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that it fell down, without alluding, as the Abate has Lactantius. The early Christian writers are not to made him, to the force of the blow, or the firmness be trusted in the charges which they make against with which it had been fixed. The whole strength, the Pagans. Eusebius accused the Romans to their therefore, of the Abate's argument hangs upon the faces of worshipping Simon Magus, and raising a past tense; which, however, may be somewhat di- statue to him in the island of the Tyber. The Rominished by remarking that the phrase only shows mans had probably never heard of such a person that the statue was not then standing in its former before, who came, however, to play a considerable position. Winkelmann has observed, that the though scandalous part in the church history, and present twins are modern; and it is equally clear has left several tokens of his aerial combat with St. that there are marks of gilding on the wolf, which Peter at Rome; notwithstanding that an inscription might therefore be supposed to make part of the found in this very island of the Tyber showed the ancient group. It is known that the sacred images Simon Magus of Eusebius to be a certain indigenal
of the Capitol were not destroyed when injured by god called Semo Sangus or Fidius. (5) time or accident, but were put into certain under Even when the worship of the founder of Rome ground depositaries, called favissæ. (1) It may had been abandoned, it was thought expedient to be thought possible that the wolf had been so de humour the habits of the good matrons of the city, posited, and had been replaced in some conspi- by sending them with their sick infants to the cuous situation when the Capitol was rebuilt by church of Saint Theodore, as they had before carVespasian. Rycquius, without mentioning his au- ried them to the temple of Romulus. (6) The practhority, tells that it was transferred from the Co- tice is continued to this day; and the site of the mitium lo the Lateran, and thence brought to the above church seems to be thereby identified with Capitol. If it was found near the arch of Severus, that of the temple; so that if the wolf had been it may have been one of the images which Oro- really found there, as Winkelmann says, there sius (?) says was thrown down in the Forum by would be no doubt of the present statue being that | lightning when Alaric took the city. That it is of seen by Dionysius. (7) But Faunus, in saying that very high antiquity the workmanship is a decisive it was at the Ficus Ruminalis, by the Comitium, is proof; and that circumstance induced Winkelmann only talking of its ancient position as recorded by to believe it the wolf of Dionysius. The Capitoline Pliny; and even if he had been remarking where wolf
, however, may have been of the same early it was found, would not have alluded to the church date as that at the temple of Romulus. Lactan- of Saint Theodore, but to a very different place, tius (3) asserts that in his time the Romans wor- near which it was then thought the Ficus Ruminalis shipped a wolf; and it is known that the Luper-had been, and also the Comitium; that is, the three calia held out to a very late period (4) after every columns by the church of Santa Maria Liberatrice, other observance of the ancient superstition had at the corner of the Palatine looking on the Forum. totally expired. This may account for the preser It is, in fact, a mere conjecture where the image ration of the ancient image longer than the other was actually dug up ; (8) and perhaps, on the whole, early symbols of Paganism.
the marks of the gilding, and of the lightning, are a It may be permitted, however, to remark, that better argument in favour of its being the Cicerothe wolf was a Roman symbol, but that the worship nian wolf than any that can be adduced for the conof that symbol is an inference drawn by the zeal of trary opinion. At any rate, it is reasonably select
(1) Luc. Faun. ibid.
before, but Baronius himself was obliged to detect this fable. See (?) See note to stanza LXXX, in Historical Illustrations. Nardini, Roma Vet. lib. vii. cap. xii. (5) "Romuli nutris Lupa honoribus est assecla divinis, et fer
(6) “In esse gli antichi pontefici per toglier la memoria de' rem, si animal ipsum fuisset, ujus figuram gerit.” Lactant. giuochi Lupercali instuiti in onore di Romolo, introdussero l'uso de Falsa Religione, lib. i. cap. II. pag. 101. edit. varior. 1660 ; di portarvi bambini oppressi da infirmità occulte, acció si liberino that is to say, he would rather adore a wolf than a prostitute. per l'intercessione di questo santo, come di continuo si speriHis commentator has observed that the opinion of Livy concern menta.” Rione xii. Ripa, accurata e succinta Descrizione, ing Laurentia being figured in this wolf was not universal. etc. di Roma Moderna, dell'Ab. Ridolf. Venuti, 1766. Strabo thought so. Rycquius is wrong in saying that Lactantius
(7) Nardini, lib. v. cap. 11. convicts Pomponius Lætus crassi med'ions the wolf was in the Capitol.
