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113

iv

NAMES OF ANIMALS DESCRIBED.

Mole ........

.........

PAGE

PAGE Masked Squirrel 58 Puma

49 Masked Wild Boar .... 80 Quagga...

87 Meminna...... 94 Rabbit

64 Mephitic Weasels 34 Racoon...

29 Mococo, or Ring-tailed Lemur 18 Rat, Common Brown

61 24 Red Howler Monkey

15 Mona Monkey 11 Red Lemur.........

18 Morse, or Walrus

53
Reindeer ........

97 Mouflon... 111 Rhinoceros

81 Muntjak

101 Roebuck

................ 101 Musk Deer ................................... 94 Ruffed Lemur.

18 Musk Ox ....

114 Russian Musk Rat...................... 24 Napu Musk Deer ......................

95
Sable.............

33 Narwal 118 Sagoin....

16 Nine-banded Armadillo. 69 Samboo

101 Nyl Ghau..... 107 Scalope....

24 Opossum 55 Sapajous....

14 Orang-outan 7 Sakis

16 Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus 71

Sea Elephant, or Proboscis Seal 52 Oronoco Capuchin...................... 16 Seal

50 Oryx

107 Sheep....................................... 111 Otter.........

Shrew ...........................................

23 Ouavapavi ... 15 Skunk....

35 Ouistiti.. 16 Sloth....

68 Ox 111 Sloth Bear....

28 Pangolin, or Manis ............. 70 Spider Monkey

15 Paradoxure Genet......

43 Springbok

................ 105 Pariah Dog... 37 Squirrel

58 Patas, or Red Monkey. 11 Squirrel Petaurus

56 Peccary 80 Squirrel Monkey

16 Phalanger

56
Spotted Hyena

44 Pine Marten

33 Stag, or Red Deer................. 100 Polar Bear 28 Stoat......

33 Polecat.... 32 Striated Ouistiti

16 Porcupine 64 Striped Hyena

44 Porpoise 117 Tapiti

64 Proboscis Monkey.

13 Teledu ........................................ 35

PAGE Tendrac

23 Tenrec

23 Tibet Bear........

28 Tiger

48 Titi..........................

17 Tolai....

64 Unan, or Two-toed Sloth

68 Ungka Ape ............. Ursine Dasyurus

55 Ursine Phalanger

56 Varied Tenrec ..................

23 Vicugna

94 Villous Hyena

44 Virginian Opossum

55 Viscacha .....

65 Vulpine Phalanger

56 Walrus.....

53 Wanderou

13 Wapiti Deer

.............................. 100 Water Shrew ............................ Weasel...

33 Weeper Monkey

15 Whale, Common White-faced Capuchin Monkey... 15 White-fronted Spider Monkey... 15 White-lipped Peccary

81 Widow Monkey.

16 Wild Boar....

79 Wild Goat

110 Wolf

40 Wombat

57 Yack.......

113 Zebra......................................... Zebu....................................... 112 Zibeth...........................................

43 Zorille ...........................................

33

36

119

86

ENGRAVINGS.

No. 1. The Orang-outan. 2. The Ungka Ape. 3. The Patas, or Red Monkey. 4. The Collared White-eyelid Mon

key. 5. The Entellus. 6. The Mandrill. 7. The Ruffed Lemur. 8. The Kalong. 9. The Common Hedgehog. 10. The Brown Bear. 11. The Polar Bear. 12. The Racoon. 13. The Rufous Coati. 14. The Kinkajou. 15. The Badger. 16. The Glutton. 17. The Zorille. 18. Sable-hunters. 19. The Skunk. 20. The Teledu.

No. 21. The Otter. 22. The Esquimaux Dog. 23. The Jackal. 24. The Fennec. 25. The Ichneumon. 26. The Striped Hyena. 27. The Leopard. 28. The Jaguar. 29. The Opossum. 30. The Kangaroo. 31. The Harvest Mouse. 32. The Jerboa. 33. The Beaver. 34. The Porcupine. 35. The Chinchilla. 36. The Aï, or Three-Toed Sloth. 37. The Armadillo. 38. The Great-maned Anteater. 39. Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus. 40. Skeleton of the Elephant. 41. Skeleton of the Horse.

ENGRAVINGS INSERTED IN THE BODY OF THE WORK,

PAGE

71

PAGE Skeleton of the Mole ..............

25 Skull of a Dog

40 Mechanism of the Lion's Paw.... 47 Mechanism of the Lion's Talons 48 Skull of the Morse

54 Head of a Rabbit

58 Under Surface of Hind Foot of Viscacha.........

66 Part of Lower Jaw of Capybara,

exhibiting the surface of the Grinders

67

73

Upper and Under View of the Bill of the Ornithorhynchus

Paradoxus Skull of African Elephant, and

its Molar Tooth Skull of Asiatic Elephant, and its

Molar Tooth Section of a portion of Proboscis

of the Elephant, showing the interlacement of the Muscles...

