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RUMINANTIA.]

THE MUSK OX.

115

laminæ instead.

upon so slight a foundation. This singular ani- and with it the great order Ruminantia ; an order mal is confined to the arctic regions of America, characterized by features too simple and true to inhabiting the barren lands lying to the north- be ever mistaken. We have found the different wards of the 60th parallel of latitude, but some- genera composing it to be such as include the times appearing a few degree lower; westwards, useful, the graceful, and the interesting — the it occurs as low as 57°.

camel, the reindeer, the antelope, and the cattle Dr. Richardson says, that the “ districts inha- of our farms. We have often, in our examinabited by the Musk Ox are the proper lands of tion of it, had occasion to admire the wisdom the Esquimaux; and neither the northern In- and the goodness of God; and in looking back dians nor the Crees have an original name for it, upon it, as we take our leave, may we not say, both terming it bison, with an additional epithet. “ How excellent are thy works! in wisdom thou The country frequented by the Musk Ox is hast made them all ?” mostly rocky and destitute of wood, except on the banks of the larger rivers, which are generally more or less thickly clothed with spruce-trees. Their food is similar to that of the caribou, (reindeer,) grass at one season, lichens at an

ORDER IX.-CETACEA. other."

The Musk Ox is generally found in small Body constructed for inhabiting the water: limbs consistherds of twenty or thirty head, which are ha

ing of an anterior pair only, forming paddles or oars;

teeth variable--in some cases there are only horny rassed by the hunters as often as they approach the habitations of man ; yet the chase is not without danger, as the males are apt, when irritated We have hitherto been contemplating races of and wounded, to turn with vindictive fury upon mammalia furnished with four extremities, adaptthe hunter. The flesh of the animal when fat is ing them to traverse the earth, to roam the woods, tolerably good ; but when lean, as it is at certain the vales, and the mountains, which diversify the seasons, is not only coarse, but is both scented solid surface of our planet. Some few, it is true, and flavoured strongly with musk, whence the as the seal and walrus, have had the limbs formed animals distinguishing title. The senses of sight, expressly for swimming, and for habits more or smell, and hearing, are very acute; and it is less aquatic ; but even here, it will be rememdifficult for the hunter to approach a herd with- | bered that the limbs were four, and that the water out discovery.

was by no means their constant abode; they came In size, the Musk Ox is small, the carcass, on shore to bask in the sun, climbed rocks or exclusive of the offal, weighing about three hun- masses of ice, upon which they would repose for dred weight; the limbs are short and stout; the days, or sport and gambol; and that they entered hoofs being somewhat narrower, but not longer, deep caves or fissures of the cliffs along the coast than those of the caribou, so that it requires an for the purpose of bringing forth and rearing experienced hunter to know the difference of the their young, swimming out to sea only for the impressions they leave in the soil or the snow. sake of food. We have also seen that in every It runs with great swiftness, and climbs rocky order the head was separated from the body by a paths, and the abrupt sides of the hills, with distinct neck, and the skin more or less covered great agility. “ One, pursued on the banks of with hair or fur. But we are now about to contemthe Coppermine, scaled a lofty sand cliff having plate a race of mammalia possessing very differso great a declivity, that we were obliged to ent characters; a race adapted exclusively for the crawl on hands and knees to follow it.” Like ocean, where they roll and plunge and sport the bison, the Musk Ox is clothed with long among the waves, or seek the deep sea-caves, or shaggy hair, curled and matted on the neck and wander among coral groves of stately and luxushoulders, but lying more smoothly on the hips riant growth. If we look at these monsters of and hinder quarters, though still of extraordi- the deep, we find the whole of their organization nary length and very fine. The general colour | modified so as to fit them for their 6 ocean-home.” is brown, except a saddle-like mark in the centre The first modification of parts is in the limbs. of the back, of a dirty grey. Beneath the hair, We have traced the changes of the hand from there is a large quantity of brown or ash-co- man to the solidungulous animal; we have marked loured wool, forming an admirable under-coat; the opposable thumh, so perfect in the human the tail is short, and concealed among the hair. hand, beginning to shorten in the quadrumana ; The head is large and square, with a convex fore- in some of which indeed it dwindled to a mere head; the horns are very thick and broad at their rudiment; after this we saw it lose its character origin, where they rise in contact with each other as a, thumb altogether, remaining as a claw in from a flattened base; as they proceed they be the carnivora and the rodentia, in some of the come rounder and tapering, sweeping downwards orders of which it was lost. In the sloth, and between the eyes and ears till they reach the also in the other edentata, we found a diminution angle of the mouth, when they abruptly turn in the number of the fingers; these fingers, which upwards, ending in a sharp point about the level remained, having lost their flexibility. In the of the eyes. The nostrils are oblong slits' in pachydermata and in the ruminating animals, we close approximation at their lowest points, and could no longer recognize fingers at all, and the gradually diverging outwards.