erroris, in putting the Ruminal fig-tree at the church of Saint (4) TO A. D. 496. “Quis credere possit,” save Baronius (Ann. Theodore: but as Livy says the wolf was at the Ficus Ruminalis, Eceles. lom. viii. p. 602. in an. 496.), "viguisse adhuc Romæ and Dionysius at the temple of Romulus, he is obliged (cap.iv.)
ad Gelasii tempora, quæ fuere ante exordia urbis allata in Ila-10 own that the two were close together, as well as the Luperliam Lupercalia ?” Gelasius wrote a letter which occupies four cal cave, shaded, as it were, by the fig-tree. lolio pages to Andromachus the senator, and others, to show (8) “Ad comitium ficus olim Ruminalis germinabal, sub qua that the rites should be given up.
lupæ rumam, hoc est, mammam, docente Varrone, suxerant olim (5) Eusebius has these words: xed å ropeasti nop Eulo us Romulus et Remus; non procul a templo bodie D. Mariæ Libeδεός τετίμεται, εν τω Τίβερι ποταμών μεταξύ των δύο γεφυρώ», ratricis appellato, ubi forean inventa nobilis illa @nea statua έχων επιγραφήν Ρωμαϊκήν ταύτην Σίμωνι δέω Σάγκτο. Εccles. Iupe geminos puerulos Iactantis, quam hodie in Capitolino videWiat
. lib. i. cap. xiii. p. 40. Justin Martyr bad told the story mus." Olai Borrichii Antiqua Urbis Romanæ Facies, cap. I.
ed in the text of the poem as one of the most inter- surpassing glory, or with his magnanimous, his esting relics of the ancient city, (1) and is certainly antiable qualities, as to forget the decision of his the figure, if not the very animal, to which Virgil impartial countrymen : alludes in his beautiful verses :
HE WAS JUSTLY SLAIN. (4)
Which found no mortal resling-place so fair
As thine ideal breast."
Stanza cxv. lines 1, 2, and 3. “For the Roman's mind
The respectable authority of Flaminjus Vacca Was modell'd in a less terrestrial mould."
would incline us to believe in the claims of the Stanza xc. lines 3 and 4.
Egerian grotto. (5) He assures us that he saw an It is possible to be a very great man and to be still inscription in the pavement, stating that the founvery inferior to Julius Cæsar, the most complete tain was that of Egeria, dedicated to the nymphs. character, so Lord Bacon thought, of all antiquity. The inscription is not there at this day; but MontNature seems incapable of such extraordinary faucon quotes two lines (6) of Ovid, from a stone combinations as composed his versatile capa-in the Villa Giustiniani, which he seems to think city, which was the wonder even of the Romans had been brought from the same grotto. themselves. The first general—the only triumph This grotto and valley were formerly frequented ant politician-inferior to none in eloquence-com- in summer, and particularly the first Sunday in parable to any in the attainments of wisdom, in an May, by the modern Romans, who attached a saage made up of the greatest commanders, statesmen, lubrious quality to the fountain which trickles orators, and philosophers that ever appeared in the from an orifice at the bottom of the vault, and, world-an author who composed a perfect spe-overflowing the little pools, creeps down the malted cimen of military annals in his travelling carriage-grass into the brook below. The brook is the Oviat one time in a controversy with Cato, al another dian Almo, whose name and qualities are lost in writing a treatise on punning, and collecting a set the modern Aquataccio. The valley itself is called of good sayings-fighting (3) and making love at Valle di Caffarelli, from the dukes of that name, the same moment, and willing to abandon both his who made over their fountain to the Pallavicini, empire and his mistress for a sight of the Fountains with sixty rubbia of adjoining land. of the Nile. Such did Julius Cæsar appear to his There can be little doubt that this long dell is contemporaries, and to those of the subsequent ages the Egerian valley of Juvenal, and the pausingwho were the most inclined to deplore and exe- place of Umbritius, notwithstanding the generality crale his fatal genius.
of his commentators have supposed the descent of But we must not be so much dazzled with his lhe satirist and his friend to have been into the
See also cap. xii. Rorrichius wrote after Nardini, in 1687. Ap.
