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BIMANA.]

MAN.

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from inferior creatures ;-we mean his attitude, These have been characterised as the Caucasian, the freedom and exquisite mechanism of his which includes the nations of Europe, and such hands, and his natural deficiency in weapons of in ancient times as have been most distinguished aggression or defence.

for civilization and power; the Mongolian, to With the attitude of man we naturally asso- which are referred the mighty empires of China ciate ideas of exaltation; and this attitude is in and Japan; the Ethiopian, occupying the interior truth connected with his moral greatness : no of Africa; the American ; and the Malay, which quadruped approaches him in volume or extent includes the natives of the peninsula of Malacca, of brain; and the blood necessary for an organ and of Borneo, Java, the isles of the Indian so developed is carried to it by arteries, which do ocean, Australia, and the islands of the Pacific. not subdivide as in most quadrupeds, but allow To these, perhaps, some others may be added. that full and free circulation its energies require : It were useless to inquire, and impossible to hence, an horizontal position would induce a per- give any satisfactory solution, or theory, upon petual liability to apoplexy, and render every which to account for the hereditary characterisbodily or mental exertion a hazardous experi- tics which attach to these different varieties of

mankind : climate, food, modes of life in remote Man (sustaining himself on his feet alone) pre- ages, a primeval peculiarity in the original paserves the entire liberty of his hands; and the rents, which has continued itself to their latest situation of these organs is that which is best cal- descendants, or causes now unknown, and which culated to render them available and useful. But have long ceased to operate, may have all in their great as are the advantages derived from their turn contributed. One feature, however, which liberty, more are attributable to their structure. pervades human nature through all its varieties, The human hand is strong and powerful, but at in every age, in every nation, proclaims a common the same time exquisitely susceptible of impres-origin. History, however remotely we trace its sions, and gifted with the most delicate tact. Every records, whether sacred or profane, discovers finger, except that called the ring finger, is capa- this trait in every page, and our own experience ble of independent movements, a power pos- has made us acquainted with it: we mean the sessed by no other animal ; and the thumb is so universal degeneracy of the human race; a fact elongated as to meet readily the tips of any of the which, however men may have differed as to its fingers : the fingers themselves, and especially cause, has in every generation been acknowledgthe pulpy tips at their extremities, are freely ed; and, as if the memory of Eden still lingered supplied by a nervous tissue, which communicates on the earth, has been blended with a looking a discriminating sensibility peculiar to our race. back to a traditionary period of innocence and Hence the admirable fitness of the hand for the purity before “all flesh had corrupted his way;" prehension and examination of the minutest ob- and the sage and the poet have alike lamented jects, and the precision with which its actions are the long-passed golden age.

But amidst the executed.

errors of the ancient philosophers and the vain Man possesses neither offensive nor defensive speculations of the modern, the Christian has a weapons; but this very deficiency adds to his sure word of revelation, which at once clears up improvement, inasmuch as it throws him back the mystery ; and he learns that by one man's upon his internal resources, and calls forth the disobedience sin entered the world, and death by energies of his mind. His first step in civiliza- sin. Hence the Scriptures may emphatically be tion is to clear out a spot of ground for his dwells said to contain an account of the Natural History ing; resist the inroads of the wild and ferocious of the Human Race, presenting us with our true animals ; drive to a distance or exterminate the origin and destiny. Who can read the affecting intractable; and subdue the more docile to him- details, the touching histories, the striking narraself. Art supplies the means which nature has tives, which those records so simply and so beauwithheld ; and the rude hunter of the forest tifully portray, without feelings of sympathy and founds an abode, and rears a family to be the delight? Who can reflect, without admiration forefathers of a mighty nation.