The eyes are limbs were accordingly modified, losing the last moderately large; the ears short, and not very faint relics of the power of rotation, and becomconspicuous. There is a beautiful specimen of ing simple props or pillars for the body. In all this singular animal in the British Museum. these changes, in every grade of difference, we

We have thus concluded the present genus, saw a reference to habits and modes of life: the

116

THE LAMANTINE--THE DUGONG,

(CETACEA.

hands of the monkey, the hooks of the sloth, thus formed should be disposed in that organ in the talons of the lion, the hoofs of the antelope, the same relative position as in the body from are all demonstrations of design. And so it is whence they emanated. For the accomplishment in the order we are about to contemplate : the of this purpose, the humours of the eye are so adorder Cetacea, including the whales, the por- justed in their form, density, and refractive power, poises, the narwhals, giants of the brute creation, as to prevent any dispersion or decomposition of that flounder in the deep.

the rays. Thus they act in a similar manner to Here we find the posterior extremities lost, the compound object-glasses of an achromatic and the anterior limbs degenerated into the form telescope. of fins or paddles, without distinct fingers, and “ As animals reside in different media, it is only adapted to propel the body through the obvious that the eyes of each must possess difwater. If we dissect for the bones of these pad- ferent refractive powers. In the land animals, dles, we find them short and flattened, yet dis- the cornea is usually convex, and the aqueous tinct and hand-like; but the whole of this osseous humour abundant; while in aquatic animals the framework is enveloped in a cartilaginous cover- former is flat, and the latter in small quantity. ing, so as to form an undivided oar. The contour In land animals, the aqueous humour possesses of the body is fishlike, no neck being distinguish- great power of refracting rays, passing to it able, and the whole tapering down gradually through air, aided likewise by the convexity of from the head to the tail; the tail, however, (a its surface; but its refractive power in water cartilaginous structure,) though like that of a fish would be comparatively weak. This defect, howin figure, is placed not vertically, but horizontally, ever, is supplied by the spherical form and great and moved upwards and downwards by muscles refractive power of the lens, as may be seen in of enormous force and volume. This position whales, diving birds, and fishes." of the tail is indispensable to the animals of this In the Cetacea we find no external ears; there order, as it enables them, hy means of a few power- are, however, small orifices, which transmit sound ful strokes, to rise or dive with the utmost ra

to the internal organ. pidity : and be it remembered that these are ani- The present organ is divided into two families, mals that breathe the air with true lungs; that or sections: 1. The Herbivorous cetacea, which suckle their young, and rear them with tender feed on submarine plants ; 2. The True cetacea of solicitude; animals with a double heart, and Cuvier, the Piscivorous cetacea of other authors, whose blood is red and warm ; animals, in short, feeding upon fishes, moluscous animals, zoophytes, that differ in nothing, as it respects organic con- and the like. formation, from the rest of the mammalia, ex- 1. The Herbivorous cetacea. cept in the nature of their appointed habita- In this section we find teeth with a flattened tion: hence, deep as the whale may plunge, in surface, in accordance with the nature of the a few minutes he must rise, and rise rapidly, to food; the head is rounded, there are strong breathe.

moustaches on the lips, and the mammæ are pecThe skin is naked, and between it and the toral; circumstances which, when the body is muscles there is a layer of adipose substance or raised up in the water, produce something like a blubber, varying in its depth in different species : resemblance to the human figure, and have given in the whale it is ten or twelve feet. The use of rise to the fabulous narratives of travellers rethe blubber is two-fold : by its elasticity it de- specting the mermaid.fends the internal organs against the pressure of As in most true herbivorous animals, the stothe surrounding water at immense depths ; but mach is complicated, being divided into four caits principal use is to preserve the vital heat of vities. The nostrils open at the muzzle. the body in a cold medium, which has a perpetual tendency to abstract caloric. Were it not for Our first genus is Manatus, or that of the LAthis layer of blubber, one of the worst conduc- MANTINE. The body is oblong, the tail, or rather tors of heat, the whale would perish from cold, caudal paddle, oval and elongated; the grinders his gigantic carcass would stiffen in the polar sea, are eight on each side above and below : incisors for his vital energies unaided would be unable and canine teeth are wanting. We find rudito resist the effects of so low a degree of tempera- ments of nails on the edges of the anterior pad