Insiluit Cæsar semper feliciter usus
Præcipiti cursu beilorum et tempore raplo." Græv. Antiq. Rom. tom. iv. p. 1522.
(1) Donalus, lib. xi. cap. 18. gives a medal representing on (4) “ Jure cæsus existimetur,” says Suetonius, after a fair estione side the wolf in the same position as that in the Capitol; mation of his character, and making use of a phrase which was and on the reverse the wolf with the head not reverted. It is of a formula in Livy's time. “Melium jure cæsum pronuntiavil, the time of Antoninus Pius.
etiam si regni crimine insons fuerit:" (lib. iv. cap. 43.) and which (2) Æn. viii. 631. See Dr. Middleton, in his Leller from Rome, was continued in the legal judgments pronounced in justigable who inclines to the Ciceronian wolf, but without examining the homicides, such as killing housebreakers. See Suelon. in Vit. subject.
C. J. Cæsaris, with the commentary of Pitiscus, p. 181. (3) In his tenth book, Lucan shows him sprinkled with the (5) Poco lontano dal delto luogo si scende ad un casaletlo, del blood of Pharsalia, in the arms of Cleopatra :
quale ne sono Padroni li Caffarelli, che con questo nome è chia“ Sanguine Thessalicæ cladis perfusus adulter
mato il luogo; vi è una fontana sollo una gran volta antica, che Admisit Venerem curis, et miscuit armis."
al presente si gode, e li Romani vi vanno l' estate a ricrearsi; After feasting with bis mistress, he sits up all night to converse nel pavimento di essa fonte si legge in un epitaftio essere quella with the Egyptian sages, and tells Achoreus :
la fonte di Egeria, dedicata alle ninse, e questa, dice l' epitaflio, “ Spes sit mihi certa videndi
essere la medesima fonte in cui fu convertita." Memorie, etc. Niliacos fontes, bellum civile relinquam."
ap. Nardini, page 13. He does not give the inscription, « Sic velut in tuta securi pace trabebant
(6) “In villa Justiniana extat ingens lapis quadratus solidus, Noctis iter medium."
in quo sculpta hæc duo Ovidii carmina sunt:Immediately afterwards, he is fighting again, and defending
Egeria est quæ præbet aquas dea grata Camænis every position:
THa Numre conjux consiliumque fuit.'
Qui lapis videmur ex eodem Egeriæ fonte, aut ejus vicinia istbuc cæca nocte carinis
comportatus.” Diarium Italic. p. 153.
Arician grove, where the nymph met Hippolitus, modern invention, grafted upon the application of and where she was more peculiarly worshipped. the epithet Egerian to these nymphea in general,
The step from the Porta Capena to the Alban hill, and which might send us to look for the haunts of fifteen miles distant, would be too considerable, Numa upon the banks of the Thames. unless we were to believe in the wild conjecture of Our English Juvenal was not seduced into misVossius, who makes that gate travel from its present translation by his acquaintance with Pope: he carestation, where he pretends it was during the reign fully preserves the correct pluralof the Kings, as far as the Arician Grove, and then “Thence slowly winding down the vale, we view makes it recede to its old site with the shrinking The Egerian grots : oh, how unlike the true!" city. (1) The tufo, or pumice, which the poet pre
The valley abounds with springs, (6) and over fers to marble, is the substance composing the bank these springs, which the Muses might haunt from in which the grotto is sunk.
