1847, the 7 is of the order of units, 4 of the order of tens, 8 of the order of hundreds, and 1 of the order of thousands, each figure expressing as many units as its name indicates of that order to which it belongs; so that we read the whole number, one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven.

Art. 12. From the preceding table and explanation, we deduce the following rule for numerating and reading numbers expressed by figures according to the French method.

RULE. Begin at the right hand, and point off the figures into periods of THREE places each.

Then, commencing at the left hand, read the figures of each period, adding the name of each period excepting that of units.

EXERCISES IN FRENCH NUMERATION. The learner may read orally, or write in words, the numbers represented by the following figures : 1. 1525. 2254 9. 8409313. 610711 2. 276 6. 4384 10. 98612 14. 3031671 3. 9987. 7932 |11. 592614/15. 4869021 4. 1057 8. 42198 12. 40061916. 637313789

QUESTIONS. - Art. 10. What are the names of the periods above sextillions ? - Art. 11. What are the successive places of the figures in the table called ? Of what order is the first or right-hand figure? The second ? The third ? &c. — Art. 12. What is the rule for numerating and reading numbers accord. ing to the French method ?

17. 39461928 | 24.

3761700137706717 18. 427143271 25.

242173562357421 19. 6301706716 26.

870037637471078635 20. 143776700333 | 27.

8216243812706381 21. 20463162486135 | 28.

2403172914376931 22. 63821024711802 29.

3761706137706167138 23. 44770630147671 | 30. 610167637896430607761607

Art. 13. To write numbers by figures according to the French method, we have the following

RULE. Begin at the left hand, and write in each successive order the figure belonging to it,

if any intervening order would otherwise be vacant, fill the place by a cipher.

EXERCISES IN FRENCH NOTATION AND NUMERATION. The learner may represent by figures, and read, the following numbers :

1. Forty-seven. 2. Three hundred fifty-nine. 3. Six thousand five hundred seventy-five. 4. Nine hundred and eight. 5. Nineteen thousand. 6. Fifteen hundred and four. 7. Twenty-seven millions five hundred. 8. Ninety-nine thousand ninety-nine. 9. Forty-two millions two thousand and five. 10. Four hundred eight thousand ninety-six. 11. Five thousand four hundred and two.

12. Nine hundred seven millions eight hundred five thousand and seventy-four.

13. Three hundred forty-seven thousand nine hundred and fifteen.

14. Eighty-nine thousand forty-seven.
15. Fifty-one thousand eighty-one.
16. Seven thousand three hundred ninety-five.

17. Fifty-seven billions fifty-nine millions ninety-nine thousand and forty-seven.

QUESTIONS. — Art. 13. What is the rule for writing numbers according to the French method? At which hand do you begin to numerate figures ? Where do you begin to read them? At which hand do you begin to write numbers ? Why?

ART. 14. The following table exhibits the English method of numeration, in which it will be observed that the figures are separated by commas into periods of six figures each. The first or right-hand period is regarded as units and thousands of units; the second, as millions and thousands of millions; and so on, six places being assigned to each period designated by a distinct

[blocks in formation]

Period of Tril

lions.

Period of Bil

lions.

Period of Mil

lions.

Period of

Units.

The value of the figures in the above table, expressed in words according to the English method, is, One hundred thirty-seven

thousand eight hundred ninety trillions; seven hundred eleven -” thousand seven hundred sixteen billions; three hundred seventy

one thousand seven hundred twelve millions; four hundred fiftysix thousand seven hundred eleven.

Although there is the same number of figures in, the English and in the French table, yet it will be observed that in the French table we have the names of three periods other than in the English. It will also be observed that the variation commences after the ninth place, or the place of hundreds of millions. If, therefore, we would know the value of numbers

QUESTIONS. - Art. 14. How many figures in each period in the English method of numeration ? What orders are found in the English method that are not in the French ? Give the names of the periods in the English Numeration Table, beginning with the period of units. Repeat the table, giving the names of all the orders or places. What is the value of the numbers in the table expressed in words? How do the figures in the English and French table compare as to numbers? How as to periods ? Why is this difference ? Has a million the same value reckoned by the French table as when reckoned by the English ?

1255.

higher than hundreds of millions, when we see them written in words, or hear them read, we need to know whether they are expressed according to the French or the English method of numeration.

The English method of numeration is that generally used in Great Britain, and in the British Provinces.

ART. 15. To numerate and read numbers expressed by figures according to the English method, we have the following

RULE. Begin at the right hand, and point off the figures into periods of six places each. Then, commencing at the left hand, read the figures of each period, adding the name of each period, excepting that of units.

EXERCISES IN ENGLISH NUMERATION. The learner may read orally, or write in words, the following. numbers : 1.

27306387903 2 1063 6.

531470983712 3. 25842 7.

4230578032765038 4.

904357 8. 716756378807370767086389706473 Art. 16. To write numbers in figures, according to the English method, we have the following

RULE. — Begin at the left hand, and write in each successive order the figure belonging to it.

.

If any intervening order would otherwise be vacant, fill the place by a cipher.

EXERCISES IN ENGLISH NOTATION AND NUMERATION.. The learner may write in figures, and read, the following numbers :

1. Three hundred twenty-five thousand four hundred and twelve.

2. Two hundred fourteen thousand, one hundred sixty-five millions, seventy-eight thousand and fifty-six.

3. Forty-two billions, six hundred seventeen thousand thirtyone millions, forty-one thousand three hundred forty-two.

4. Two thousand eight billions, nine thousand eighty-two millions, seven hundred one thousand, nine hundred and eight.

QUESTIONS. — Has the billion the same value as that by the French table ? Why not? By which table has it the greater value ? Where is the English method of numerating in use ? - Art. 15.' What is the rule for numerating and reading numbers by the English method ? — Art. 16. What is the rule for writing numbers according to the English method ?

« PreviousContinue »