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104

THE ANTELOPE.

[RUMINANTIA.

The first appears to have been exhibited in the genus Cervus. Gracefully and elegantly formed, dictatorship of Julius Cesar; subsequently seve- their body is supported on light and slender, but ral of the emperors exhibited it in the games vigorous limbs, constructed for the utmost speed ; and processions; and Gordian the Third is said the hinder being the longest, and the haunches to have possessed ten at the same time.

being elevated accordingly. In many species Now, as Southern Africa was a terra incognita we find a tuft of hair below the knees. The to the Romans, we have reason to conclude that hoofs are long, narrow, and pointed ; the head is every example was obtained from the northern generally small, and its contour beautiful; the or north-eastern line of that vast continent, and eyes are large, full, and brilliant; the ears large, most probably by way of Egypt; hence we may open, pointed, and moveable. The suborbital well believe that it was known in Egypt at an sinuses are generally large, and capable of conera more remote, and to the nations communi- traction or expansion; the hair is usually sleek cating with that then mighty empire.

and close. This interesting genus is almost peThe height of the full-grown Giraffe, from culiar to the hotter countries of the Old World, the hoofs to the head, is about eighteen feet; but Africa and Asia. One, the Chamois, is found in the females are smaller.

western Europe, and two or three species, imThe first specimens were brought to England perfectly known, are natives of the American by that enterprising traveller, Mr. Burchell, and continent. are preserved in the British Museum ; they were In habits and manners the Antelopes offer but obtained in South Africa. The largest measures little variety. Fleet as the wind, they scour the seventeen feet six inches. The word Giraffe is a plains in herds, bounding along, when scared by corruption of the Arabic “ Zirafe.

the approach of man or beast, with a lightness

and grace absolutely unrivalled. Timid and We now enter upon a multitudinous assem- gentle, they have but their speed to trust to for blage of animals, united into one great genus by escape; and they are therefore endowed with common characters, but which, for the sake of the senses of hearing, sight, and smell in exquipreventing confusion, systematic writers have site perfection : the sense of taste also is singuendeavoured to subdivide into minor groups, larly delicate. taking the unimportant characters of the horns, Were these creatures not thus gifted, were not their shape, and direction, as the grounds of their limbs thus strong for flight, and their their sections. Characters, however, like these senses thus acute, how would they escape their can hardly be relied on, nor, indeed, ought they foes? As it is, multitudes fall. The leopard, to have been chosen, could data, essentially con- the tiger, and the lion, lurk for them in every nected with structure, have possibly been ob- thicket; and man joins the number of their detained : as it is, they must, at present, stand in voted enemies, training the eagle and the cheetah the stead of a more scientific basis. These sec- for the chase. But, like all creatures whose tions, thus artificially formed, we shall pass over weakness renders them a prey to the ferocious, without any explicit notice, because, as we can- their increase bears a relative proportion to their not give even a sketch of every species, they diminution ; and though thousands yearly fall to would be of no service, and because, if we were glut the prowlers of the forest, their loss is yearly to dwell upon them, they would add nothing to supplied. our real information. This genus, then, is that Some few of the larger species, it is true, make of the ANTELOPES, (Antilope.)

a desperate stand in self-defence even against The Antelopes are distinguished at once from the lion, and, nerved by despair, use their sharp the preceding genera by their true and perma- horns with surprising energy. Still the struggle nent horns. Internally, they consist of a solid is unequal, and the race would soon perish, were osseous protuberance of the frontal bone, covered its recruits not adequate to its losses. externally by a sheath of true horny matter, The Antelopes are not restricted to one kind which increases by the addition of successive of locality; the jungles, the wide and open layers in proportion to the growth of the internal plains, the morasses, the forest, and the mounnucleus. "The solidity of this nucleus of bone tain-tops, are respectively the habitat of different is a character worth noticing, inasmuch as it is species ; but every where they retreat as human one of the distinctive marks between the Ante- society advances; the wilds, the solitudes, and lopes and the Goats, which latter, in addition to the deserts are their home. the compressed form of the horns, have the bony nucleus hollow, and communicating with the “ Afar in the desert I love to ride, frontal sinuses.