their neighbouring groves, Egeria presided : hence The modern topographers (2) find in the grolto she was said to supply them with water; and she the statue of the nymph, and nine niches for the was the nymph of the grotloś through which the Muses; and a late Traveller (3) has discovered that fountains were laught to flow. the cave is restored to that simplicity which the The whole of the monuments in the vicinity of poet regretted had been exchanged for injudicious the Egerian valley have received names at will, ornament. But the headless statuc is palpably which have been changed at will. Venuti (7) owns rather a male than a nymph, and has none of the he can see no traces of the temples of Jove, Saturn, attributes ascribed to it at present visible. The Juno, Venus, and Diana, which Nardini found, or nine Muses could hardly have stood in six niches; hoped to find. The mutatorium of Caracalla’s circus, and Juvenal certainly does not allude to any indi- the temple of Honour and Virtue, the temple of vidual cavc. (4) Nothing can be collected from the Bacchus, and, above all, the temple of the god satirist but that, somewhere near the Porta Capena, Ridiculus, are the antiquaries' despair. was a spot in which it was supposed Numa held The circus of Caracalla depends on a medal of nightly consultations with his nymph, and where that emperor cited by Fulvius Ursinus, of which the there was a grove and a sacred fountain and fanes reverse shows a circus, supposed, however, by some once consecrated to the Muses ; and that from this to represent the Circus Maximus. It gives a very spot there was a descent into the valley of Egeria, good idea of that place of exercise. The soil has where were several artificial caves. • It is clear been but little raised, if we may judge from the that the statues of the Muses made no part of the small cellular structure at the end of the Spina, decoration which the satirist thought misplaced in which was probably the chapel of the god Consus. these caves ; for he expressly assigns other fanes This cell is half beneath the soil, as it must have been (delubra) to these divinities above the valley, and in the circus itself; for Dionysius (8) could not be moreover tells us that they had been ejected to persuaded to believe that this divinity was the Ro. make room for the Jews. In fact, the little temple, man Neptune, because his altar was under ground now called that of Bacchus, was formerly thought to belong to the Muses, and Nardini (5) places them
XXVIII. in a poplar grove, which was in his time above the valley.
THE ROMAN NEMESIS. It is probable, from the inscription and position,
“ Great Nemesis! that the cave now shown may be one of the “arti Here, where the ancient paid thee homage long."
Stanza cxxxii. lines 2 and 3. ficial caverns," of which, indeed, there is another a little way higher up the valley, under a tuft of alder We read in Suetonius, that Augustus, from a bushes: but a single grotto of Egeria is a mere warning received in a dream, (9) counterfeited,
Numen aquæ, viridi si margine clauderet undas
(1) De Magnit. Vet. Rom. ap. Græv. Ant. Rom. t. iv. p. 1607. (3) Echinard, Descrizione di Roma e dell'Agro Romano, carrello dall' Abate Venuti, in Roma, 1750. They believe in the
grotto and nymph. “Simulacro di questo fonte, essendovi scol-
3) Classical Tour, chap. vi. p. 217, vol. ii.
Hic ubi nocturnæ Numa constituebat amicæ.
(7) Echinard, etc. Cic. cit. p. 297, 298.
(9) Sueton. in Vit. Augusti, cap. 91. Casaubon, in the note, refers to Plutarch's Lives of Camillus and Æmilius Paulus, and also to his apophthegms, for the character of this deity. The hollowed band was reckoned the last degree of degradation; and when the dead body of the præfect Rufinus was borne about in triumph by the people, the indignity was increased by putting his hand in that position.
Slanza cxli. lines 6 and 7.
XXIX. once a year, the beggar sitting before the gate of his palace, with his hand hollowed and stretched out for charity. A statue formerly in the Villa
"He, their sire, Borghese, and which should be now at Paris, re Butcher'd to make a Roman holiday." presents the Emperor in that posture of supplication. The object of this self-degradation was the appease