No. 42. The Hippopotamus. 43. The Collared Peccary. 44. The Syrian Hyrax, or Coney of

Scripture. 45. The Dziggtai, or Wild Ass of

Scripture. 46. The Dromedary. 47. The Elk. 48. The Llama. 49. The Reindeer. 50. The Wapiti Deer. 51. The Giraffe. 52. The Springbok. 53. The Cervine Antelope. 54. The Oryx. 55. The Gnu 56. The Syrian Goat. 57. The Ibex. 58. The Argali, or Four-horned Sheep. 59. The Indian Ox, or Brahmin Bull.

PAGE Skull of the Hippopotamus, and

surface of its first Molar Tooth 79 The Stomach of the Antelope 88 Foot of the Camel.......

91 Foot of the Llama....

93 Horns of the Wapiti Deer ........... 101 Head of the Oryx .........

107 Skeleton of the Whale................ 121

73

77

THE

BOOK OF

OF QUADRUPEDS.

INTRODUCTION.

stand. Here he is led by the hand of Nature,

and he leaves the city and the mart, and all the “O LORD, how manifold are thy works! in pageantry of artificial life—he leaves the turmoil, wisdom hast thou made them all : the earth is the follies, and the crimes of an agitated world, full of thy riches,” Psa. civ. 24. Such was the and goes forth into the green fields, and wanders declaration of the inspired psalmist; and surely by the river's flowery brink, or through the tanin the works of the Almighty we have before us gled wood, in holy and peaceful contemplation. a book, every page of which presents to the To him the bounding deer, the crouching hare, Christian reader abundant and astonishing proofs the linnet carolling from the brake, the turtle of the wisdom, power, and goodness of Him, who cooing in the woodland gloom, the woodpecker said, “Let there be light, and there was light;" tapping the aged tree, the kingfisher darting like “who weighed the mountains in scales, and the a meteor down the stream, or the little warblers hills in a balance ;” “who led Joseph like a of the hedge-row, are objects of interest; the flock;” and who condescends to be the Father nimble lizard as it rustles through the leaves, the and Friend of his people in all generations. If, chirping grasshopper, and the busy insect tribes Christian, this great and holy God is thy Father of brilliant hues, that glitter like diamonds in the and thy Friend, thou wilt not behold the wonders sun, the active murmuring bee, the shard-born of his hands with indifference: and as we all look beetle that winds “his low but sullen horn”with emotions of pleasure and love upon the all have claims on his attention, all are objects of hand-writing of an earthly friend or an earthly contemplation, all lead him to the Cause of causes; father, so wilt thou contemplate with admiration for he forgetteth not His power who made and and gratitude the characters, more eloquent than governs all-His, the eternal WORD, who was in speech, with which He has impressed the face of the beginning, and was with God, and was God,

and without whom was not any thing made that The study of Natural History is full of pure was made. delights and solid advantages: the order, the The student of nature beholds every where an design, and balance observable in its laws, the order, a balance, a harmony, the contemplation combinations of structure and mechanism with of which expands the intellect, produces a love of which they are associated, the ends to be obtained, order, and habits of patient research: he is not and the simplicity of the means for obtaining content with a careless glance over what God has them, are all so many proofs of Divine wisdom pronounced good, but he loves to trace His power and superintendence. We look with delight, and and goodness with a more observant eye-His with the more delight as we understand the more, power, which is displayed as much in an insect's on the beautiful and complicated machinery of wing as in the pinions of the eagle, or the limbs our manufactories, which seems to perform so of the gigantic elephant. many labours as it were by enchantment; but in An acquaintance with nature leads also to a Natural History we behold a scheme more vast, a kindly feeling for all that God has created. How structure more curious, operations more compli- often does man exercise his wanton cruelty upon cated, ends more important, means more adapted, the dumb creatures, over whom he is placed as and laws more profound. Here the Christian a master, and not a tyrant! but were he to philosopher, as he explores the mines of research, familiarize himself with the instincts and habits or investigates the various phenomena, the laws of the animated beings below him, he would learn or habits of the tribes that people earth and air, to regard them with sympathy and forbearing will feel a calm and pure delight, unmixed with pity. He would remember God's mercy to him, the baser passions, which the man of the world, unworthy and covered with guilt; he would in his pursuit of riches, or empty honours, or remember what God has done for him ; he would vain applause, can neither experience nor under- remember the benevolence of his Lord and

nature.

