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and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. 8 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. And the sons of Javan ; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. "By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided into their lands ; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations. the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. * And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtechah; and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan. And Cush begat Nimrod : he began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD. 19 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. 11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah, 12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah ; the same is a great city. 13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lebabim, and Naphtuhim, 14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim. 15 And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, 16 And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, 17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterwards were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha. 23 These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations. 21 Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born. 22 The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram. 23 And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. 24 And Arphaxad begat Salah ; and Salah begat Eber. And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his day was the earth divided ; and his brother's name was Joktan. 26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, 27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, 28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan. 30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a mount of the east. s1 These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.

92 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations : and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.

As all mankind are of one family, how reasonable is it that we should and nearly related in Adam and Noah, love and do good to each other! When



ever we behold a human being, whatever be his language and garb, or wherever he was born, we should recognize a near relation, and behave to him

accordingly. In this view the prejudice and contempt which generally prevail with regard to foreigners is both very unnatural and absurd.-Scott.


ND the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.

2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. 3 And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them throughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for morter.

Josephus, in his ' Antiquities,' tells drowning, now have a design to secure us that the sons of Noah, for some years themselves against all future attempts after the flood, dwelt on the tops of high from the God of heaven Himself. Thus mountains, not daring to take up their often we see God's judgments leave habitation in the lower ground, for fear such an impression on men's spirits, of being drowned by another flood; yet, that for a while they stand aloof from in process of time, seeing no flood come, their sins, as they on their hills, afraid they ventured down to the plain of to come down to them; but when they Shinar, where we see their former fear see fair weather continue, and no ended in one of the boldest, proudest clouds gather towards another storm, attempts against God that the sun was they then descend to their old wicked ever witness to. They who at first practices, and grow more bold and were so maidenly and fearful as not Heaven-daring than ever.-Gurnall. to venture down their hills for fear of

4 And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.

These Babel - builders put them- name upon a brick, with a view of perselves to a great deal of foolish ex- petuating their memory; yet neither pense to make them a name ; but they did this serve their purpose. It is could not gain their point, for we do just with God to bury those names in not find in any history the name of so the dust which are raised by sin.-M. much as one of them. Philo Judæus Henry. says that they engraved every one his

5 And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded.

God could easily have hindered run themselves out of breath. What the laying of the first stone, and monument should they have had of might as easily have made a trench their own madness, and His powerful for the foundation the grave of the interruption, if the walls had risen to builders; but He loves to see what no height?—Bp. Hall. wicked men would do, and to let fools

And the LORD said, Behold the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do,


We learn by reason what great mystical Babel. And, on the other things may be done in worldly achieve- hand, where divisions are there is ment where unity is; and shall not confusion; by this means a Babel hath reason (assisted by the motive of reli- been built in every age. It has been gion) teach us that unity among Chris- observed by a learned man—and I tians may enable them to enterprise wish I could not say truly observed greater things for Christ? Would not that there is most of Babel and con. this make Satan fall from heaven like fusion among those that cry out most lightning ? For, as unity built literal against it !-Bunyan. Babel, it is unity that must pull down

Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. 8 So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth : and they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it called Babel ; because the LORD did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.

How easy is it for God, in ten thou- thinks his fellow mocks him; but now, sand ways, to correct and forestall perceiving this serious confusion, their the greatest projects of men ! One only answer was silence and ceasing. calls for brick, the other looks him in They could not come together, for no the face, and wonders what he com- man could call them to be understood; mands, and how and why he speaks and if they had assembled, nothing such words as were never heard ; and could be determined, because one could instead thereof brings him mortar, re- never attain to the other's purpose. turning him an answer as little under- No, they could not have the honour of stood; each chides with the other, ex- a general dismission, but each man pressing his choler, so as he only can leaves his trowel and station more understand himself. From heat they like a fool than he undertook it. So fall to quiet entreaties, but still with commonly actions begun in glory end the same success. At first every man in shame.Bp. Hall.