Gladiators were of two kinds, compelled and voment of Nemesis, the perpetual attendant on good luntary; and were supplied from several conditions: fortune, of whose power the Roman conquerors from slaves sold for that purpose; from culprits; were also reminded by certain symbols attached to from barbarian captives either taken in war, and, their cars of triumph. The symbols were the whip after being led in triumph, set apart for the games, and the crotalo, which were discovered in the Ne-or those seized and condemned as rebels ; also from mesis of the Valican. The attitude of beggary made free citizens, some fighting for hire (auctorati), the above statue pass for that of Belisarius : and others from a depraved ambition : at last even until the criticism of Winkelmann (1) had rectified knights and senators were exhibited,-a disgrace the mistake, one fiction was called in to support of which the first tyrant was naturally the first another. It was the same fear of the sudden ter- inventor. (6). In the end, dwarfs, and even wo mination of prosperity that made Amasis king of men, fought; an enormity prohibited by Severus. Egypt warn his friend, Polycrates of Samos, that of these the most to be pitied undoubtedly were the gods loved those whose lives were chequered the barbarian captives ; and to this species a Chriswith good and evil fortunes. Nemesis was supposed tian writer (7) justly applies the epithet “innocent," to lie in wait particularly for the prudent; that is, to distinguish them from the professional gladiafor those whose caution rendered them accessible tors. Aurelian and Claudius supplied great numbers only to mere accidents : and her first altar was of these unfortunate victims; the one after his raised on the banks of the Phrygian Æsopus by triumph, and the other on the pretext of a rebelAdrastus, probably the prince of that name who lion. (8)
war, says Lipsius, (9) was killed the son of Crosus by mistake. Hence the destructive to the human race at these sports. goddess was called Adrastea. (2)
spite of the laws of Constantine and Constans, glaThe Roman Nemesis was sacred and august : diatorial shows survived the old established religion there was a temple to her in the Palatine, under the more than seventy years; but they owed their final name of Rhamnusia :' (3) so great, indeed, was the extinction to the courage of a Christian. In the propensity of the ancients to trust to the revolution year 404, on the kalends of January, they were of events, and to believe in the divinity of Fortune, exhibiting the shows in the Flavian amphitheatre, that in the same Palatine there was a temple to the before the usual immense concourse of people. Fortune of the day. (4) This is the last superstition Almachius, or Telemachus, an Eastern monk, who which retains its hold over the human heart; and, had travelled to Rome intent on his holy purpose, from concentrating in one object the credulity so rushed into the midst of the area, and endeavoured natural to man, has always appeared strongest in to separate the combatants. The prætor Alypius, those unembarrassed by other articles of belief. a person incredibly attached to these games, (10) gave The antiquaries have supposed this goddess to be instant orders to the gladiators to slay him; and synonymous with Fortune and with Fate:(5) but it Telemachus gained the crown of martyrdom, and was in her vindictive quality that she was wor- the title of saint, which surely has never either beshipped under the name of Nemesis.
fore or since been awarded for a more noble exploit. Honorius immediately abolished tbe shows, which were never afterwards revived. The story is told
(1) Storia delle Arti, etc. lib. xii. cap. iii. tom. ii. p. 492. See Questiones Romanæ, etc. ap. Græv. Antiq. Roman. tom. Visconti calls the statue, however, a Cybele. It is given in the v. p. 942. See also Muratori, Nov. Thesaur. Inscript. Vet. Museo Pio-Clement. tom. i. par. 40. The Abate Fea (Spiega- tom. I. p. 88, 89; where there are three Latin and one Greek sione dei Rami. Soria, elc. tom. iii. p. 513) calls il a Chri- inscriptions to Nemesis, and others to Fale. sippus.
(6) Julius Cæsar, who rose by the fall of the aristocracy, (2) Dict. de Bayle, article Adrastea.
brought Furius Leptinus and A. Calenus upon the arena. (3) Il is enumerated by the regionary Victor.
(7) Tertullian, “ certe quidem et innocentes gladiatores in lu(4) Fortunæ hujusco diei. Cicero mentions her, de Legib. dum veniunt, et voluplatis publicæ hostiæ fiant.” Just. Lips. lib. ii.
Saturn. Sermon. lib. ii. cap. iii. (8)
(8) Vopiscus, in Vit. Aurel. and in Vil. Claud. ibid. SIVE FORTUNAE
(9) “Credo imò scio nullum bellum tantam cladem vastitiemque generi humano intulisse, quam hos ad voluptatem ludos." Just. Lips. ibid. lib. i. cap. xii.
(10) Augustinus lib. vi. Confess. cap. viii.) “Alypium suum gladialorii spectaculi inbiatu incredibiliter abreptum,” scribit. Ib. lib. i. cap. xii.
Stanza cxlii. lines 5 and 6.