With the silent bush-boy alone by my side; The horns of the Antelopes are simple; they Away, away, from the dwellings of men,

By the wild deer's haunt, by the buffalo's glen; are generally, though not always, peculiar to the

By valleys remote, where the oribi plays: males alone, and are always rounded. Many Where the gnu, the gazelle, and the hartebeest graze, are marked with raised circular rings, continued And the gemsbok and eland unhunted recline, more or less throughout their whole length;

By the skirts of grey forests o'erhung with wild vine;

Where the elephant browses at peace in the wood, some are spirally twisted, others encircled by a

And the river-horse gambols unscared in the flood; spiral line; some are perfectly straight, others And the mighty rhinoceros wallows at will are hooked forwards, others backwards, others In the v'ley* where the wild ass is drinking his fill. by their junction form a lyre; in short, the “ Afar in the desert I love to ride, modifications of their outline are almost innu- With the silent bush-boy alone by my side; merable.

O'er the brown karroo, where the bleating cry The remaining characters of the genera are

Of the springbok's fawn sounds plaintively, such as bring them in close alliance with the • V'ley, marsh, in the language of the colonists.

RUMINANTIA.]

THE GAZELLE—THE SPRINGBOK,

105

Where the zebra wantonly tosses his mane,

the springboks were far the most numerous, and, As he scours with his troop o'er the desolate plain; And the timorous guagha's whistling neigh

like flocks of sheep, covered several parts of the Is heard by the fountain at fall of day;

plain. Their uncertain movements rendered it And the fleet-footed ostrich over the waste

impossible to estimate their number ; but I beSpeeds like a horseman who travels in haste,

lieve if I were to guess it at two thousand, I Hying away to the home of her rest,

should be still within the truth. This is one of Where she and her mate have scooped their nest, Far hid from the pitiless plunderer's view,

the most beautiful Antelopes of Southern Africa, In the pathless wilds of the parched karroo."

and it is certainly one of the most numerous. PRINGLE

The plain afforded no other object to fix the attention; and even if it had presented many, I

should not readily have ceased admiring these We shall proceed to illustrate the present elegant animals, or have been diverted from genus by a few examples ; and first, the GA- watching their manners. It was only occasionZELLE, (Antilope Dorcas, Linn.) The light Ga-ally that they took those remarkable leaps, which zelle, with its beaming eye and graceful figure, have been the origin of their name; but when has been ever a favourite with the poets of the grazing, or moving at leisure, they walked or east, from whose writings it has been borrowed

trotted like other antelopes, or as the common into the pages of northern bards.

deer. When pursued, or hastening their pace, Under the name of the Roe we meet with they frequently took an extraordinary bound, many beautiful allusions to this animal in the rising with curved or elevated backs high into sacred writings. It is common over the whole the air, generally to the height of eight feet

, and of the north of Africa; it abounds in Arabia appearing as if about to take flight. Some of and Syria.

the herds moved by us almost within musket

shot; and I observed that, in crossing the beaten “The wild Gazelle o'er Judah's hills Exulting still may bound,

road, the greater number cleared it by one of And drink from all the living rills

those flying leaps. As the road was quite smooth That gush on holy ground."

and level with the plain, there was no necessity

for their leaping over it; but it seemed that the The Roe is still “swift on the mountains” of a fear of a snare, or a natural disposition to regard land whose glory is departed, the land of pro- man as an enemy, induced them to mistrust even phecies and miracles, the land of the Redeemer, the ground which he had trodden.” where he was despised and rejected; over its The most interesting part of the history of the nameless and desolate ruins the Gazelle may | Springbok relates to its occasional migrations, bound unnoticed, save by the prowling hyæna from the interior to the cultivated districts of the or yelling jackal.

colonial settlements of the Cape. South of the The Gazelle is about twenty-four inches in Orange River is an immense desert tract destitute height; its skin is of a beautiful light fawn on of permanent springs, and therefore uninhabitable the back, passing into a brown band along the by man, but still interspersed with pools of bracksides, which forms an abrupt border to the white ish water, replenished by the periodical rains, of the under surface. The horns, which are which satisfy the wild beasts of this almost uninlyre shaped, have twelve or fourteen rings: they vaded realm. Here, with others of their race, occur in both sexes, and by their form distin- myriads of Springboks dwell in peaceful security. guish the group of Antelopes to which this spe- At length comes a season of drought; no thundercies belongs, a group taking from it the name of storms replenish the pools ; every reservoir is the Gazelles.

dried up; the ground is parched; every green

thing withers, and is, as it were, burnt away by Another very beautiful animal of the same the scorching sun: one scene of barren desolation group, is the SPRINGBOK of Southern Africa, extends around. Driven by necessity, these (Antilope euchore, BURCHELL.) (See Engraving, swarm, countless as the sands, inundate the surNo. 52.)

