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which he resumed and continued his speech for tro horas and a half. It was grave and temperate; but pathetic and at fecting. Every expression and sentiment was appropriate; and though in the progress he led the ignorant to the most fa miliar acquaintance with the origin of the crimes & evils ofindia, he astonished the most knowing with the new aspect which he gave to the whole, after it had been so long agitated and so thoroughly discussed.
He apostrophised the tribunal before which he stood-con gratulated his country on possessing so powerful an instru. ment of justice, and so authoritative a corrector of abuse, and iloped that no corruptions would ever taint, and no societies of special pleading and Old Dailey prevarication be able to UA* dei'mine it.
He then opened the proceedings with a very accurate detail of the rise of the East India Company, from the time when they were invested with the military government in the reign of Charles II, to that when the two contending companies were unitedl under Queen Anne. He briefly stated the progress of their various settlements, from the first debarkation on the pen. insula, until 1756, when they were invested with the Dewaneo of Bengal. From thence he passed to a description of the manners and situation of the natives of Hindoston, which was ad mirably calculated to inform the Court how far their manners were deranged, and situation affected by the misfortunes of Eu. ropean connection. The character of their morality was, be.. fore that period as sublimely attractive as their manners were. innocent and fascinating. Having dwelt for a considerable time on those and several other collateral topics, Mr. Burke was so fatigued as to be under the necessity of requesting the. indulgence of the Court, and that they would suspend any far ther proceedings for the present, which was granted. ..
FOURTI Day. Saturday, Feb. 16.--Mr. Burke resumed his introductory address. The æra he observed, of Europeans first, landing in Hindostan, was not less remarkable than it migbt
bave been glorious, if proper measures had been pursued; in the discoveries of a more enlightened part of the globe had been communicated to its innocent inhabitants; and if the na formed Christianity of this Island had been properly inculcatcd.
But this unfortunately was not done. In the place of friendly communication, the traces of European access were marked with treachery and rapine. Those who first advanced had undoubtedly to pass over a vast river, with the depth of which they were wholly unacquainted; but by frequent practice, a bridge was laid, "over which the lame might pass, and the blind might grope their way.” The arts of plunder might have been supposed to have reached their height under the command of Lord Clive, but when that nobleman returned to Europe, it appeared that he left an abundant crop of succes sors behind. All these too, were inured to the practices of rapine, and encouraged to such a degree by repeated success, that there was not a captain ofa band of ragged sepoys who did not look to the deposition of a Subah, and the plunder of a pro vince.
Mr. Burke then proceeded to illustrate these general posi. tions, by entering into a detailed account of the transactions in India, from 1760 to the year 1774, when Mr. Hastings returned to India in the character of president of the supreme council.. He dwelt at large on the several revolutions which took place in that period,when by the intervention of the company's troops, the sovereignty was transferred from Sujah Dowlah to Meer Jafljer, & again from Meer Jaffier to his sun-in-law, Cossim Ak ley, Cawn, in the latterofthese, Mr. Hastings, who was then resident at the Durbar, had been employed. Treachery, he was found necessary to effectuate the purposes of the English, and therefore the assistance of Warren Hastings was essential ly requisite. He dwelt also at length on the oppression of Ma. homed Reza Cawn, the famine which succeeded, and the events in general which took place before the appointment of the stpreme council
On speaking of the appointment and character of Mr. Fast ngs, the conduct of this gentleman, he said, had been distinguished for an adherence, not to the general principles which actuate mankind, but to a kind of geographical morality--a sat of principles suited only to a particular climate, so that what was peculation and tyranny in Europe, lost both its essence and its name in India. The nature of things changed in the of pinion of Mr. Hastings. But this doctrine, he hoped, would now no longer be advanced. It was the duty of a British Gov. ernor to enforce British laws; to correct the opinions and practices of the people, not to conform his opinion to their practice, Mr. Burke spoke for three hours and a quarter, and seemed greatly exhausted. There were present 173 Peers.