THE ALBAN HILL.
by Theodoret (1) and Cassiodorus (2) and seems completely satisfied their curiosity. A gentleman worthy of credit notwithstanding its place in the present, observing them shudder and look pale, Roman martyrology. (3) Besides the torrents of noticed that unusual reception of so delightful a blood which flowed at the funerals, in the amphi-sport to some young ladies, who stared and smiled, theatres, the circus, the forums, and other public and continued their applauses as another horse fell places, gladiators were introduced al feasts, and bleeding to the ground. One bull killed three
tore each other to pieces amidst the supper tables, horses off his own horns. He was saved by acto the great delight and applause of the guests. Yet clamations, which were redoubled when it was Lipsius permits himself to suppose the loss of cou-known he belonged to a priest. rage, and the evident degeneracy of mankind, to be an Englishman, who can be much pleased with nearly connected with the abolition of these bloody seeing two men beat themselves to pieces, cannot spectacles (4).
bear to look at a horse galloping round an arena
with his bowels trailing on the ground, and turns XXX.
from the spectacle and the spectators with horror
and disgust. Here, where the Roman million's blame or praise Was death of life, the playthings of a crowd.
XXXI. When one gladiator wounded another, he shouted "he bas it,” “ hoc habet,” or “habet.” The
"And afar wounded combatant dropped his weapon, and, The Tiber winds, and the broad ocean laves advancing to the edge of the arena, supplicated the
The Latian coast," etc. etc.
Slanza clxxiv. lines 2, 3, and 4. spectators. If he had fought well, the people saved him; if otherwise, or as they happened to be in The whole declivity of the Alban hill is of unriclined, they turned down their thumbs, and he valled beauty, and from the convent on the highest was slain. They were occasionally so savage, that point, which has succeeded to the temple of the they were impatient if a combat lasted longer than Latian Jupiter, the prospect embraces all the obordinary without wounds or death. The emperor's jects alluded to in the cited stanza ; the Mediter
presence generally saved the vanquished; and it is ranean; the whole scene of the latter half of the recorded as an instance of Caracalla's ferocity, that Æneid, and the coast from beyond the mouth of the he sent those who supplicated him for life, in a Tiber to the headland of Circæum and the Cape of spectacle, at Nicomedia, to ask the people; in other Terracina. words, handed them over to be slain. A similar The site of Cicero's villa may be supposed either ceremony is observed at the Spanish bull-fights. at the Grotta Ferrata, or at the Tusculum of Prince The magistrate presides; and after the horsemen Lucien Buonaparte. and piccadores have fought the bull, the matadore The former was thought some years ago the aclual steps forward and bows to him for permission to site, as may be seen from Middleton's Life of Cikill the animal. If the bull has done his duty by cero. At present it has lost something of its credit, killing two or three horses, or a man, which last is except for the Domenichinos. Nine monks of the rare, the people interfere with shouts, the ladies Greek order live there, and the adjoining villa is a wave their handkerchiefs, and the animal is saved. cardinal's summer-house. The other villa, called
The wounds and death of the horses are accom- Rufinella, is on the summit of the hill above Fraspanied with the loudest acclamations, and many cati, and many rich remains of Tusculum have been gestures of delight, especially from the female por- found there, besides seventy-two stalues of differtion of the audience, including those of the gentlest ent merit and preservation, and seven busts. blood. Every thing depends on habit. The author From the same eminence are seen the Sabine of Childe Harold, the writer of this note, and one hills, embosomed in which lies the long valley of or two other Englishmen, who have certainly in Rustica. There are several circumstances which other days borne the sight of a pitched battle, tend to establish the identity of this valley with the were, during the summer of 1809, in the governor's “Ustica” of Horace; and it seems possible that
box at the great amphitheatre of Santa Maria, op- the mosaic pavement which the peasants uncover posite to Cadiz. The death of one or two horses by throwing up the earth of a vineyard may belong
(1) Hisl. Eccles. cap. xxvi. lib. v.
mus. Oppidum ecce unum alterumve caplum, direptum est; (2) Cassiod. Tripartita, l. 1. c. xi. Saturn. ib. ib.
tumultus circa nos, non in nobis, et tamen concidimus et tur(3) Baronius, ad. ann., et in notis ad Martyrol. Rom. 1. Jan. bamur. Ubi robur, ubi tot per annos meditala sapientiæ studia? See Marangoni delle Memorie sacre e profane dell' Anpleatro ubi ille animus qui possit dicere, si fractus illabatur orbis?” etc. Flavio, p. 23. edit. 1746.
Ibid. lib. ii. cap. xxv. The prototype of Mr. Windham's panegyric (9" Quod ? non tu Lipsi momentum aliquod habuisse censes on bull-baiting. ad virtutem ? Magnum. Tempora nostra, nosque ipsos videa