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i quainted with the names of Stymphalus, Nemea, Mycenæ, Lyro probalily, were very hasty sketches; and the circeia, Lerna, and Tegea ? "
cumstances of weather, etc. may have occasioned Although this may be very true inasmuch as it
some difference in the appearance of the same obrelates to the reader, yet to the traveller, we must |jects to different spectators. We shail therefore observe, in opposition to Mr. Gell, that nothing return to Mr. Gell's preface; endeavouring to set can be less useful than the designation of his route him right in his directions to travellers, where we according to the ancient names. We might as think that he is erroneous, and adding whal apwell, and with as much chance of arriving at the pears to have been omitted. In his first sentence, place of our destination, talk to a Hounslow poslo he makes an assertion which is by no means corboy about making haste 10 Augusta, as apply to rect. He says, “We are at present as ignorant of our Turkish guide in modern Greece for a direc- Greece, as of the interior of Africa.” Surely not tion to Stymphalus, Nemea, Mycenæ, etc. etc. quite so ignorant; or several of our Grecian Mungo This is neither more nor less than classical affecta- | Parks have travelled in vain, and some very sumplion; and il renders Mr. Gell's book of much more tuous works have been published to no purpose ! confined use than it would otherwise have been:
As we proceed, we find the author observing that but we have some other and more important re-Athens is now the most polished city of Greece," marks to make on his general directions to Grecian when we believe it to be the most barbarous, even tourists; and we beg leave to assure our readers
io a prorerbthat they are derived from travellers who have
Ο 'Αθήνα, πρώτη χώρα, lately visited Greece. In the first place, Mr. Gell is
Τί δαιδάρους τρέφεις τώρα; (1) absolutely incautious enough to recommend an is a couplet of reproach now applied to this onceinterference on the part of English travellers with the Minister at the Porte, in behalf of the Greeks. of the inspiring call which was addressed to them,
famous city; whose inhabitants seem little worthy - The folly of such neglect (page 16, Preface), in within these twenty years, by the celebrated many instances, where the emancipation of a dis
Riga: Irict might often be obtained by the present of a
Δεύτε παίδες των Ελλήνων, και, τ. λ. snuff-box or a watch, at Constantinople, and without the smallest danger of exciting the lannina, the capital of Epirus, and the seat of Ali jealousy of such a court as that of Turkey, will Pacha's government, is in truth deserving of the be acknowledged when we are no longer able to honours which Mr. Gell has improperly bestowed rectify the error.” We have every reason to believe, on degraded Athens. As to the correctness of the on the contrary, that the folly of half-a-dozen Ira- remark concerning the fashion of wearing the air vellers, taking this advice, might bring us into a cropped in Molossia, as Mr. Gell informs us, our war. “Never interfere with any thing of the kind,” authorities cannot depose: but why will he use the is a much sounder and more politic suggestion 10 classical term of Eleuthero-Lacones, when that all English travellers in Greece.
prople are so much better known by their modern Mr. Gell apologises for the introduction of “his name of Mainotes ? • The court of the Pacha of panoramic designs," as he calls them, on the score Tripolizza” is said “ to realise the splendid visions of the great difficulty of giving any tolerable idea of the Arabian Nights." This is true with regard of the face of a country in writing, and the ease to the court: bul surely the Traveller ought lo have with which a very accurate knowledge of it may be added that the city and place are most miserable, acquired by maps and panoramic designs. We and forman extraordinary contrast to the splendour are informed that this is not the case with many of of the court. Mr. Gell mentions gold mines in These designs. The small scale of the single map Greece: he should have specified their situation, as we have already censured; and we have hinted it certainly is not universally known. When, also, thal some of the drawings are not remarkable for he remarks that “the first article of necessily in correct resemblance of their originals. The two Greece is a firman, or order from the sultan, pernearer views of the Gate of the Lions at Mycenæ initting the traveller to pass unmolested,” we are are indeed good likenesses of their subject, and much misinfornied if he be right. On the conthe first of them is unusually well executed; but trary, we believe this to be almost the only part of The general view of Mycenæ is not more than toler- the Turkish dominions in which a firman is not neable in any respect; and the prospect of Larissa, etc. cessary; since the passport of the Pacha is absolute is barely equal to the former. The view from this within his territory (according to Mr. G.'s own adlast place is also indifferent; and we are positively mission), and much more effectual than a firman. assured that there are no windows at Nauplia which "Money,” he remarks, “is easily procured at Salook like a box of dominos,—the idea suggested
(1) We write these lines from the recitalian of the travellers by Mr. Gell's plate. We must not, however, be to whom we have alluded : but we cannot vouch for the cor100 severe on these picturesque bagatelles, which, rectness of the Romaic.
