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QUADRUMANA.]

MONKEYS-THE MANDRILL.

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The species of monkey so blindly reverenced hair, which contrasts very singularly with its in India is the ENTELLUS. (Semnopithecus En- | large grey and bushy beard surrounding the tellus.) (See Engraving, No. 5.) It is one of the whole of the head and face, and giving it an immost common monkeys in Hindostan and the posing air of gravity and wisdom. The BONNET islands of the Indian Archipelago, but is an ani- MONKEY, with the hair on the top of the head mal of very rare occurrence in the menageries of disposed in rays, diverging from a centre, so as Europe. We only know of a single individual to form the resemblance of a Chinese cap. To having been brought alive to England, and this these others might be added. was in the collection of the Zoological Society : it however shortly died, unable to endure the We shall now proceed to the Baboons, the most cold, of which it was extremely susceptible; it is brutal, ferocious, and disgusting of the tribe. now preserved in the Museum of that institution. They exhibit nothing of the gentleness and

In India this species congregates in multitudes, sagacity of the orang-outan or gibbons, nothing which, emboldened by the respect and forbear of the lively and playful, though petulant vivacity ance uniformly experienced, infest the skirts of of the monkeys; their revolting characteristics towns, villages, orchards, gardens, and cultivated are unmixed with any ameliorating feature; and grounds, where they commit great devastation. the hideous expression of the face accords most With perfect nonchalance they appropriate to thoroughly with the disposition. Attaining to a themselves the produce of the labourer's toil, and large size, and possessing vast strength, they are exercise their discrimination in the selection of extremely formidable, and, except when very the choicest fruits, while the superstitious pos- young, cannot be taken alive. The muzzle is sessor, unwilling or afraid to expel them by force, elongated into the form of a snout ; the eyes are with great submission remains a passive spec- small, close set, and deeply sunk, with a horribly tator!

sinister expression; the canine teeth are of imWe introduce this specimen not only on ac- mense size; the skull is contracted ; the cheeks count of its scarceness in Europe, and the rever- furnished with large pouches for provision; the ence it obtains in Bengal, but because it is a tail is short, but varies in different species. Con: characteristic specimen of a group to which Mons. fined chiefly, if not entirely, to the hottest parts F. Cuvier has given the generic name of Sem- of Africa, where they are dreaded by the natives, nopithecus, (from Leuvos, to be held in veneration, they hold almost unlimited dominion in the deep and 110nt, a monkey,) a group distinguished by forest, or among the rocky and wooded mounmany particulars which ally it to the gibbons. tains, few animals, except the leopard, panther, In the shape of the head and expression of the or lion, being able to contend against their physiognomy there is a close similarity. Like strength and ferocity. In confinement they have the gibbons, the monkeys of this group have a been known to give way to paroxysms of fury, fifth tubercle on the crown of the last molar tooth raised to such a pitch as to become the cause of in the lower jaw. The cheek-pouches are want- death, and have dropped down and expired from ing, or, where found, so small as scarcely to de- the overwhelming violence of the emotion. Vinserve the name. The body is slightly made; the dictive to the utmost, and jealous of the slightest limbs long and slender. The tail is of great offence, their keeper is never safe, and several length, considerably exceeding that of the body. instances are recorded in which the incautious