Land mammalia of the north have thick dles or flippers, which are perhaps of use in enafurry vestments to protect the body; but fur, bling the animals to drag their body along among long and thick, would not do for the whale; it weeds and marine vegetables, as well as to carry would be useless, it would become saturated.

their young God, therefore, has given him an equivalent in Of the Lamantine three or four different spean envelope of blubber around him. We may cies are recognized. They are natives respec. also add, as another of its uses, that it increases tively of the seas which wash the shores of South the specific lightness of the body, rendering it America, and those of Western Africa, habitually more buoyant in the water.

frequenting the wide mouths of the larger rivers The eyes of the Cetacea are expressly formed at their entrance into the ocean. for the dense medium the animals inhabit. object,” says Dr. Fleming, “is visible to the eye The next genus we shall notice is one closely unless the angle formed by its extreme points allied to the preceding, namely, Halicore, ILL. exceeds thirty-four seconds of a degree. In and including but one species, the Dugong of the order to render the impression distinct, it is ne- Indian Seas, (Halicore dugong.) The grinders cessary that all the rays which proceed from any are three on each side above and below, each one point of a body should be collected in one point being composed of two cones united together at of the retina, and that all the points of union the sides, there are two incisors above, just

ture.

No

CETACEA.] ]

THE DOLPHIN-PORPOISES.

117

appearing through the gum, but possessing roots sight is quick beneath the water ; as is the hearof enormous length, enclosed in a hollow cavity ing also. It has been doubted the sense of in each of the intermaxillary bones ; these bones smell existed in any degree of perfection: it are brought forward in a singular manner, so as would appear, however, that these animals are to throw the mouth below; the body is round sensible of the noxious smell of bilge-water, and tapering; the tail crescent-shaped. The pumped from the hold of vessels, as has been tried Dugong is a native of the seas of India, of the in one or two recorded instances. The stomach adjacent islands, and of the northern line of Aus- is complicated, having many subdivisions. The tralia. In clear still water, it may be seen brows- cervical vertebræ are thin, often more or less ing on the fuci and submarine vegetables at a anchylosed together, and sometimes only five in great depth ; for this mode of feeding its mouth number. The head is large, in many exceeding is expressly placed: there is no neck which it the rest of the body. can bend down like the ox or the horse. If therefore its mouth were situated as it is in such Of the many genera embraced by this section, animals, the Dugong could not apply it to the we first select that of the Dolphins, (Delphinus, green turf of the meadows beneath the waste of LINN.) The land has its tyrants, cruel and vorawaters, without elevating the hinder parts of the cious, and, though not the largest, the most forbody perpendicularly, a position in every respect midable of terrestrial mammalia. The sea also unsuitable; the mouth is therefore placed beneath has its tyrants among the mammalia, which roam the head, so that in the natural position of the its depths; fierce and sanguinary, they are the body the animal may browse at ease. The flesh carnassiers of the waters, preying upon the finny of the Dugong is much esteemed as food, being tribes, which they chase in all directions; and delicate and tender, and not unlike beef. The their teeth are modified accordingly. Such are length of this animal is from six to seven feet. the Dolphins and the Porpoises. There is a fine specimen in the Museum of the The genus Delphinus is characterized by teeth, Zoological Society, London, from the coast of simple, conical, and numerous ; the forehead is Sumatra,

rounded, and the muzzle projects from the head

so as to form a sort of beak, or slender snout, We shall now pass to the True cetacea, a sec