lonica, or Patras, where the English have consuls.” travellers, but of our legislators, will hereafter be It is much better procured, we understand, from directed. The greatest caution will, indeed, be The Turkish governors, who never charge discount. required, as we have premised, in touching on so The consuls for the English are not of the most delicate a subject as the amelioration of the posmagnanimous order of Greeks, and far from being sessions of an ally: but the field for the exercise of so liberal, generally speaking; although there are, political sa gacity is wideand inviting inihisporiion in course, some exceptions, and Strune of Patras of the globe; and Mr. Gell, and all other writers has been more honourably mentioned. After having who interest us, however remotely, in its extraorobserved that “horses seem the best mode of con- dinary capabilities, deserve well of the British veyance in Greece,” Mr. Gell proceeds:"Some tra- empire. We shall conclude by an extract from the vellers would prefer an English saddle; but a saddle author's work, which, even if it fails of exciting that of this sort is always objected to by the owner of the general interest which we hope most earnestly it horse, and not without reason," etc. This, we may attract, towards its important subject, cannot, learn, is far from being the case; and, indeed for a l as he justly observes, “be entirely uninteresting very simple reason, an English saddle inust seeni lo lo the scholar;" since it is a work "which gives be preferable to one of the country, because it is much bim a faithful description of the remains of cities, lighter. When, too, Mr. Gell calls the postilion the very existence of which was doubtful, as they “menzilgi,” he mistakes him for his belters : ser- perished before the æra of authentic history.” The rugees are postilions; menzilgis are postmasters. subjoined quotation is a good specimen of the auOur traveller was fortunate in his Turks, who are thor's minuteness of research as a topographer; and hired to walk by the side of the baggage-horses. we trust that the credit which must accrue to him They “are certain,” he says, “of performing their from the present performance will ensure the comengagement without grumbling." We apprehend pletion of his Itinerary :that this is by no means certain : but Mr. Gell is
“ The inaccuracies of the maps of Anacharsis, are in many perfectly right in preferring a Turk to a Greek for Strabo as surrounded by the territories of Sicyon, Argos, Cleona,
respects very glaring. The situation of Phlius is marked by this purpose; and in his general recommendation and Slymphalus. Dr. Hawkins observed, that Phlius, the ruins lo a lake a janissary on the tour; who, we may add, or which still exist near Agios Giorgios, lies in a direct line beshould be suffered to act as he pleascs, since no
Iween Cleonæ and Slymphalus, and another from Scyon to Argos; thing is to be done by gentle means, or even by offers four towns; yet we see Phlius, in the map of Argolis by M. Barbie
so that Strabo was correct in saying that it lay belween those of money, at the places of accommodation. A cou- du Bocage, placed ten miles to the north of Sis mphalus, contrarier, to be sent on before to the place at which the dicting both history and faci. D'Anville is guilty or ihe same error. traveller intends to sleep, is indispensable to com- Phlionie, on the point of land which forms the port of Drepano:
“M. du Bocage places a town named Phlius, and by him fort: but no tourist should be misled by the au- there are not al present any ruins there. The maps of D'Anville Thor's advice to suffer the Greeks to gratify their are generally more correct than any others where ancient geocuriosity, in permitting them to remain for some graphy is concerned. A mistake occurs on the subject of Tiryus, time about him on his arrival at an inn. They understood. It is possible that Vathi
. or the profound valley,
and a place named by him Vathia, but of wbich no!bing can be should be removed as soon as possible ; for, as to may be a name sometimes used for the valley of Barbitsa, and The remark that“no stranger would think of in- that the place named by D'Anville Claustra may be the outlet
of that valley called Kleisoura, which has a corresponding signiTruding when a room is pre-occupied,” our informants were not so well convinced of that fact.