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Master, who, while he proclaimed his abounding perpetually throwing off those particles which love for his people, whom he has ransomed with are no longer fit for the keeping up of the body's his blood, expressed his care also for the com- integrity, and taking up others, which they monest bird of the house-top. “Are not two mysteriously convert into a portion of themsparrows sold for a farthing? and one of themselves; perpetually labouring till death. shall not fall on the ground without your Father. Inorganic matter does not increase by powers But the very hairs of your head are all num- within itself, or resist external agents by the bered,” Matt. x. 29, 30.

operations of a vital principle. Its laws are those Christian reader, reflect on God's mercy to only of mechanics, chemistry, and electricity. you ; he has not dealt with you according to your Organic bodies, then, comprehend animals and sins, but he has held out to you offers of pardon; plants; and between these two great classes, he has not rewarded you according to your ini- which possess the common properties of vitality, quities, but he has provided a Saviour, an all- there are several characteristic distinctions : sufficient one, in whose atoning blood there is 1. The power of voluntary motion, which presented to the guiltiest a fountain for sin and animals in the aggregate possess, demands an uncleanness; and by whose intercession we have according modification of the organs of nutrition; access to the throne of grace. Such is God's free and hence is derived their first and leading chamercy and love to you. Imitate this great and racter, namely, an internal apparatus for the glorious example, and, as thou hast obtained reception of food, in which it undergoes certain mercy, be merciful to all that breathes.

changes before its admission into the system-an

admission effected by a multitude of minute tubes “I would not enter on my list of friends (Though graced with polish'd manners and fine sense,

or vessels, all originating in the inside of this Yet wanting sensibility) the man

apparatus. Plants are rooted to one spot; they Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm.

cannot employ voluntary motion in the search or The inadvertent step may crush the snail

reception of food; they have no internal digesThat crawls at evening in the public path; But he that has humanity, forewarn'd,

tive apparatus, and the absorbing tubes of nutriWill tread aside, and let the reptile live.”—COWPER.

tion all arise from the external surface. The

aliment taken in by animals has to undergo All natural objects with which we are ac- various operations before it forms a juice proper quainted by means of our senses, and which con- for absorption ; but the atmosphere and the earth stitute this globe, and all upon its surface, are present to vegetables juices already prepared, separated into TWO GREAT DIVISIONS, or GENERAL and which may be absorbed immediately. CLASSES ; namely, the Organic, and the INOR- 2. Animal bodies, as they have functions more GANIC, distinguished by the laws which draw a numerous and varied than plants, possess, with a decided line between them, the boundaries of structure accordingly more complicated, a cirwhich are precise and defined.

culatory system, (comprehending the arteries and The organic division comprehends all bodies veins,) by which their fluids are circulated, not, endued with vitality. The inorganic, those not as is the case with plants, by the influence of possessing this principle. To the former, there- heat and atmospheric action, but by internal fore, belong animals and plants ; to the latter, innate energies. This system is, however, less all other bodies cognizable by our senses. essential than the digestive, because not neces

Animals are natural bodies, organized, living, sary to, nor to be found in animals of the most and sentient.

simple organization. Vegetables are natural bodies, organized and 3. Animals differ from plants in the chemical living, but not sentient.

analysis of their constituent principles. The All other bodies are neither organized, nor living, essential elements of organized matter appear nor sentient.

be carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and azote or nitrogen, The phenomena manifested by all organic together with alkaline and earthy salts. Now, bodies are the result of an inherent power, which the solid parts of all plants contain carbon, oxythe allwise God has associated to such combina-gen, and hydrogen, but no azote.

The solid tions of matter, and which is generally termed parts of animals consist principally of lime or vital principle-a power, the essence of which is magnesia, united with carbonic or phosphoric enveloped in mystery, excepting as revealed to acids. And in those beings of both kingdoms, us in the Scriptures. The general results of this which appear to be destitute of solid parts, the power may be said to consist in a concatenation difference is even still more wide; the gum or or vortex of complicated internal movements or mucilage of soft plants exhibiting no trace of actions, having no relation to the laws of chemis- azote, which enters as a constituent into the try or mechanics, and which, enduring for a gelatine or albumen of soft animals. certain definite period, produces those external 4. Atmospheric air and water are the two characters by which we at once know an organ- sources whence the plant derives the principles ized being ; namely, its essential shape and struc- necessary for the maintenance of vitality. Water ture, its growth, by the absorption and assimila- is composed of oxygen and hydrogen; air, of tion (or conversion into a part of itself) of oxygen, azote, and carbonic acid, which is a extraneous matter, and its power of resisting, combination of oxygen and carbon. during an appointed time, the influence of exter- Now, of these elements, the vegetable retains, nal agents.

as essential to its con position, the carbon, the Hence, organic bodies seem to maintain a hydrogen, and a part of the oxygen, and exhales perpetual struggle with the elements around them, or throws out the azote and superfluous volume perpetually resisting and making good the losses of oxygen. The essential function, indeed, of which their actions and influences occasion ; | vegetable life seems to be the exhalation of oxy

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