The Springbok is larger than the rounding regions, seeking more fertile plains and gazelle ; the general colour of its upper parts is unexhausted springs. Some pass to the borders fawn; the under surface is white, abruptly bor- of the Orange River and its tributary streams ; dered along the sides with a rich chestnut band; others southwards, ravaging like locusts the the horns are of moderate length, and lyriform. fields of the colony, and destroying the hopes of The distinguishing mark of this species is a line the year. Mr. Pringle says, he has seen them of very long white hairs, arising from between a literally whiten the face of the country “as far as double longitudinal fold of the skin along the the eye could reach over these far-stretching middle of the back : in the ordinary state the plains.” They do not, however approach the edges of this fold approximate and lie close, so precincts of man with impunity ; they are deas to conceal, in a great measure, this snowy stroyed by thousands for food ; they are harassed stripe. It is, however, expanded so as almost to on every side, but still pursue their course. Let, occupy the whole of the haunch, when the ani- however, the rains return, and, warned by their mal takes those extraordinary leaps which first instinct that vegetation has recommenced in the suggested its name. Mr. Burchell thus describes desert, and that the pools are filled, they rapidly the effect produced by the appearance of a herd retrace their steps, and in a few days not a Springof these beautiful creatures. “At this high level bok is to be seen. we entered upon a very extensive open plain, Referring to the migrations of these animals, abounding to an incredible degree in wild ani- | Captain Stockenstrom, chief civil commissioner mals ; among which were several large herds of at the Cape, thus writes to Mr. Pringle. “ It is quakkas, and many wildebeests, or gnues; but | scarcely possible for a person passing over some

106

THE INDIAN, CHIRU, AND CERVINE ANTELOPE.

[RUMINANTIA.

1

1

of the extensive tracts of the interior, and admir- a blow. The falcon is also trained to baffle them ing that elegant animal the Springbok, thinly as they scour the plain, and by thus impeding scattered over the plains, and bounding in play- their celerity, give the dogs a chance. In size, ful innocence, to figure to himself that these the present species equals a fallow deer; its geornaments of the desert can often become as neral colour above is a brownish fawn, approachdestructive as the locusts themselves. Incredible ing more or less to black, and abruptly edging numbers, which sometimes pour in from the north the white of the under surface; there is a broad during protracted droughts, distress the farmer patch of white on the buttocks, and an almost inconceivably. Any attempt at numerical com- complete and pretty broad circle of white surputation would be vain; and by trying to come rounds the eye. The colour of the upper surface near the truth, the writer would subject himself, in the female is lighter. in the eyes of those who have no knowledge of the country, to a suspicion that he was availing himself The CHIRU ANTELOPE, (Antilope Hodgsonii, of a traveller's assumed privilege. Yet it is well ABEL,) may here be noticed. It is a native of known in the interior, that on the approach of Tibet, and, like all the animals of that country, the Trek bokken, (as these migratory swarms are possesses an under fleece of fine and soft wool. called,) the grazier makes up his mind to look The hair forming the external coat is two inches for pasture for his flocks elsewhere, and consi- long, harsh, feeble, and very closely set. The ders himself entirely, dispossessed of his lands colour of the animal is fawn-red above, and until heavy rains fall. Every attempt to save the white on the under parts; but every hair, at a cultivated fields, if they be not enclosed by high little distance from the top, loses the red, and and thick hedges, proves abortive. Heaps of dry assumes a bluish grey. The forehead is black, manure (the fuel of the Sneeuwbergen and other and a fringe of the same colour passes round a parts) are placed close to each other round the fleshy or rather skinny protuberance close to the fields and set on fire in the evening, so as to outer margin of either nostril, and as large as cause a dense smoke, by which it is hoped the half of a fowl's egg. The height of this species antelopes will be deterred from their inroads; but