These are the generations of Shem : Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood: 11 And Shem lived after he begat Arphaxad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. And Arphaxad lived five and thirty years, and begat Salah : 18 And Arphaxad lived after he begat Salah four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. 14 And Salah lived thirty years, and begat Eber : 15 And Salah lived after he begat Eber four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. 16 And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg: 17 And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters. °18 And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Reu : 19 And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hundred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters. 20 And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begat Serug: a And Reu lived after he begat Serug two hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters. 22 And Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nahor: * And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two hundred years, and be


gat sons and daughters. 24 And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terah : 25 And Nahor lived after he begat Terah an hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and daughters. 26 And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran. 27 Now these are the generations of Terah: Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begat Lot. 28 And Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees. 29 And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram's wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor's wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah. 30 But Sarai was barren ; she had no child. 81 And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan ; and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there.

82 And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years: and Terah died in Haran.

Since we find in this chapter that length the term was reduced to 70 human life was shortened, it becomes years. Therefore let us redeem the us to work in haste. Shem lived 600 time, begin the great work of religion years ; some of his immediate de- early, and whatever our hands find to scendants only 200 years ; and at do, do it with all our might.'-Orton.


CHAP. XII. OW the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy

country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew thee : And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great ; and thou shalt be a blessing:

Such things as are here recorded cause Abraham did that which carnal of Abram are easier to read concern- reason, the world's idol, laughs at as ing others than to practise ourselves ; mere folly; he left a present estate in yet, he that hateth not father and his father's house to go he knew not mother, and wife, and children, and whither, to receive an inheritance he brethren, and sisters, yea, and his knew not where.-Gurnall. own life also, in comparison of Christ, Abraham, it is said (v. 4), obeyed cannot be His disciple. We may not the Divine call, and went he knew not be called upon to part with them; but whither. Into what unknown country our minds must be made up to do so must I go?' he might say. It is no if they stand between us and Christ. matter for that whether you know or -A. Fuller.

not, but follow the Divine call;' and The world esteems the Christian, for he abandons all and follows. He his singularity of life, the only fool; trusts, makes a venture in the dark. which, perhaps, gave the first occasion Thus do all believers. They shut their to that nickname whereby men com- eyes and trust, wink and trust. So monly express a silly man or a fool. doth Abram in this:Go your way into Such a one, say they, is a mere Abra- a country you know not ;' he goes by ham ; that is, in the world's account, faith, he obeyed, and went he knew a fool. But why an Abraliam ? Be- not whither. 'I can' (as if he had



cised, that soul shall be cut off from his people ; he hath broken my covenant.

There is much of the Gospel in this neither male nor female in Christ, but covenant. Let us seek our own part all are one in Him. As we desire the in the blessings of it. They that blessings of this covenant, let us comare of faith are blessed with faithful ply with the terms of it, which are Abraham. Consider their value and faith and obedience. They who subextent. Submit cheerfully to the terms mitted to the circumcision were debtors of the covenant; and ever remember to the whole law, to all the ceremothat in Christ Jesus neither circum- nies and rites of the Jewish religion. cision nor uncircumcision availeth any- So is every believer in Christ a debtor thing, but a new creature.' God hath to the whole of what Christianity renow changed the seal of the covenant quires, viz., to baptism, the Lord's into a more gentle administration, of Supper, and all moral duties.-Orton. which both sexes partake; there is

And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be.

16 And I will bless her, and give thee a son also of her : yea, I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of nations ; kings of people shall be of her. 17 Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him that is an hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear? 18 And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee ! 19 And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed ; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him. 20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year. 22 And he left off talking with him, and God went up from Abraham.

Abraham said unto God (v. 18), “O fore Him. Let parents, especially, be that Ishmael might live before thee!' concerned for the souls of their chilWhen God condescends to converse dren ; pray for them that they may with us, when our souls are enlarged live; that they may live before God, in devotion, then we have a good op- holily and religiously, to His honour portunity to put in a word for our and the credit of their profession.friends and relations, to spread our Orton. own cases and theirs particularly be

23 And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham's house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him. 24 And Abraham was ninety years old and nine, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 26 In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ish

21 But

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