and instruction, upon the deep knowledge of huMultiplying after the subsidence of the deluge, man nature they unfold, from the time in which the human race has spread itself over every por- Adam fell, through successive ages, and in every tion of the globe, and ramified into a thousand condition of society; to the times of primitive tongues and nations. Capable of inhabiting simplicity, when Abraham led his son Isaac up every climate, and in every situation surrounding the mount of Moriah, thus shadowing forth a himself with the necessaries of life, Man peoples Saviour that should become an offering for sin ; the burning regions of the torrid zone, and the and up to the days of refinement and luxury, ice-girt shores of the Arctic Ocean. To him the when Felix trembled on his throne, and Paul mountain, the valley, the morass, and the desert, preached the “unknown God” at Athens ? are alike; and, modifying his food according to The Scriptures, thus interesting to our feelings, locality, he thrives upon rice, and the plantain, by the pictures of human characters and motives and the palm-nut on the plains of India ; upon they display, contain subjects of a higher imthe raw flesh and blubber of the seal, on the frozen port, subjects more nearly connected with our snows of Greenland. Between these points there eternal welfare: they alone teach the true nature are innumerable grades and distinctions in habits, of God, and of ourselves as immortal beings; in manners, in food, in civilization, and moral they alone give us an account of Man's first trangqualities; but different as the tribes into which gression and apostasy, by which a stain has been the human race is divided may appear, they inay

transmitted down the chain of human existence, be ultimately reduced to about five standing va- contaminating every child of Adam, and bringrieties, the descendants of a common parent. I ing death into the world. Hence do they insist

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MONKEYS.

[QUADRUMANA.

upon the necessity of a mediatorial sacrifice for of prophecy, we see with unbeclouded eyes, the
sin; hence was the first promise given, “the Seed dark sayings having been fulfilled, and the dim
of the woman shall bruise the serpent's head;” outline having been completed; so that our faith
hence the Messiah foretold who should destroy | may repose on facts, which are matters of his-
sin and death, to whom a series of prophets point- tory, while his rested on the bare promise of
ed, and whom Pilate crucified on Calvary. But things yet to come.
until the coming of the Messiah, we learn that If under such circumstances, with the light of
God ordered typical sacrifices of slain animals, day around us, the Morning Star having arisen,
through which, looking by faith to the antitype, we be found without faith, how doubly awful is
Man might approach his offended Maker. Thus, our condition ! “ The soul that sinneth, it shall
without shedding of blood, there was no remis- die.” But Christ has endured this penalty ; he
sion of sins till the Mediator came, who, “after has paid the forfeit of the bond ; nay, he has mag-
He had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat | nified the law, and asks but our belief, our reliance,
down at the right hand of God.”

and our heart. “He that believeth in me shall How long after the subsidence of the deluge the have everlasting life.” The Redeemer came not patriarchal religion and faith continued pure on clothed with the terrors of omnipotence to dethe earth, it is, perhaps, impossible to say; most stroy, but clad in mercy to save; and “though probably but a short time, becoming more and he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor, more corrupted as nations diverged from the com- that we, through his poverty, might be made mon stock: and yet as if every nation should, rich ;"—rich in that peace which passeth underwith an indication of its origin, preserve a rem- standing; rich in the love of God, in the abiding nant of the mode of worship appointed by God, influences of the Holy Spirit; rich in the bright and alone acceptable, as an accusing witness, we prospect of a glorious eternity; and rich in the find the offering of sacrifices to have been a uni- final inheritance of a mansion in the upper world, versal practice among all

nations, a belief in the a house not made with hands, eternal in the heanecessity of approach to Deity through a media- vens: there to mingle with the prophets and torial altar surviving the wreck of their religion. martyrs of old, and the spirits of the just made Among the idolatrous heathens of the present perfect. Thus, reader, may our faith be fixed day, among nations who forbid and abhor the or- on the Rock of ages, and our hopes full of imdinary slaughter even of the meanest animal, mortality. (considering all living things as an emanation of Deity, and about to return into the essence of Deity again,) this religious practice still prevails. Nor is it a little singular, that the Brahmins entertain ORDER II.- QUADRUMANA. a proverbial saying, not only similar in import, but in words, to that of the Jewish law—“ With- The extremities four, all terminated by hands; the teeth

of three kinds.-This Order is divided into two Genera out shedding of blood there is no remission of