is about two feet eight inches at the shoulder. It the dawn of day exposes the inefficacy of the pre- is “ highly gregarious, being," says Mr. Hodgcaution, by showing the lands, which appeared son, “ found in herds of several scores, or even proud of their promising verdure the evening be- hundreds. It is extremely wild and unapproachfore, covered with thousands, and reaped level able by man, to avoid whom it relies chiefly on with the ground. Instances have been known of its wariness and speed; but though shy, it is not some of these prodigious droves passing through timid, for if overtaken, it meets danger with a flocks of sheep, and numbers of the latter carried gallant bearing. It is said by some to inhabit the away with the torrent, being lost to the owners, plains of Tibet generally, while according to and becoming a prey to the wild beasts. As long others, it is confined to those plains which are as these droughts last, their inroads and depre- within sight of mountains, especially of the Hedations continue, and the havoc committed upon mâchal mountains. It cannot bear even the mothem is of course great, as they constitute the derate heats of the valley of Nepal; an individual food of all classes; but no sooner do the rains belonging to the lama of Digurchee baving died fall than they disappear;” no doubt to return to at the commencement of the hot season, when their native wilds, where, if the food be coarse the maximum of temperature was only 80°, a and the water brackish, they at least are seldom temperature seldom reached for two hours a day, visited by man, and enjoy some degree of ex- or for two days of that month, March. emption from his incursions. The Springbok is “ The Chiru is extremely addicted to the use easily tamed, and is playful and familiar when of salt in the summer months, when vast herds domesticated.

are often seen at some of the rock salt-beds,

which so much abound in Tibet. They are said Of another group of Antelopes, distinguished to advance under the conduct of a leader, and to by horns spirally convoluted and ringed, and oc- post sentinels around the beds, before they atcurring only in the male, we may notice the IN- tempt to feed.” --Vide “Proceedings of Committee DIAN ANTELOPE, (Antilope cervicapra.). This of Science, etc. of Zool. Soc.," vol. i. p. 52, 53. beautiful Antelope is generally spread through The horns are long, often measuring two feet India, associating in small herds under the guid- and a half, and ringed to within six inches of the ance of an experienced male. It is called “ Bah- tip. Their general outline is straight, bending munnee huru” by the Mahrattas, and abounds in rather forwards, and outwards, and becoming scores of flocks over the plains of the Dukhun. suddenly incurved at their points. Timid and suspicious, they are easily alarmed, and by their rapidity, and the extraordinary To the group with ringed horns having a length of their bounds, escape the fleetest dogs. double bend, with the points directed backwards, In captivity, however, as seems to be the case we may refer the CERVINE ANTELOPE, (Antilope with all the antelopes, they become familiar and bubalis.) (See Engraving, No. 53.) This species even bold; and as they have manifested much is a native of Northern Africa, living in small hardiness in bearing our winters, might with troops in the deserts. It is common in Barbary, care be added to the ornaments of our parks. and is even found on the borders of Egypt. Its

proportions are not distinguished for that grace The usual mode of chasing the Antelope is by and lightness which characterize the genus in means of the cheetah, or hunting leopard, which general; the head is large, very elongated, and creeps, catlike, towards the herd, and bounding narrow; the shoulders are high, the limbs stout; upon a selected victim, dashes it to the ground with the horns are heavy, and nearly touch each other

RUMINANTIA.]

THE HARTEBEEST-ORYX--ALGAZEL-NYL GHAU.

107

at their base; their first direction is backwards, Nubia, the Oryx or the Algazel is thus delinethen making an angle, they bend forwards, and, ated, and frequently, also, with a single leg belastly, with another angle bend their points fore and behind, either because such only apbackwards.

peared to the artist, or because he aimed at In size, the Cervine Antelope equals a stag; giving in bas-relief a longitudinal section of the the colour is one uniform yellowish red or fawn, animal. However this may be, it is not improwith the exception of the tail, which is tipped bable that the circumstance has given rise to the with a black tuft

. From the heaviness of its fabulous unicorn, fancy having added other defigure, it has acquired the name of “ taureau cerf," tails. We mention the fabulous unicorn, because and " vache de Barbaric."

our readers will remember that there is a unicorn

alluded to in the sacred writings, which we canClosely allied to this species is the Harte- not allow to have been the Oryx, and for this BEEST of Southern Africa, (Antilope caama, reason: it is spoken of as the monoceros, a creaCuv.,) having its horns still more angular, and ture having truly a single horn ; whereas, erroa black mark encircling their base; there is also neously as the Oryx may have been represented a mark of the same colour on the forehead : a on Egyptian monuments, we are not to suppose line along the neck and down the front of the the writers of the Scriptures were also as errolimbs, and the tuft of the tail, are black.