well armed with weapons. tion containing several genera, and exhibiting Of this genus, our example is the celebrated the following common characters. Their food is DOLPHIN, (Delphinus delphis, LINN.,) which animal matter, such as fishes and molusca; the figures in so many fables, and has gained more skin is smooth; and on the back there is in many credit from poetry than it deserves ; not that it species a vertical cartilaginous fin, unconnected is devoid of intelligence, but its habits are wolfwith the skeleton. The nostrils, or blow-holes, are ish. In collected troops it hunts down its prey, situated on the top of the head, which is the most cleaving the waters with astonishing velocity, elevated part of the body, so as to be always and driving the flying fishes from their element above the surface of the water when the animals to take temporary refuge in the air, but still are floating. These nostrils are small openings keeping up the chase till the exhausted victims into a tubercular elongation or sack of the nares, are secured. The Dolphin is met with in all the provided with a muscular apparatus, for the pur- warmer seas; its length is from eight to ten feet. pose of compressing it with vehemence; hence it Its manners were well known to the ancients, is that the small apertures of this sack are called and it is accurately figured on many of their blow-holes, because when the animals come to the coins. Its habits of gamboling and sporting in surface to respire they produce by the forcible the deep are described by Ovid with admirable expulsion of the air a hissing noise, heard in the fidelity : whale at a great distance; and a column of vapour arises often to a considerable height. It “ Undique dant saltus, multâque adspergine rorant also sometimes happens, that long before reaching

Emerguntque iterùm, redeuntque sub æquora rursus ;

Inque chori ludunt speciem, lascivaque jactant the surface, the animal breathes out the air pent

Corpora, et acceptum patulis mare naribus effant." up in the lungs with considerable violence, throwing up the spray in arched jets d'eau ; and this “ On every side above the waves they spring, is most usually the case if the animal has been

And showers of spray in gamesome frolic fling;

Again they rise in light, again they sweep chased, or is alarmed; for then, though forced to

Beneath the briny waters of the deep, come to the surface to breathe, it has not time to And joining bands, as if in mimic play, breathe leisurely, and begins, while yet beneath

The winding measures of the dance essay,

And toss their sportive forms, and snort and blow, the water, to empty the lungs for a fresh inspira

And streams of brine through widened nostrils throw.” tion. Cuvier says, that in swallowing their prey

MSS. they ngulf larg volumes of water, which, in order to get rid of, they violently force through The PORPOISES, (Phocæna, CUVIER,) differ the nostrils by the compression of powerful from the dolphins only in having a shorter muscles. This, however, is not the opinion of muzzle equally elevated with the forehead. Captain Scoresby, whose opportunities of correct information have enabled him to rectify many The COMMON PORPOISE (Phocæna communis) errors, and add much information to our know- | is a native of our coasts, as well as of those of ledge of this race.

continental Europe : it is the smallest of the The larynx, or windpipe, opens into the back Cetacea, seldom attaining more than four or five of the nostrils in the form of a pyramid. The feet in length. It abounds in the mouths of glottis is simple, so that the voice whenever ex- rivers in shoals, where it may be seen to rise erted consists in a hellowing sound only. The every few moments to the surface, and plunge

118

THE NARWAL-CACHALOT, OR SPERMACETI WHALE.

(CETACEA.

down again instantaneously with a rolling mo- in the upper, and is armed with a range of short tion, occasioned by the up-and-down strokes of cylindrical or conical teeth on each side, received the tail.

into corresponding cavities in the upper jaw, of · We find the Porpoise among the luxuries of which the gum is as hard and callous as cartilthe table even so late as the last century; but age. The superior portion of the skull consists its flesh is oily and disagreeable. When shoals of a series of large cavities, filled with a clear of herrings or mackerel visit our shores, the transparent oleaginous fluid, which hardens on Porpoise revels in a perpetual feast, and may be cooling. In this concrete state it is known under seen pursuing its prey with great assiduity. It | the name of spermaceti, but more properly adihas been known to travel far up the course of pocire. From the skull, a chain of membranous our rivers.

sacs extends through various parts of the body,

filled with a similar fluid; they even ramify Our next genus is Monodon, which contains among the ordinary blubber beneath the skin. the NARWAL, a native of the polar seas. In this There is no dorsal fin, its place being supplied animal we find no true teeth, but two tusks, anal- by a callous ridge, terminating abruptly. The ogous to those of the elephant, implanted in the eye is placed higher than in most of the large intermaxillary bones. Of these tusks the left is Cetacea; it is black, and that on the left side is enormously developed, projecting straight for- smaller than the other; the fishermen always wards with the line of the body, being spirally choose this side, if possible, on which to attack twisted, and tapering to a point. Its length is the animal, averring that the sight of this eye

is from six to eight or ten feet; the tusk on the also less distinct. The blow-hole is a single right side is imperfectly developed, seldom ad- orifice, and directed towards the left side, termivancing far out of the socket, and sometimes not nating on the anterior part of the muzzle, which appearing beyond it. Should its fellow, how