-MONKEYS, and LEMURS. sins.” Thus do we see that all nations, in ancient as

MONKEYS. Simia, LINNÆUS. well as in modern times, preserving the sacrificial mode of worship, however disfigured their reli- BETWEEN man and the creatures below him gion might be with idolatry, concur in the neces- there is a vast hiatus, or chasm, by which he is sity of a mediator through whom to approach severed from them ; nor is he only thus separated, offended Deity. But the Jews, to whom a clearer | but he is exalted upon a pinnacle far above them light was given, looked expressly forward to a all. On his countenance and air are imprinted Messiah, the subject of prophecy, the “ rod out majesty and dominion : reason and speech, those of the stem of Jesse,” and the “ Prince of peace” sacred gifts of God, sanction his pre-eminence, —a Messiah, whom their sacrifices, the scape- and forbid that it should be called usurpation. goat, and their many ceremonials, so evidently Hence, between the lowest savage, " that bends set forth. The Messiah came. “God sent his his bow, and lives upon the chase,” and the brute Son in the fulness of time ;” but he was despised, that may be considered highest in the scale, there rejected, and crucified, offering himself an obla- is an immeasurable distance. We are led to these tion for the sins of the world, that “whosoever observations because some, judging neither wisely believeth on Him should not perish, but have nor well, have endeavoured to reduce the human everlasting life.” “Surely He has borne our species to the same degrading level, or nearly so, griefs, and carried our sorrows!”

with the singular animals of this order, which, Hence, as the holy prophets of old looked for- notwithstanding their fancied resemblance, have ward to the office and person of a promised Re- | little of even the “ masque” of the human figure, deemer, whose days on earth were yet to come, and nothing of its motions and attitude. do we, on the contrary, look back upon a finished It requires little philosophy to confute the falwork, a complete atonement, and recognise a lacy of such doctrines, which have issued only Mediator who hath ascended the Holy of holies, from the atheist or the fool, and at once discrimiand ever liveth to make intercession for us, not nate between man, made in the likeness of his with the blood of slain beasts, but by pleading Maker, a moral agent, a reasoning soul, and the his own blood and his own merits, according to ape, whose boasted intelligence is scarcely above,

an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things some may think below, that of the faithful dog. and sure.” There is, however, this difference Writers and travellers, too credulous themselves, between the Christian and the pious Jew of old ; too fond of the marvellous, or designedly propathat, whereas he saw indeed darkly, and through gating falsehoods, have, it is true, misled even a glass, and beheld his Messiah in the dim visions | the learned with their wonderful accounts of

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QUA DRUMANA.]

THE ORANG-OUTAN.

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“ men with long tails, and covered with yellowish rently giving no support; but in the trees, on the hair, navigating the ocean in boats, and bartering other hand, they exhibit the most astonishing parrots in exchange for iron;” or of “long- agility, suspending themselves by the tail, and armed hairy men,” whose language was a hissing swinging from one bough to another beyond sound, acting the part of robbers and banditti. their reach with inconceivable address, or traBut such descriptions, which in charity we would versing the smallest branches with the utmost refer to ignorance, credulity, and a heated fancy, care and rapidity. Another singular tribe of have faded before science, and would now excite American monkeys are known by the name of ridicule even in the nursery. But what shall we Howlers; wild, ferocious, and untractable, they say of Bontius, a grave physician, who, in the abound in large troops in the dense forests of description of an ape, to which he assigns every Guiana and the Brazils, which, as night sets in, grace and virtue, affirms the capability of these resound with their hideous and terrific yellings. animals for language, which they would exercise New Holland, among its singular animals, prewere it not for the well grounded fear of being sents us with no monkeys; and it is presumed compelled to labour! What of Gassendi, who that none are inhabitants of the large island of asserts, in behalf of some species of ape, his ap- Madagascar. The monkeys of the old and new titude for our attitude, actions, and dress; his world form therefore two subgenera, each, as we discrimination and ear in music, and his capacity have hinted, including numerous groups, from for learning the flute or guitar! Maupertuis which we shall select the most striking examples longed for the brilliant and instructive conversa- as illustrative of our subject. tion of the unsophisticated men with tails; and even Linnæus fancied a homo troglodytes but We first notice the ORANG-OUTAN. (Simia little lower than himself, and capable of progres- | Satyrus, Linn.). (See Engraving, No. 1.) This sive refinement. The best refutation of such fa- celebrated species is a native of the islands bulous nonsense is to present our readers with a of Borneo and Sumatra, and the peninsula of description of a few of the leading species which Malacca, dwelling in the deepest recesses of have come under our personal observation, pre- forests of gigantic growth, and seldom venturing mising a few general remarks.