When taken at an early age, the Entellus attendant has either been destroyed or rescued Monkey is familiar, playful, and very agile; yet with the greatest difficulty. A case of the former gentle, and devoid of petulance or malice. Its kind occurred some years ago at Paris ; the man, iemper and disposition, however, alter materially it is supposed in play, was struggling with a as its age advances, a listless apathy and mistrust woman belonging to the establishment, close by supervening, with a propensity to obtain its end the den of a large mandrill, which she had been by force rather than by the exercise of ingenuity accustomed to feed and notice ; its rage was imor cunning. The colour of the Entellus easily mediately excited, and, by a violent exertion of distinguishes it from every other species : the strength, it forced asunder the bars so as to allow ears, face, and hands are black; the fingers long its arms to be stretched out, and, before the man and slender, but the thumb short; the forehead was aware, grasped his neck with its sinewy is garnished with a row of stiff black hairs pro- hands, and strangled him before assistance could jecting forwards; the face is encircled by a tuft be procured. of greyish white, meeting under the chin in the form of a pointed beard; the general colour of The MANDRILL, (Cynocephalus Mormon,) the body is an ashy grey, with a slight tinge of | (see Engraving, No. 6,) is the most prominent straw colour, becoming pale on the inside of the example of this ferocious tribe. limbs and under surface. The height of the This extraordinary and hid us animal is a young specimen from which our description was native of Guinea, where it attains to a stature taken is between two and three feet. It is, how- nearly equalling that of man. Its bulk, however, ever, said to grow much larger.

in proportion to its height, is very great, the We might select many more from the catalogue muscles of its shoulders, neck, and arms having with which to gratify our readers. We can only a prodigious volume. From its great powers and refer them to the most conspicuous; and among ferocity the Mandrill, when wild, is one of the these especially the PROBOSCIS MONKEY, a large most formidable of animals. In confinement its species from Cochin-China, distinguished by its likings and antipathies seem the result of mere long nose, which impresses upon its features a caprice. On the approach of certain individuals, striking caricature of the human countenance. without any manifest cause, it will display the The WANDEROU, covered with long black glossy | most violent fury, shake the bars of its cage, and

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THE MANDRILL-MONKEYS OF AMERICA

[QUADRUMANA

evince the malignity of its feelings by expressive appearance there was much to astonish or alarm, gestures and actions.

The least indication of but nothing to please or attract. The general timidity on the part of a spectator will imme- colour of this species is an olive brown; the hair diately elicit a similar demonstration; as if the on the top of the head forms a tuft; the forehead brute, aware of the fear his very appearance had projects in an acute ridge over the eyes; the inspired, felt instinctively propelled to follow up cheeks are elevated on each side, by a singular the effect. Such, we believe, to be its manners development of the bone which forms a socket for when wild in its native climate; for, notwith- the roots of the immense canine teeth, furrowed also standing its powers and ferocity, it is still a obliquely, and of a rich violet blue: a vermilion coward, and when boldly opposed will not make line begins a little above the eyes, runs down the a close attack, keeping up the warfare with mis- nose, and spreads over the lip; the nostrils are siles, unless danger presses, and no other means large; the lips bearded ; the hands are small, are in its power. Should, however, its presence taper, and well made. Many tales, probably much produce terror and flight, instead of determined exaggerated, are told of this animal in Guinea; opposition, the consequences would be almost and he is said to carry off the negro women into inevitable destruction.

the impenetrable recesses of the forests. The Although the food of the Mandrill, like that of dread entertained by the natives may give rise to the monkey, consists of fruit, grain, and roots, the account. still we have good reason to believe that flesh Having entered thus fully into the habits of forms an essential part of its subsistence. The this animal, as illustrative of the baboons in individuals with which we have been acquainted, general, whose characters, modified by size and have all manifested a fondness for animal diet. A strength, are universally the same, we shall not sufficiently conclusive experiment was, however, attempt to introduce another example, but pass made in the presence of a scientific gentleman, on to that great division of the monkey race who related it to us, and which confirms the confined to the continent of America, and which opinion. The animal was first tried with a live differs in certain points and features from the bird, which he immediately destroyed by a bite, quadrumana of India and Africa. stripped of its feathers, and devoured. A rabbit was next given ; and this he also killed instantly The monkeys of America may be divided into by a bite across the back, and proceeded to de- two leading groups: the SAPAJOUS, and the vour, but was not permitted. A young one of SAGOINS. this species, which died lately in the Zoological The Sapajous have four grinders more than Gardens, during dentition, was always supplied other monkeys, thirty-six in all; the tail is long, with boiled meat in addition to vegetables, which and capable of being twisted round any object so it relished exceedingly. How early the native as to grasp it like a hand; the nostrils are wide disposition of the Mandrill begins to develop apart, having a lateral position, and the contour itself was made fully manifest in this individual ; of the skull is round. Some of the species are notwithstanding its youth, it exhibited an inso- distinguished by an indomitable wildness and lence and capriciousness which would have grown ferocity; others, timid and listless in their natural with its growth, and strengthened with its freedom, are docile and affectionate in captivity. strength. And is not this similar to what we Without suffering the minute details of the subsee in the human race around us? The vices ject, and the many minor subdivisions, which are which show themselves in childhood, like the first often both useless and tiresome, to detain us, we small buddings of the tree in spring, unless shall endeavour, while keeping to a systematic checked on their first appearance by the pious outline, to exhibit those points which convey to care, reproof, and instructions of parents or our readers true and forcible illustrations. teachers, applied by the grace of God to the There are, as we have intimated, no baboons heart, become daily more and more unfolded ; in the American continent; but their place would and as the bud expands into leaves, and flowers, seem to be supplied by a family of the Sapajous, and fruit, so do the evil propensities of our allied to them, if not in external characters, at nature increase with rank luxuriance; but their least in nature and disposition. They are known flowers have the odour of death, and their fruit by the name of Howlers. Many of the species the bitterness of perdition.