“The city of Tiryns is also placed in two different positions; Though we have made the above exceptions to once by its Greek name, and again as Tirynthus. The mistake The accurracy of Mr. Gell's information, we are between the islands or Sphæria and Calaura has been noticed in
page 135. The Pontinus, which D'Anville represents as a river, most ready to do justice lo the general utility of his and the Erasinus, are equally ill placed in bis map. There was directions, and can certainly concede the praise a place called Creopolis, somewhere loward Cynouria; but its which he is desirous of obtaining, namely,“of ha- situation is not easily fixed. The ports called Bucephalium and ving facilitated the researches of future travellers, country between Corinth and Epidaurus. The town called
Piræus seem to have been nothing more than little bays in the by affording that local information which it was Athenæ, in Cynouria, by Pausanias, is called Athena by before impossible to obtain.” This book, indeed, Thucydiles, book 5. 41. is absolutely necessary to any person who wishes
“In general, the maps of D'Anville will be found more accurate to explore the Morea advantageously; and we hope the mistakes of that geographer are in general such as could
than those which have been published since his time; indeed that Mr. Gell will continue his Itinerary over that not be avoided without visiting the country. Two errors of and over every other part of Greece. He allows D'Anville may be mentioned, lest the opportunity of publishing that his volume is only calculated to become a book the Itinerary of Arcadia should never occur. The first is, thai
the rivers Malælas and Milaon, near Methydrium, are represented of reference, and not of general entertainment:” as running toward the south, whereas they now northwards to but we do not see any reason against the compati-the Ladon; and the second is, that the Aroanius, which falls into bility of both objects in a survey of the most ce- the Erymanthus at Psophis, is represented as Nowing from the lebrated country of the ancient world. To that Jake of Pheneos; a mistake which arises from the ignorance of
the ancients themselves who have written on the subject. The country, we trust, the attention not only of our fact is, that the Ladon receives the waters of the lakes of Oro
chomenos and Pheneos: but the Aroanius rises at a spot not two into the commission of excesses so hazardous to hours distant from Psophis.
themselves, their families, and the community. At In furtherance of our principal object in this cri- the time to which I allude, the town and county tique, we have only to add a wish that some of our were burdened with large detachments of the miGrecian tourists, among the fresh articles of infor- litary; the police was in motion, the magistrates mation concerning Greece which they have lately assembled, yet all the movements, civil and miliimported, would turn their minds to the language tary, had led 10-nothing. Not a single instance of the country. So strikingly similar to the ancient had occurred of the apprehension of any real delinGreek is the modern Romaic as a written language, quent actually taken in the fact, against whom there and so dissimilar in sound, that even a few general existed legal evidence, sufficient for conviction. rules concerning pronunciation would be of most But the police, however useless, were by no means extensive use.
idle: several notorious delinquents had been delected; men, liable to conviction, on the clearest
evidence of the capital crime of poverty; men, who PARLIAMENTARY SPEECHES.
had been nefariously guilty of lawfully begetting several children, whom, thanks to the times! they
were unable to maintain. Considerable injury has DEBATE ON THE FRAME-WORK BILL, IN THE HOUSE been done to the proprietors ofthe improved frames. OF LORDS, FEBRUARY 27, 1812.