into the more thinly wooded districts: hence it The ape and monkey tribes (Simia of LINN.) is an object of curiosity even to the natives. are exclusively confined to the warmer latitudes Until within the last few years a great degree of of the old and new continents, peopling in mul- obscurity has rested upon the Orang-outan, as titudes the deep forests of the torrid zone, and to its identity with the Pongo, which, however, occasionally wandering for fruits or grain into is now ascertained to be the same species in the the more cultivated portions of the adjacent dis- adult age, the young alone having been seen alive tricts. The only point of Europe in which any in Europe. The height of the full-grown animal one of the species is found, in a wild state, is the has been stated as at least equal to that of man; rock of Gibraltar, where the Barbary ape, an an assertion, however, to be received with some aboriginal of the opposite coast of Africa, appears degree of hesitation, as it is not borne out by the to have become naturalized, most probably from skins or skeletons which have hitherto reached individuals which at some period have been pur- Europe. The height of the largest preserved posely introduced, or have escaped from confine specimen of the adult we have seen is about four

feet; but we are aware of the description of one, The almost illimitable number of distinct spe- by the late Dr. Abel, killed at Ramboon, the cies comprehended by the genus Simia, has ren- stature of which, according to the details which dered a subdivision of it into subordinate groups he laid before the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, not only convenient, but necessary, inasmuch as January 5, 1825, must have exceeded sev feet. they are characterized by essential points of dif- The hair of the Orang is long, coarse, and of ference. Of these, several are peculiar to the a brownish red; it covers the body and limbs, old continent; others to the warmer regions of but is thinly scattered over the hands and feet : America : and it is worthy of remark, that these on the forehead its direction is upwards. In a two portions of the globe possess their peculiar very young individual of this species, which, tribes; the Simiæ of the old world being never while alive, came under notice, the hair was very found in America, and vice versa. The American dark, approaching black ; but we have reasons species may always be distinguished by the lateral to suspect that it becomes lighter as it advances position of the nostrils, between which there in- in age. The forehead and face, as well as the tervenes a considerable space: this is an invari- palms of the hands and feet, are naked; the skin, able sign. Moreover, no transatlantic species where exposed, being somewhat lead-coloured. has ever been discovered in which the tail is The arms are of immense length, the hands wanting; but, on the contrary, in many that long and narrow, the fingers slender, the thumb organ is endowed with the singular power of very short. The feet are also long, and resemble prebension, a circumstance which never occurs hands; the heel, however, projects: the great in any species proper to Asia or Africa. Another toe, or, as its true use would lead us to call it, peculiarity in many consists in the imperfection hinder thumb, is also very short, and furnished of the thumb, that portion of the hand being re- in the male only with a small or imperfect nail, duced to a mere rudiment, and in some altogether which appendage would seem not to exist in the wanting. These are known by the name of female. The inferior extremities are very short, Spider Monkeys: on the ground they are awk- and bear a singular disproportion to the arms, ward and embarrassed in their manners beyond whose extent of sweep is very great; like the measure, dragging themselves along with pain arms, however, they have a peculiar freedom of and difficulty, their loosely-jointed limbs appa- | motion, owing to a constitution of the hip-joint,

ment.

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THE ORANG-OUTAN.

[QUADRUMANA.

which allows the head of the thigh-bone to whose loss virtue and science will ever deplore, rotate at liberty in the socket. In most animals was out with a party of men in Sumatra, when in (and it may be seen in those killed for food, as some trees, removed from the dense forest, a oxen, sheep, etc.) the head of the thigh-bone is female Orang, with a young one in its arms, was tied down to the socket by a very strong liga- discovered ; and the pursuit commenced. In the ment, termed ligamentum teres, one end of which ardour of the moment, and excited by the hope is fixed on the top of the ball, the other in the of possessing an animal so rare, the gentleman bottom of the cup or hollow, and which, requir- forgot every thing but the prize before him, and ing to be cut or broken before separation of the urged on his men by the promise of a reward, bones can be effected, while it adds to strength should their exertions be successful. Thus stimand secures against frequent dislocation, dimin- ulated, they followed up the chase; the animal ishes in an equal ratio the extent of motion. But encumbered by her young one, making prodigious the Orang-outan, as he does not walk on the efforts to gain the dense and intricate recesses of ground, and so throw the whole weight of his the wood, springing from tree to tree, and endeabody in leaping or running on that joint, does vouring by every means to elude her pursuers. not require it to be tightly braced, but on the Several shots were fired; and at length one took contrary that it should be allowed the utmost fatal effect, the ball penetrating the right side of liberty, this ligament is therefore entirely want- the chest. Feeling herself mortally wounded, ing