is truncate. The want of exact symmetry beever, be broken off, it then begins to increase, tween the two sides of the skull, as indicated by though it never equals the lost one. According the smallness of the left eye, and the inclination to general account, the Narwal is about double or of the blow-hole to that side, appears to obtain triple the length of its tusk ; the skin is marbled throughout the Cetacea in general. It has been with brown and white: the mouth is small. The noticed by Cuvier ; and Dr. Grant, in his “Outvelocity of this animal, and the impetus with lines of Comparative Anatomy,” observes rewhich it cleaves the waters, may be conceived specting the Cetacea, “ the right side of the head from the fact of its having been known, in more is generally more developed than the other, and instances than one, to plunge its tusk through the the nostrils are inclined to the left side.” It is sides of a vessel, in the timbers of which the not, therefore, without reason that the whalers portion driven in has been snapped off by the regard the vision of the left eye of the Cachalot violence of the blow.

as imperfect. The orifice of the ear is scarcely The Narwal is said to attack the huge whale, to be found; it is situated in an excrescence of into whose sides he drives his formidable weapon, the skin between the eye and the ear. and greedily takes in the oily blubber which The Cachalot (Physeter macrocephalus, LAoozes from each wound inflicted. It is also said CEP.) appears to be by no means so limited in its to live upon dead animal matter in general. The habitat as many of the giant race to which it word Narwal, or Narwale, is derived from the belongs. It is not only on the northern seas Gothic nar, or Icelandic ner, signifying a beak that the Cachalot occurs; this animal visits the or snout; wal, or wale, being synonymous with shores of southern Europe, and advances up the our word whale, and derived from the same Teu- Mediterranean; it roams through the great Attonic root.

lantic, and has been seen off the shores of south

ern Africa, and in the channel of Mozambique ; We now arrive at a group of the Cetacea hav- it occurs in troops in the southern ocean, and ing the head so enormously large as to constitute within the regions of the antarctic circle. Aca third, or even half, of the total length of the cording to Colnett, the neighbourhood of the body. This increased magnitude of the head | Gallapagos constitutes a sort of rendezvous in has however nothing to do with the development spring for all the Cachalots frequenting the coasts of the brain, but is simply produced by the exten- of Mexico, Peru, and the gulf of Panama; and sion of the bones of the face. This group com- we have many instances on record of its having prehends those gigantic monsters of the deep, the been captured on our British coasts. In 1769, a hugest of all living beings, expressly known by Cachalot was seen off the Kentish coast; in 1774, the name of Whales.

a very large one was stranded on the coast of Nor

folk. Some few years since a small one was capWe shall first notice the genus Physeter ; it in- tured in the Thames, near Gravesend. In 1784, cludes the Cachalots, or Spermaceti Whales, thirty-two Cachalots ran aground on the coast of creatures of enormous bulk and tiger-like vora- Audierne, being stranded on the sands called city, pursuing their prey, consisting of seals and Tres Conaren : the interesting details connected large fishes, with “a bitterness and pertinacity with which circumstance were published by Prothat has scarcely any parallel in animated na- fessor Bonnaterre in the Encyclopédie Méthoture.” The head is of prodigious volume; the dique. It appears that on the 13th of March, upper jaw is destitute of teeth, and also of the persons saw, with great surprise, vast shoals of plates called whalebone, (which, as we shall see, fishes throw themselves on the shore, and a are a marked character in other genera ;) but the great number of porpoises enter the port of lower jaw, v zich is straight and elongated, and Audierne. On the 14th, at six in the morning, of enormous weight and solidity, fits into a groove the sea was high, and the winds blew from the

CETACEA.)

CAPTURE OF THE CACHALOT-THE COMMON WHALE.

119

south-east with violence. Towards Cape Estain The heart measured three feet across, the aorta, were heard extraordinary bellowings, which re- or main artery, arising from the left ventricle of sounded far along the land. Two men, who the heart, one foot three inches in diameter. The were coasting along the shore, were terror-struck, total length of the animal was sixty-three feet, especially when they saw, a little out at sea, and the circumference round the body thirty-six. enormous animals plunging about with violence, The Cachalot, however, is said sometimes to straining to resist the foaming waves which car- reach the extraordinary length of a hundred ried them on towards the shore, making the feet. Its principal locality is the polar ocean of surges roar with redoubled blows of their tails, both hemispheres. and throwing through their nostrils columns of water with a loud, hissing noise. On, however, Our next genus is that of Balæna ; it includes they were driven, struggling, with mighty but the Common Whale of the polar seas, an animal unavailing strength and fury, against the tide ; destroyed by man for the sake of its oil, which is and, to the consternation of the spectators, were so well known as an article of commerce. The stranded on the sand-bank, where they lay roll chase of it, employs thousands of men; every ing and dashing about for twenty-four hours, artifice which daring ingenuity can contrive is until, at length, they perished. Many other simi- resorted to, and hence, huge and powerful as the lar instances are upon record.

monster is, it wages an unequal war.