neous in their description, (for the name itself is

a description in one great point,) but that they The group of Antelopes with long pointed alluded to an animal really in nature. Such do horns, straight, or slightly curving backwards, we conceive to be the rhinoceros; and we refer ringed, and occurring in both sexes, is repre- our readers to our observations on that extrasented by the Oryx, (Antilope oryx, PALL.) ordinary creature. (see Engraving, No. 54,) of southern, and the We shall now give the head of the Oryx in ALGAZEL of northern Africa.

another point of view, showing the two horns, The Oryx, one of the most splendid of ante- so that our readers will not be misled by the suplopes, is a native of the regions of Southern position that the Oryx is a one-horned antelope. Africa : it is as large as heifer, and its horns often measure three feet in length; they are straight, pointed, round, and obliquely ringed for two-thirds of their extent, becoming smooth towards the points. In the female they are smaller. The colour of the Oryx is dull grey, tinged here and there with a slight wash of reddish, and becoming white below; there is a chestnut spot on each shoulder and on each thigh; a black band, with the hairs reversed, runs along the spine ; another occurs on each flank, and above the hoofs; the tail is long and blackish ; the head is white, with a large black mask on the forehead, and two lines of the same

Head of the Oryx. colour across each cheek, so as to produce somewhat of a piebald appearance.

Closely allied to the oryx is the ALGAZEL, The Oryx is heavily made, having short stout | (Antilope leucoryx, Licht.,) the oryx of Northlimbs, a large round body, a thick and muscular ern Africa, where it is found from Nubia to neck, and a large head devoid of grace or ani- Senegal. Its horns are slightly curved, long, mation. Cuvier says it frequents mountain dis- slender, and ringed; the colour of this animal is tricts; Mr. Steedman, however, met with it in whitish, tinged more or less with yellow or redthe Karoo, or flat desert, south of the Orange dish; a lively spot of yellowish brown extends River ; whence the speeimens were brought before the root of the horns, and also down the which that gentleman collected. It would ap

forehead. Whether the ancients distinguished pear to be resolute and dangerous when hard this from the preceding species or not, is perhaps pressed; one of the individuals referred to hav- uncertain ; nor, indeed, granting this to be the ing wounded three of the dogs which surrounded only species with which they were acquainted, it before it was shot. It used its horns with and consequently the true oryx, would it invaliamazing address and energy, and made a bold date our observations; inasmuch as both animals, and gallant self-defence, striking right and left if not absolutely identical, are intimate relatives. with prodigious violence, so as to keep the whole pack at a due distance. From the size and heavy In a genus so multitudinous we must necesmake of this species, we should much question sarily pass over several interesting forms and the fact of its mountain habitat ; as large and species: we shall, therefore, proceed to give an ponderous animals seldom inhabit regions where example of a group with short, straight, and their bulk would preclude a necessary degree of smooth horns, which the males alone possess. activity, independently of the scanty food such | The Nyl Ghau, (Antilope picta, Pall.) situations afford. Its hoofs are short and thick. The Nyl Ghau is superior to the stag in sta

It will be perceived that, in the figure which ture, and more muscular and powerful, but less we have given of this animal, a single horn only graceful in its proportions. The fore quarters is represented, as a single horn only appeared in are considerably elevated, and this elevation is the position in which the sketch was taken. In increased by a slight hump on the withers; the the sculptured monuments of ancient Egypt and haunch is small and low; the limbs are stout

108

THE GNU-THE CHAMOIS.

(RUMINANTIA.

and strong ; the neck is long, and of considerable at the points, which are long and sharp; their thickness; the head is large, and the muzzle situation is such as to overshadow the eyes, pronarrow; the eyes are full, large, and prominent ; ducing a sinister and suspicious aspect. The the horns are conical, and seven or eight inches muzzle is large, spread out, and flattened, with in length.

narrow linear nostrils; above the muzzle is situThe male and female differ considerably in ated a large tuft of black bristling hairs, radiating colour, and also in size, so that they might abso- laterally. The neck is short and thick, and surlutely be mistaken for different species. The mounted with a fine, full, upright mane, the general colour of the male is a dark bluish slaty hairs of which are whitish at the base, and black grey ; two white spots occur on each cheek; and at the tip. Below the neck hangs a dewlap, a white patch occupies the throat for some ex- furnished with bristly hairs, which run up to the tent; the legs are also marked by a white band throat, and form a sort of beard. The body and just above the hoofs in front, and another smaller rounded crupper are not unlike those of a horse, round the fetlock joint. A bunch of long pend- a similarity still farther added to by a long flowent black hairs arises from the fore part of the ing tail of white hairs; the limbs are sinewy neck, and a similar tuft terminates the tail, which and active, like those of the antelopes in general: is of unusual length.

