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Such as the souls of cowards might conceive,
And, form'd like tyrants, tyrants would believe. 200
Zeal tben, not charity, became the guide;
And hell was built on spite, and heaven on pride.
Then sacred seemed th' ethereal vault no more :
Altars grew marble then, and reek'd with gore ;
Then first the flamen tasted living food,
Next his grim idol smear'd with human blood;
With Heaven's own thunders shook the world below,
And play'd the god an engine on his foe.

So drives self-love, through just, and through unjust,
To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: 270
The same self-love in all becomes the cause
Of what restrains him, government and laws.
For, what one likes, if others like as well,
What serves one will, when many wills rebel?
How shall he keep what, sleeping or awake,
A weaker may surprise, a stronger take?
His safety must his liberty restrain :
All join to guard what each desires to gain.
Forced into virtue thus, by self-defence,
E’en kings learn'd justice and benevolence: 280
Self-love forsook the path it first pursued,
And found the private in the public good.

'Twas then the studious head or generous mind, Follower of God, or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore The faith and moral, nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew : Taught power's due use to people and to kings, Taught nor to slack, nor strain its tender strings, 290 The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the other too; Till jarring interests of themselves create Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the world's great harmony, that springs From order, union, full consent of things : Where small and great, where weak and mighty, made To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More powerful each as needful to the rest, And, in proportion as it blesses, bless'd ;

300

Draw to one point, and to one centre bring
Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king.

For forms of government let fools contest:
Whate'er is best administer'd is best :
For modes of faith let graceless zealots fight;
His can't be wrong whose life is in the right;
In faith and hope the world will disagree,
But all mankind's concern is charity :
All must be false, that thwarts this one great end ;
And all of God, that bless mankind, or mend. 310

Man, like the generous vine, supported lives : The strength he gains is from th'embrace he gives. On their own axis as the planets run, Yet make at once their circle round the sun; So two consistent motions act the soul; And one regards itself, and one the whole.

Thus God and Nature link'd the general frame, And bade self-love and social be the same.

ARGUMENT OF EPISTLE IV. of the Nature and State of Man with respect to Happiness.

1. False notions of happiness, philosophical and popular, answered from ver. 19 to 77. II. It is the end of all men, and attainable by all, ver. 30. God intends happiness to be equal : and, to be so, it must be social, since all particular happiness depends on general, and since he governs by general, not particular laws, ver. 37. As it is necessary for order, and the peace and welfare of society, that external goods should be unequal, happiness is not made to consist in these, ver. 51. But, notwithstanding that inequality, the balance of happiness among mankind is kept even by Providence, by the two passions of hope and fear, ver. 70. DI. What the happiness individuals is, as far as is consistent with the constitution of this world; and that the good man has here the advantage, ver. 77. The error of imputing to virtue what are only the calamities of nature, or of fortune, ver. 94. IV. The folly of expecting that God should alter his general laws in favour of particulars, ver. 121. V. That we are not judges who are good; but that, whoever they are, they must be happiest, ver. 133, &c. VI. That external goods are not the proper rewards, but often inconsistent with, or destructive of, virtue, ver. 167. That even these can make no man happy without virtue : instanced in riches, ver. 185. Honours, ver. 193. Nobility, ver. 205. Greatness, ver. 217. Fame, ver. 237. Superior talents, ver. 257, &c. With pictures of human infelicity in men, possessed of them all, ver. 269, &c. VII. That virtue only constitutes a happiness, whose object is universal, and whose prospect eternal, ver. 307. That the perfection of virtue and happiness consists in a conformity to the order of Providence here, and a resignation to it here and hereafter, ver. 326, &c. Ou Happiness ! our being's end and aim! Good, pleasure, ease, content! whate'er thy name: That something still which prompts th' eternal sigh, For which we bear to live, or dare to die; Which still so near us, yet beyond us lies, O’erlook’d, seen double, by the fool and wise: Plant of celestial seed ! if dropp'd below, Say, in what mortal soil thou deign'st to grow? Fair opening to some court's propitious shine, Or deep with diamonds in the flaming mine? 10 Twined with the wreaths Parnassian laurels yield, Or reap'd in iron harvests of the field ? Where grows ? where grows it not ? if vain our toil, We ought to blame the culture, not the soil: Fix'd to no spot is happiness sincere, Tis no where to be found, or every where : Tis never to be bought, but always free, And fled from monarch's, St. John ! dwells with thee.

1. Ask of the learn'd the way? The learn'd are blind, This bids to serve, and that to shun mankind; 20 Some place the bliss in action, some in ease, Those call it pleasure, and contentment these : Some, suink to beasts, find pleasure end in pain; Some, swell’d to gods, confess e'en virtue vain; Or, indolent, to each extreme they fall, To trust in every thing, or doubt of all.

Who thus define it, say they more or less Than this, that happiness is happiness?

II. Take nature's path, and mad opinions leave ; All states can reach it, and all heads conceive; 30 Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell ; There'needs but thinking right, and meaning well; And, mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and common ease.

Remember, man,. The universal Cause Acts not by partial, but by general laws;' And makes what happiness we justly call, Subsist not in the good pf one, but all. There's not a blessing individuals find, But some-way leans and hearkens to the kind : 40 No bandit fierce, no tyrant mad with pride, No cavern'd hermit, rests self-satisfied : Who most to shun or hate mankind pretend, Seek an admirer, or would fix a friend : Abstract what others feel, what others think, All pleasures sicken, and all glories sink: Each has his share; and who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain.

Order is Heaven's first law; and this confess'd, Some are, and must be, greater than the rest, 50 More rich, more wise ; but who infers from hence That such are happier, shocks all common sense. Heaven to mankind impartial we confess, If all are equal in their happiness : But mutual wants this happiness increase ; All nature's difference keeps all nature's peace. Condition, circumstance, is not the thing ; Bliss is the same in subject or in king, In who obtain defence, or who defend, In him who is, or him who finds a friend :

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Heaven breathes through every member of the whole
One common blessing, as one common soul.
But fortune's gifts, if each alike possess'd,
And each were equal, must not all contest?
If then to all men happiness was meant,
God in externals could not place content.

Fortune her gifts may variously dispose,
And these be happy call’d, unhappy those ;
But Heaven's just balance equal will appear,
While those are placed in hope, and these in fear: 70
Not present good or ill, the joy or curse,
But future views of better or of worse.

0, sons of earth! attempt ye still to rise,
By mountains piled on mountains, to the skies?
Heaven still with laughter the vain toil surveys,
And buries madmen in the heaps they raise.

III. Know, all the good that individuals find,
Or God and nature meant to mere mankind,
Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense,
Lie in three words, health, peace, and competence.
But health consists with temperance alone ; 81

O virtue! peace is all thy own.
The good or bad the gifts of fortune gain;
But these less taste them, as they worse obtain.
Say, in pursuit of profit or delight,
Who risk the most, that take wrong means, or right?
Of vice or virtue, whether bless'd or curs'd,
Which meets contempt, or which compassion first?
Count all th' advantage prosperous vice attains,
'Tis but what virtue flies from and disdains: 90
And grant the bad what happiness they would,
One they must want, which is, to pass for good.

Oh blind to truth, and God's whole scheme below,
Who fancy bliss to vice, to virtue woe !
Who sees and follows that great scheme the best,
Best knows the blessing, and will most be bless'd.
But fools the good alone unhappy call,
For ills or accidents that chance to all.
See Falkland dies, the virtuous and the just!
See godlike Turenne prostrate on the dust! 100
See Sidney bleeds amid the martial strife!
Was this their virtue, or contempt of life?

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And peace,

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