These machines were to them an advantage, inasThe order of the day for the second reading of much as they superseded the necessity of employing this bill being read,
a number of workmen, who, were left in conseLord Byron rose, and (for the first time) ad- quence to starve. By the adoption of one species dressed their Lordships as follows:
of frame in particular, one man performed the work My Lords; the subject now submitted to your of many, and the superfluous labourers were thrown Lordships for the first lime, though new to the out of employment. Yet it is to be observed, that House, is by no means new to the country. 1 the work thus executed was inferior in quality; not l;elieve it had occupied the serious thoughts of all marketable at home, and merely hurried over descriptions of persons, long before its introduc- with a view to exportation. It was called, in the lion to the notice of that legislature, whose in-cant of the trade, by the name of “spider-work.” terference alone could be of real service. As a The rejected workmen, in the blindness of their person in some degree connected with the suffer- ignorance, instead of rejoicing at these improveing county, though a stranger not only to this ments in arts so beneficial lo mankind, conceived House in general, but to almost every individual themselves to be sacrificed to improvements in mewhose attention I presume to solicit, I must claim chanism. In the foolishness of their hearts they some portion of your Lordships' indulgence, whilst imagined, that the maintenance and well-doing of I offer a few observations on a question in which I the industrious poor were objects of greater conconfess myself deeply interested.
sequence than the enrichment of a few individuals To enter into any detail of the riots would be by any improvement, in the implements of trade, superfluous: the House is already aware that every which threw the workmen out of employment, and outrage short of actual bloodshed has been per- rendered the labourer unworihy of his hire. And petrated, and that the proprietors of the frames it must be confessed that although the adoption of obnoxious to the rioters, and all persons supposed the enlarged machinery, in that state of our comto be connected with them, have been liable to in- merce which the country once boasted, might have sull and violence. During the short time I recently been beneficial to the master without being detripassed in Nottinghamshire, not twelve hours elap- mental to the servant, yet, in the present situation sed without some fresh act of violence; and on the of our manufactures, rotting in warehouses, withday I left the country I was informed that forly out a prospect of exportation, with the demand for frames had been broken the preceding evening; as work and workmen equally diminished, frames of usual, without resistance and without detection, This description tend materially lo aggravate the
Such was then the state of that county, and such distress and discontent of the disappointed sufI have reason to believe it to be at this moment. ferers But the real cause of these distresses, and But whilst these outrages must be admitted to exist consequent disturbances, lies deeper. When we to an alarming extent, it cannot be denied that they are told that these men are leagued together, not have arisen from circumstances of the most unpa-only for the destruction of their own comfort, but of ralleled distress: the perseverance of these miser- their very means of subsistence, can we forget that able men in their proceedings, tend to prove that it is the bilter policy, the destructive warfare, of nothing but absolute want could have driven a large, the last eighteen years, which has destroyed their and once honest and industrious, body of the people, comfort, your comfort, all men's comfort ?-that
policy which, originating with “great statesmen their quarters amidst the derision of old women, now no more," has survived the dead to become a and the hootings of children. Now though, in a curse on the living, unto the third and fourth ge- free country, it were to be wished that our military neration! These men never destroyed their looms should never be too formidable, at least to ourtill they were become useless, worse than useless; selves, I cannot see the policy of placing them in till they were become actual impediments co their situations where they can only be made ridiculous. exertions in obtaining their daily bread. Can you, As the sword is the worst argument that can be then, wonder that in times like these, when bank- used, so sliould it be the last. In Ibis instance it ruptcy, convicted fraud, and imputed felony, are has been the first; but providentially as yet only in found in a station not far beneath that of your Lord- the scabbard. The present measure will, indeed, ships, the lowest though once most useful portion pluck it from the sheath; yet had proper meetings of the people should forget their duty in their dis- been held in the earlier stages of these riots, hait tresses, and become only less guilty than one of ihe grievances of these men and their masters (for their representatives? But while the exalted of- they also had their grievances) been fairly weighed fender can find means to baffle the law, new capital and justly examined, I do think that means might punishments must be devised, new snares of death have been devised to restore these workmen 10 must be spread, for the wretched mechanic who is their avocations, and tranquillity to the county. famished into guilt. These men were willing to At present the county suffers from the double indig, but the spade was in other hands: they were fiction of an idle military and a starving populanot ashamed to beg, but there was none to relieve tion. In what state of apalhy have we been plunged them: theirown means of subsistence were cut off, so long, that now, for the first time, the House has all other employments pre-occupied; and their ex- been officially apprised of these disturbances ? All cesses, however to be deplored and condemned, this has been transacting within 130 miles of Loncan hardly be subject of surprise.