attain to a considerable size, and, from their feIn the menagerie of Mr. Cross a splendid spe- rocity and strength, are very formidable. They cimen of the Mandrill has been exhibited ; his live in large troops, and increase the terror which height appeared nearly five feet; and his strength, their presence is calculated to inspire by the most especially in the upper parts of the body, tre- tremendous yelling, produced in concert, and mendous. Jerry, for such was his familiar cog- chiefly at night, till the forests resound. The nomen, was a great favourite; he was accommo- frightful voice of these animals is the result of a dated with a chair in his den, on which he was peculiar anatomical construction of the windpipe, accustomed to sit, taking his porter and smoking so adapted as to increase its volume; within the his pipe with a singular air of gravity and satisfac- ascending branches of the lower jaw, which are tion. "The diet to which he gave the preference very high, there is lodged a bony drum or barrel, was cooked vegetables and meat: we understand formed by an inflation of a bone connected with also that he once dined on hashed venison before the larynx, and known to anatomists by the name the late king. Notwithstanding all these accom- of os hyoïdes; in this the reverberation takes plishments he was still the Mandrill ; his voice place. The tail in every species is long, and has was harsh and guttural; the expression which the under surface naked, so as to be capable of ever lurked in his eyes, even in the calmest nicer application in grasping; to this peculiarity moments, betrayed the brutal savage. In his , another may be added, namely, that when the

QUADRUMANA.]

MONKEYS OF AMERICA--THE SAPAJOUS.

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trees.

tail is extended, it naturally, and without any limbs; the under parts are red; a bandeau of voluntary effort, forms a hook-like curve at its hair passes across the forehead, terminated by extremity, in the same manner as the claws of a the elevated brushes, which rise to a point. bird contract and grasp firmly, solely by the These mimic horns do not appear until the anibending of the leg and sinking down of the body mal is fully adult. The skin is of a violet blue. in the natural posture of rest on a twig or perch. It is a native of Guiana. In both cases, too, the design is the same-security during sleep, as well as to allow the attention Among the most singular and extraordinary to be directed to other things, while the position Sapajous, or grasping-tailed monkeys of America, of safety is maintained firmly and involuntarily. | are a group termed SPIDER MONKEYS, whose Our reader will here perceive how these are awkward trailing mode of progression on the beautiful instances of the adaptation of means to ground, together with the length, slenderness, a given end. To the philosopher the contempla- and pliancy of their limbs, has obtained for them tion is replete with delight and satisfaction, as it this appellation. The scientific name of the geraises him from the creature to the Creator, whose nus is Ateles, (Ateins, imperfect,) from the contender mercies are over all His works; for these struction of the hand, in which the thumb is are points which prove that His mighty plan is either totally wanting, or merely rudimentary. not confined to a great outline only, but extends These are animals essentially formed for the itself to the utmost minutiæ connected with the