Fifth Day. Feb. 18.-Mr. Burke resumed his speech. He said that the government of Mr. Hastings was founded in bribery and corruption, that his administration was one continued scene of peculation. Nundcomar, a man of high rank, had been an accuser of Mr. Hastings; but he was soon taken off by a prosecution for felony. But Nundcomar was not the only accuser; if every thing that man had said of Mr. Hastings had been scandalously false, still it appeared upon the oath of one of the most illustrious ladies or princesses in Bengal, that Mr Hastings had received from her, or her agents, a bribe of £40,000 Sterling. This oath, & this charge of peculation, were upon re cord in the archives of the East India Company.
There was also evidence of a bribe of £40,000 more, received for a judgment pronounced by Mr. Hastings, in a cause wherein the half brother of a deceased Rajah, and an ao dopted son of the same Rajah, were concerned; they both claimed the inheritance of the deceased, which was of immense value; for he had died possessed of a tract of land equal in er tent to all the northren counties of England, Yorkshire in cluded.
Mr. Hastings having reason to apprehend that inquiry institoted by parliament into delinquencies on the coast of Coro
wandel would at last reach Bengal, he suddenly had recourse to #11 expedient for screening himself from the resentment of his constituents, by making them gainers by his peculation. Finding himself on the eve of detection, he paid into the Co’s treasury a vast sum of money which he had received contrary to law; but then he said he did not receive it for his own use, but for that of the company.' However, there was in this instance, a circumstance that seemed to contradict bis assertion, what he had received the money for the use of the company:" it was this;When he paid the money into the treasury at Calcutta, he took bonds for it; so that, in fact, the Company, to whom this money was said to belong, was made debtor to Mr. Hastings for the full amount of it. On his being questioned at home by the court of directors, and asked why he had taken bonds for money not his own, answer was,
"that he did not know; that he could not tell at that distance of time (less than three years) it might be to prevent the curious at Calcutta from being acquainted with the proceedings, of the state; that he ought not to be pressed now for an account of motives which he no longer remembered, and of which he could not give any account now, as his papers were in India."
Peculation slept for some time, whilst Mr. Hastings had a majority of the couneil against him. But Gen. Clavering and Col. Monson having been removed by death, and Mr. Francis harassed and tired of his situation, having resigned, the council then consisted of only Mr. Hastings and Mr. Wheler; and the former, having a casting vote. had in his own person a majority in the council: or, in other words, the whole government of India was vested in himself alone. Then it was that he was resolved to open anew the channels of peculation. Six provincial councils had been established for the collection and management of the public revenue; but these councils he abolished, and in their room established one single council, under whose management was placed the administration of the whole revenue of the kingdoms of Bengal, Bahar and Orixa.
This new council he composed entirely of his owa ereatura and favorites; but as it was necessary they should have for their secretary, some native acquainted with the laws and customli of the country, he appointed one who was entirely devoted to him. This was the famous, or rather infamous Congo Kurwant Sing. Ofthis man there were not two opinions; all the friends as well as the enemies of Mr. Hastings agreeing, that he was the most atrocious villain that India ever produced.
Next in infamy to Congo Burwant Sing, and second only to him in villainy, was Devi Sing; one of the most shocking moniters that ever stained the page of history. He was admitted at a time when he was a bankrupt, and owed £210,000 to • farm the revenue of a very larre district. Here Mr. Burke went into a minute relation of the enormities of Devi Sing, for purposes of rapacity and plunder; but it is impossible to give an idea of the savage picture which he exhibited to the astonished audience. The cruelties practised on the helpless people, so shocking to humanity, to modesty, and to every tender and manly feeling, convulsed and agitated the whole-assembly. ,t the conclusion of this part of his speech, in which his descriptions were extremely vivid, harrowing and horific, Nr. Burke dropped his head upon his hand a few min. utes. He then called upon their Lordships to prevent the effects of the divine indignation on the British empire,by bringing to justice the man who could employ so infernal an agent. Mr. Burke was proceeding, when he was siezed with a cramp in his stomach, and was disabled from going on: The Court ads journed at three o,clock.
Sixth Day. Tousday, Feb. 19.--Mr. Burke rose and prom ceeded upon the remaining part of the charges, At the conclusion, he made a most solemn appeal to the honor, the dignity, the juitice and the humanity of the Court, to enter impar'? tially into the great cause which was before them, and to de termine eccordingly.
"I charge (cried he) Warren Hastings in the name of the