don, and yet we, “good easy men, have deemed It has been stated that the persons in the tempo- full sure our greatness was a ripening," and have rary possession of frames connive at their destruc- sat down to enjoy our foreign triumphs in the midst lion; if this be proved upon inquiry, it were ne- of domestic calamily. But all the cities you have cessary that such material accessories to the crime token, all the armies which have retreated before should be principals in the punishment. But I did your leaders, are but paltry subjects of self-congrahope, that any measure proposed by his Majesty's tulation, if your land divides against itself, and government, for your Lordships' decision, would your dragoons and your executioners must be let have had conciliation for its basis; or, if that were loose against your fellow-citizens. You call these hopeless, that some previous inquiry, some delibe- men a mob, desperate, dangerous, and ignorant; ration, would have been deemed requisite; not and seem to think that the only way to quiet the that we should have been called at once, withoui" bellua multorum capitum” is to lop off a few examination and without cause, to pass sentences of its superfluous heads. But even a mob may be by wholesale, and sign death-warrants blindfold. better reduced to reason by a mixture of conciliaBut, admitting that these men had no cause of com- tion and firmness, than by additional irritation and plaint; that the grievances of them and their em- redoubled penalties. Are we aware of our obliga. ployers were alike groundless; that they deserved tions to a mob? It is the mob that labour in your the worst; what inefficiency, what imbecility, has fields and serve in your houses,-that man your been evinced in the method chosen to reduce them! navy, and recruit your army;—that have enabled Why were the military called out 10 be made a you to defy all the world, and can also defy you mockery of, if they were to be called out al all? when neglect and calamity have driven them to As far as the difference of seasons would permit, despair! You may call the people a moh; but do they have merely parodied the summer campaign not forget, that a mob too often speaks the sentiof Major Sturgeon; and, indeed, the whole proments of the people. And here I must remark, ceedings, civil and military, seemed on the model with what alacrity you are accustomed to fly to of those of the mayor and corporation of Garratt. the succour of your distressed allies, leaving the Such marchings and counter-marchings! from distressed of your own country to the care of ProNottingham to Bullwell, from Bullwell to Banford, vidence or—the parish. When the Portuguese suffrom Banford to Mansfield ! and when at length the fered under the retreat of the French, every arm detachments arrived at their destination, in all was stretched out, every hand was opened; from “the pride, pomp, and circuinstance of glorious the rich man's largess to the widow's mite, all was war,” they came just in time to witness the mischief bestowed, to enable them to rebuild their villages which had been done, and ascertain the escape of and replenish their granaries. And at this moment, the perpetrators; to collect the "spolia opima" when thousands of misguided, but most unfortunate in the fragments of broken frames, and return to fellow-countrymen are struggling with the extremes
of hardship and hunger, as your charity began and recent instances, temporising, would not be abroad it should end at home. A much less sum, a without its advantages in this. When a proposal tilhe of the bounty bestowed on Portugal, even if is made to emancipate or relieve, you hesitate, you those men (which I cannot admit without inquiry) deliberate for years, you temporise and tamper could not have been restored to their employments, with the minds of men; but death-bill must be would have rendered unnecessary the tender mer. passed off-hand, without a thought of the consecies of the bayonet and the gibbet. But doubtless quences. Sure I am, from what I have heard, and our friends have too many foreign claims, to admit from what I have seen, that to pass the bill under a prospect of domestic relief; though never did all the existing circumstances, without inquiry, such objects demand it. I have traversed the seat without deliberation, would only be to add injusof war in the Peninsula, I have been in some of the lice to irritation, and barbarity to neglect. The most oppressed