the colour of the body and limbs is a deep brown The female is much smaller, lighter, and more verging upon black. slender, with less difference between the height The Gnu is a native of Southern Africa, being of the fore and hind quarters, and less hump on principally confined to the hilly districts, where the withers; her colour is a pale reddish brown, it roams either singly, or in small herds. Mr. but with the same white markings as in the male. Pringle observed it among the hills at Bavian's

The Nyl Ghau is a native of the north west- River, and informs us, that its flesh in all its ern provinces of India, and the countries between qualities closely resembles beef. He also states, these and Persia, where, according to some ac- that, like the buffalo and ox, this animal is en. counts, it is very abundant. Of its habits in a raged by the sight of scarlet, and that "it was state of nature we have little or no information. one of our amusements to hoist a red handkerIn captivity it is familiar and gentle, but some- chief on a pole, and observe them caper about, what capricious; and we have frequently seen it lashing their flanks with their long tails, and menace in a most determined manner: still, tearing up the ground with their hoofs, as if however, it is fond of being noticed and caressed. they were violently excited, and ready to rush The first pair of Nyl Ghaus seen in England down upon us; and then all at once, when we were sent from Bombay to Lord Clive in 1767, were about to fire upon them, to see them bound if we except one noticed in the 43rd vol. of away, and again go prancing round us at a safer “ Philosophical Transactions,” by Dr. Parsons, as distance.” This aversion to scariet the writer a nameless “ quadruped brought from Bengal;" has noticed, and can bear witness to the exciteand of which he gave an imperfect figure. ment produced by the sudden display of the

scarlet lining of a cloak. The same talented We have often observed, that no race of ani- writer adds that, when caught young, the Gou mals is so isolated as not to present grades or is reared without any difficulty, becoming as dolinks uniting it at certain points with other races. mesticated as the cattle of the farm, with which The antelopes present many of these links, of it associates in harmony, going and returning to which we shall select two, with which to close pasture; but that few of the farmers like to doour sketch of this numerous genus. And, first, mesticate it, as it is liable to some contagious the GNU, (Antilope gnu, GMELIN.) (See En- malady, which it communicates to its fellow graving, No. 55.) Naturalists have always re- companions. garded the Gnu as an animal exhibiting a com- In our menageries the Gnu is fierce, bold, and pound of characters each peculiar to some other dangerous, striking violently with his horns, and animal; and hence different opinions have been exhibiting astonishing proofs of muscular power formed as to its true situation. Zimmerman and activity. The females are less violent, and placed it among the ox tribe, under the name of more easily manageable: like the males, they

Mr. Smith places it in a new genus, have horns; in size they are rather less. under the name of Catoblepas, supposing it to be the animal to which Pliny* refers under that If the gnu leads off to the buffalo or ox, the title. Most authors, however, have assigned it a bounding Chamois is certainly the link between place among the antelopes, which, indeed, ap- the antelopes and the goats: indeed, Blanville pears, upon the whole, to be its most legitimate has placed it in an intermediate genus, under the situation.

name of Cervicapra. The Gnu is certainly an extraordinary ani- Retaining it, however, among the antelopes, mal ; its height is equal to that of a small pony; we may observe that the Chamois, or Ysard of and its general contour very muscular, but com- the Pyrenees, (Antilope rupicapra, Linn.,) is the pact, and exhibiting great energy. The head is only species of the present extensive genus large, the eyes are wild and fiery, the horns which is a native of western Europe ; and there large and ponderous, like those of the buffalo, it is found only among the inaccessible cliff's of being thick, massive, and close together at their the high regions of the Alps and Pyrenees, base, scarcely advancing from the skull, and below the line of perpetual snow.

In linse elehaving a direction obliquely outwards, they vated districts the “Chamois dwells in small sweep down with a regular curve, and rise again herds, feeding upon the herbage of the sloping

mountain sides, and protected by a sentinel • Sce lib. viii. ch. 32; and Ælian, lib. vii. ch. 5. placed on some adjacent rock, which commands

Bos gnou.

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