The tail is very long, and possesses not well-being of every living thing.

only the power of grasping in an astonishing deWhy there should exist these differences of gree, but from the circumstances of the under structure between the monkeys of the old world surface being covered with a naked skin of exand their transatlantic relatives we cannot pre-quisite sensibility, it may be indeed considered sume to say ; but if, in an investigation of nature as an additional hand. Suspended by this memthe mind is so soon beyond its depth, what must ber only, they will swing backwards and forit be when it endeavours to penetrate the mys- wards, or launch themselves to a distant branch teries of the Eternal Cause ?

with great dexterity. Their long limbs are so To our account of the Howlers, (Mycetes,) we flexible, and capable of being thrown into such may add, that they are natives of Guiana and the positions, as to make them seem almost disjointinter-tropical regions of America; but with regard ed; hence they are never at a loss among the to the differences by which the species are de- branches, where, instead of displaying the same termined, much confusion yet exists, from the embarrassment which characterizes them on the variation of colour occasioned by age and sex. ground, they exhibit the most surprising feats of Among those, however, which are clearly made address and activity. The remote parts of the out, may be numbered the GUARIBA HOWLER, forest are their resort, where they frequent the (Mycetes fascus,) an inhabitant of the deserts tallest trees in large troops, and mutually sucand wooded solitudes of Brazil. The RED cour each other in the moment of danger, utterHOWLER, (M. seniculus,) of Guiana, a fierce spe- ing lamentable cries when hunted or hurt. cies, dwelling in troops, and noted for the sten- Should an individual be wounded, he puts his torian power of its voice. The CARAYA of Bra- hand to the part, and gazes quietly at the blood zil, (M. caraya ;) and a few others. They are as it flows, till he sinks and expires. In captiall intractable and ferocious. Their activity is vity they are very gentle, and free from petuvery great, so that it is difficult to secure them lance or malice, exhibiting an aspect, if not of alive; and indeed, according to Azara, it is apathy, of plaintive melancholy. scarcely less so to obtain them with the gun ; for when wounded, they immediately coil the tail In the Museum of the ogical Society the round one of the highest branches of the tree, curious reader will find several species of this and hang by it with the head downwards for days singular group, among which are the BLACK after death, in fact until decomposition begins to SPIDER MONKEY, (Ateles ater,) and a lately distake effect.

covered species called the WHITE-FRONTED SPI

DER MONKEY, (A. frontalis.). The attenuated Next to the Howlers are classed the CAPUCHIN form of the body, covered with long jet-black MONKEYS, (Cebus,) distinguished by the round- hair, the length and flexibility of their limbs, the ness of the skull, the short muzzle, and grasping readiness and power of the tail, and the strange tail, but which is notwithstanding covered with contortions they assume, with the serious expreshair throughout on its under surface. The prin- sion of the countenance, place them among the cipal examples are the WHITE-FACED CAPUCHIN; most striking objects of the collection. When the WEEPER, (C. apella ;) the GREY SAJOU, (C. at rest, a favourite position is that of folding the griseus ;) the BEARDED, (C. barbatus ;) the OJA- arms across the chest, and laying each hand upon VAPAVI, (C. albifrons ;) and many more : all na- the opposite shoulder, while the tail is entwined tives of the warmer parts of South America. around the perch. Although by no means spite

ful or mischievous, they are very apt, as we have Of this group, one of the most curious is the frequently seen, to stretch their arms out between HORNED MONKEY. (Cebus fatuellus.) It is a spe- the bars of the cage, and snatch a riband or other cies growing to a considerable size; but in its ornament from a lady's bonnet, ponder over it manners is gentle and tractable. Its name is with a look of grave scrutiny, and then, as if taken from two strong brushes of hair elevated deeming it worthless, or unable to form any confrom the base of the forehead, producing a rejecture respecting it, throw it down, or retain semblance to horns. The general colour is a it in the grasp of the tail for a future examinasooty brown, becoming black on the head and / tion.

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