provinces of Turkey, but never un- framers of such a bill must be content to inherit der the most despotic of infidel governments did I the honours of that Athenian lawgiver whose edicts beheld such squalid wretchedness as I have seen were said to be written, not in ink, but in blood. since my return, in the very heart of a Christian But suppose it passed; suppose one of these men, couniry. And what are your remedies ? After as I have seen them,-meagre with famine, sullen months of inaction,and months of action worse than with despair, careless of a life which your Lorila inactivity, at length comes forth the grand specific, ships are perhaps about to value at something less the never-failing nostrum of all state physicians, than the price of a stocking-frame;-suppose this from the days of Draco to the present time. After man surrounded by the children for whom he is feeling the pulse and shaking the head over the pa- unable to procure bread at the hazard of his exislient, prescribing the usual course of warm water tence, about to be torn for ever from a family which and bleeding, the warm water of your mawkish po- he lately supported in peaceful industry, and which
lice, and the lancets of your military, these convul. It is not his fault that he can no longer so support; sions must terminate in death, the sure consum-l-suppose this man, and there are ten thousand mation of the prescriptions of all political San- such from whom you may select your victims, grados. Selting aside the palpable injustice and dragged into court, to be tried for this new offence, the certain inefficiency of the bill, are there not by this new law; still, there are two things wantcapital punishments sufficient in your statutes ? Is ing to convict and condemn him; and these are, in There not blood enough upon your penal code, that my opinion,-iwelve butchers for a jury, and a more must be poured forth to ascend to Heaven and Jefferies for a judge! testify against you? How will you carry the bill into effect ? Can you commit a whole county to
DEBATE ON THE EARL OF DONOUGUMORE'S MOTION their own prisons ? Will you erect a gibbet in FOR A COMMITTEE ON THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CLAIMS,
APRIL 21, 1812. every field, and hang up men like scare-crows ? or will you proceed (as you must to bring this LORD BYRON rose and said :measure into effect) by decimation ? place the
My Lords,—The question before the House has county under martial law ? depopulate and lay been so frequently, fully, and ably discussed, and waste all around you ? and restore Sherwood Fo- never perhaps more ably than on this night, that it rest, as an acceptable gift to the crown, in its for would be difficult to adduce new arguments for or mer condition of a royal chase and an asylum for against it. But, with each discussion, difficulties outlaws ? Are these the remedies for a starving have been removed, objections have been canvassed and desperate populace? Will the famished wretch and refuted, and some of the former opponents of who has braved your bayonets be appalled by your Catholic emancipation have at length conceded to gibbets? When death is a relief, and the only the expediency of relieving the petitioners. In relief it appears that you will afford him, will he conceding thus much, however, a new objection is be dragooned into tranquillity? Will that which started; it is not the lime, say they, or it is an imcould not be effected by your grenadiers be accom- proper time, or there is time enough yet. In some plished by your executioners ? If you proceed by degree I concur with those who say, it is not the ihe fornis of law, where is your evidence? Those lime exactly; that time is past: better had it been who have refused to impeach their accomplices, for the country, that the Catholics possessed at this when transportation only was the punishment, will moment their proportion of our privileges, that hardly be tempted to witness against them when their nobles held their due weight in our councils, death is the penalty. With all due deference to than that we should be assembled to discuss their the noble lords opposite, I think a little investiga- clạims. It had indeed been bettertion, some previous inquiry, would induce even
“Non tempore lali them to change their purpose. That most favourite Cogere concilium cum muros obsidet hostis." state measure, so marvellously efficacious in many the enemy is without, and distress within. It is