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amounted to 1,531,436. In addition to these there were 233,398 free coloured. : Now can it for a moment be supposed, that this enormous and rapidly increasing mass of population will long remain in bondage, --when they hear their masters talking of nothing, but Liberty, the Rights of Man, &c. ? — when they see processions and rejoicings every year on the anniversary of national independence ?— when they hear that Bolivar, as well as the Mexican government, has entirely abolished Slavery ?—when they see how the Blacks of St. Domingo opposed 25,000 Veteran French troops ? When all these examples are held up to their eyes, will they, can they remain slaves ? Impossible.
The desire of freedom is already beginning to manifest itself in those parts where the slaves are most numerous. In 1820 there was a conspiracy at Charleston in South Carolina, which was only discovered a few days before it was to have been carried into execution,* and which ought to have opened the eyes of every slave-holder who was not wilfully blind.
The conspirators were headed by a free black named Denmark Vesey, who was a working carpenter in the city, and was distinguished for his activity and strength. His being a free black de
* Vide Pamphlet entitled “ An Account of the late intended Insurrection, among a Portion of the Blacks. Published by the Authority of the Corporation of Charleston. 1822."
monstrates, what indeed I believe has never been doubted, that, in the event of an insurrection, the sláves would be joined by their free coloured brethren, who, finding themselves despised by the whites, and treated as a degraded caste, would gladly take part in any scheme tending to ameliorate their condition.
“ It was perhaps alone in Denmark Vesey's power, to have given us the true character, extent, and importance of the correspondence which it was afterwards, proved was carried on with certain persons in St. Domingo. But these men mutually supported each other, and died obedient to the stern and emphatic injunction of their comrade Peter Poyas : * Do not open your lips! Die silent, as you shall see me die!'"*
They in fact died like heroes, and in a better cause they could not have yielded up their breath. They were executed for wishing to emancipate a million of their brothers from merciless bondage.
Yet how much better to die, even thus, than live · a life of slavery!
Who, though they know the riven chain
Moore's LALLA Rookh.
* Vide Pamphlet above mentioned, page 18.
Had this conspiracy succeeded, South Carolina, and probably all the neighbouring slave States, would have been lost to the whites. As it is, the evil day is only deferred : for I consider, that unless the system be quickly changed, the whole of the slave States must one day, and that not a very distant one, be in possession of the blacks: I do not indeed see how it can be otherwise. '
In 1790 there were only 694,480 slaves in the whole of the United States, and a great number even of these were in the now free States, in which the increase of the whites has principally taken place."
At the time of framing the Constitution there was not one State in which the number of the whites was not double that of the blacks : but at present 'the blacks are more numerous than the whites in · South Carolina ; and in several of the other States
they are already nearly equal, and are every day gaining the superiority. The following extracts are from one of the leading American papers : : Table of the White Population in 1810 and in 1820, with the increase; and the Coloured Population at the same period, “ It appears by the table, that the ratio of increase of the whole white population in the United States has been somewhat greater than that of the whole coloured population ; but if we separate the free coloured from the slave population, it will no doubt be found that the slaves increase faster than the whites; and if we separate the whites in the free States from those in the slave States, it will no doubt be found, that the slaves increase nearly twice as fast as the whites in the slave States. If this is to continue to be the case, what will be the condition of the Southern States a few years hence ? This fact ought to excite the apprehension of our Southern brethren, and they will do well to look to it.
with the increase and ratios of increase.
“ From the foregoing table, one would naturally conclude that sound policy would dictate two leading measures to the Legislators of the South. First, to prohibit the further emigration of slaves to the respective States. Had Kentucky, Tennessee, and the other new States, adopted this policy ten years ago, the curse of Slavery would at this day have existed in a very small degree in those States, and if adopted now, the evil will be much smaller ten years hence than it otherwise will be. Secondly, as a free black increases much slower than a slave population, the next most obvious measure that can be adopted for the purpose of restraining the black increase is, to permit and encourage manumission by every possible means,