Year by The most remarkable instance, however, of year its numbers are diminished, and in latitudes the capture of this animal on our shores took where it formerly abounded, it is now rarely to be place during the month of February, 1819, met with. in Whitstable Bay. It appears that the Whale In the cachalots we found the lower jaw furwas observed in shallow water (on the 11th) nished with conical teeth; we now lose them off the Essex coast. “He was immediately altogether. Let us see how their place is supattacked by two boats, the men in which, plied. The upper jaw, having the form of a boat trying to kill or disable him, commenced by reversed, is furnished along the two sides with destroying his sight.” They then stabbed him, long, subtriangular, transverse laminæ, of a horny and deeming him exhausted with the immense substance, called whalebone, or baleen, set in close loss of blood, and his violent and agonized array; these plates of baleen, to the number of efforts, "attempted to secure him by two very three or four hundred on each side, with the strong cables, and with another fastened a small broad end fixed to the gum, and the apex to the anchor to his tail. The cables were speedily middle of the palate, have a fringed edge, loose snapped, and the leviathan broke from his pur- and floating; they begin small, but increase to suers, but only to meet a more certain fate on ten feet in length, and then diminish gradually. the opposite shore. The Whitstable men were The lower jaw, unprovided with a similar appamore fortunate, the Whale becoming stranded ratus, contains a thick fleshy tongue, and is upon their coast, and assisting to destroy him- arched outwards, so as to embrace these fringed self by his tremendous efforts to escape into his plates, and, when the mouth is shut, thus pronative element from the incessant persecutions of duce a kind of strainer or hanging grove of his new enemies, who endeavoured to kill him whalebone filaments touching the floor, so as to by wounds in every accessible part of his body. detain the moluscous animals on which the The noise of his floundering upon the shingles monster feeds. These are of the smallest kind, was compared by our informant to that of all for its organization; and indeed the diameter of his bones being broken, which, added to his bel- the esophagus will not permit the Whale to lowing, was as terrible to the ear as the sight of swallow bodies of any magnitude. For hundreds so vast an animal exerting his utmost power for of miles the polar seas are covered with acalaphe; existence was to the eye.”. While yet on the these the Whale engulfs by millions, straining Essex coast, he at one time became so much ex- them from the water by means of the hanging hausted by beating about in shallow water, as to fringes of the upper jaw. suffer the master of a French vessel to lash him to the stern by a cable round his tail, thus pro- The COMMON WHALE (Balæna mysticetus, mising to become an easy prize. No sooner, LINN.) equals the cachalot in magnitude. Achowever, was he towed tail foremost into deep cording to Captain Scoresby, it is now seldom water, than his strength became renovated : roused found more than seventy feet in length; it to exertion, he in turn pulled against the vessel, attained, however, in former days, when less and proved the best swimmer, towing her stern disturbed by man, and suffered to live to matuforwards after him to a considerable distance. In rity, dimensions far more considerable. Its the struggle, however, the cable broke, and, re- blubber is many feet in thickness, and yields gaining his liberty, he stranded himself by from seventy to a hundred barrels of oil. Of Whitstable. His death was ultimately effected the whalebone or baleen we need say little ; its by a seaman acquainted with the whaling busi- use in the arts and in domestic economy is ness, who thrust a spear in a proper direction, known to all. and ended his sufferings. The quantity of oil The velocity with which the Whale dashes procured was nine tons, besides the spermaceti, through the water is very great, especially wben which was also considerable. Much, however, of alarmed or irritated; and the lashings of its both had been previously lost, owing to the ponderous tail work up the sea into boiling foam: nature of the wounds, and the interval between He maketh the deep to be hoary.”

When the death of the animal and the flencing, as the roused from his slumbers on the surface of the process of cutting up the Whale is technically water, where he lies, “ stretched like a procalled.

montory,” by the pain of the harpoon, the first

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