and with the blood gushing from her mouth, she The body is stoutly built, very muscular, and from that moment took no care of herself, but the chest extremely capacious; but the belly is with a mother's feelings summoned up all her round and protuberant. During youth the fore- dying energies to save her young one. She threw head and skull appear well developed, and carry it onwards over the tops of the trees, and from something of a human character; but, as the one branch to another, taking the most desperate animal advances in age, the bones of the face ex- leaps after it herself, and again facilitating its pand, and, attaining their full dimensions, throw progress until the intricacy of the forest being the skull backwards, giving the forehead so re- nearly gained, its chances of success were sure. treating an aspect as to take off every trace of All this time the blood was flowing; but her resemblance to the “human face divine ;” a re- efforts had been unabated, and it was only when semblance which is still further diminished by the her young one was on the point of attaining to a projecting muzzle, retreating chin, and lips capa- place of safety that she rested on one of the topble of singular protrusion. The canine teeth are most branches of a gigantic tree. True to her large and strong; the ears small; the throat ruling passion, even in death, she turned for a swollen, the skin there being loose and folded : moment to gaze after her young one-reeled, and this skin envelopes a double membranous sac, fell head foremost dead to the ground. The communicating with the larynx, or windpipe, and sight was so touching, that it called forth the extending even below the collar bones. These sympathy of the whole party. The eagerness of sacs are capable of being inflated at will to an the chase subsided; but so deep an impression enormous extent, which is the case when the did the maternal tenderness and unexpected selfanimal expresses either anger or pleasure; but devotion of the poor Orang make on the gentlewhat may be the use of such an apparatus in its man alluded to, whose heart was indeed formed in physical economy is unknown.

“ nature's gentlest mould,” that he expressed the The eyes are rather close, dark, oval in figure, utmost remorse and pity, declaring that he would with large well defined eyelids fringed with not go through the same scene again for all the lashes. The expression of the countenance is world: nor did the tragical death of the animal grave and melancholy, and accords with the cha- cease to haunt his mind for many weeks; and he racter of the animal, which exhibits nothing of never afterwards recurred to it without feelings the petulance and restlessness so peculiar to the of emotion. The preserved skin is now in the monkey tribe in general.

Museum of the Zoological Society; an invaluaThe Orang-outan is essentially an inhabitant ble specimen. of the trees, the whole of its configuration and As the Orang-outan is grave and gentle in its structure exhibiting the beau ideal of a climbing manners, so it is more docile than any of the animal ; indeed, he is utterly incapable of walking monkey tribe, easily imitating some of our in an erect position ; but when on the ground actions ; learning to use a spoon, and even a rests on his long arms, between which he drags fork; and acquiring a relish for sweetmeats, his body forwards with an effort of difficulty and coffee, or spirits. Fond of being noticed, it is awkwardness. To view the Orang in his proper capable also of great attachment. element, he must be seen in the woods of his own A young individual of about four years of age, climate; it is there that he displays the most which came under our immediate notice, but amazing address and vigour : the firmness of which died a short time after its arrival in Enghis grasp, the length of his sinewy arms, and land, had, by its intelligence and docility, conthe power of his muscles, combining to give him ciliated during its voyage the general favour of every advantage, so that he darts along from all on board. Accustomed to sit at table, it branch to branch, and tree to tree, with a rapidity behaved with more decorum than many children, which baffles pursuit.

and used a spoon more dexterously. At a port We do not know whether the following anec- where the vessel lay for some time on her homedote is generally known or not, it may however ward passage, the Orang was taken on shore, and be depended upon for its correctness, and we give it is supposed had once accompanied some of the it because it illustrates the manners and charac- men to the shop of a woman who sold coffee, ter of this extraordinary animal :-A gentleman, which he found so much to his taste, that he took

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