Take p=2, 9=1, and s=l, tben r=6 and I=18; (0 + 2/PR) + NB + My=0 .......(2): / these pass through A, and the others may be and the sides of the triangle will be 90, 72, 54. divided into groups of 4. Each group has 6 in. there are only two because there is a double | tersections, two of which lie on the polar of A, Numerous other answers may be readily found. point. The lines drawn from A to their points of und the others lie two and two on lines throughi contact are represented by B P + TVR=0; A. Any two groups intersect in 8 points, having hence these form an harmonic pencil with AB, AC. I propertie, like those of the points C. AC properties like those of the points C. 1378 (Proposed by Mr. W. K. Clifford, The equation to the targent at D is 1400 (Proposed by W. J. Miller, B.A., Russell Square, London.)- A tangent to an ellipse NPMB + M’Ny=(M+P+NPR-MNQ)a .... (3), Mathematical Master, Huddersfield College.)is a churd of a concentric circle, whose radius is S and that to the line joining A with the other Apply the method of Tangential Co-ordinates to equal to the distance between the ends of the axes of the ellipse; show that the straight lines point where (3) meets the curve is MPB + NRy=0; } prove that the centroid of a triangle, the inter bence the condition that D may be a point of in- section of the perpendiculars, and the centre of which join the ends of the chord to the centre are ferion is PM=RN. the circumscribed circle, are in the same straight conjugate diameters. line. Solution by G. H. S.; R. TUCKER, M.A. ; Mr. W. K. CLIFFORD; ALPHA ; and Mr. D. NEW QUESTIONS. EDUCATIONAL SOCIETIES. SAMPSON. 1391. (Proposed by the Rev. W. Mason, BRITISI AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY.---The Let the equations to the ellipse, the circle, and | Normanton, Yorkshire.)-Required the area-locus fifty-eighth general meeting in connexion with the the tangent at the point (h, k) be of tbe centre of a circle of given radius, tangent British and Foreign School Society, was held in to which, and to two given straight lines, eight the school-room, Borough-road, on Monday, 11th *2 =1 circles can be drawn. May. The Right Hon. Earl Russell, K.G., pre1392 (Proposed by Iota.)-Find the normal sided ; and on the platform were Lord Lyve. x* +y:=a* +62 which cuts off the least area from a parabola. den, Sir John Boileau, Mr. Hanbury, M.P., Mr. 1393 (Proposed by Mr. J. R. Wilson, Jesus || Gurney, M.P., Mr. A. Russell, M.P., Mr. J. P. (3). us Heywood, Professor Pillans, Rev. Dean of DroCollege, Cambridge.)- A shell formed of two equal paraboloids of revolution, having a common *o more, Mr. Gurney Hoare, &c. Then the intersections of the tangent with the axis, is fixed with its vertex downwards, and axis of the pupils in the school; and at its conclusion, The meeting was preceded by the examination circle will be given by the simultaneous equations vertical; and a heavy uniform rod of given length (2), (3); hence, eliminating y and x separately rests within it, in a vertical plane through the Earl Russell said he was highly gratified with from (2), (3), and putting (x,, 22), (y, Y2) for axis. Compare the pressures on the lower surface what he had seen and heard. The pupils had ac. the roots of the resulting equations, we have of the shell, the distance between the vertices of quitted themselves very well, especially in history, X,X, 64-(a? + 6*) k the paraboloids being one-fourth of the latus rec. geography, and the knowledge of Holy Writ. The atk? + 64h2 , lesson they had read enjoined to then the duty of tum of a generating parabola. returning good for evil, and he hoped they would 1394 (Proposed by Matthew Collins, B.A.) – always remember it, and act upon it. ā atki + b12 Required a direct proof that an ellipse and its The report, which was read by the Secretary, osculcating circle have a contact of the third order commenced by paying a warm tribute to the mea at the ends of its axes; and prove also that the mory of the late Lord Lansdowne, who had been .. ay,9, +b^x, *.,=0, or 9,92 = | deflections (or deviations) of the ellipse from the one of the vice-presidents of the society. The circles osculcating it most closely at the ends of average attendance of boys at the model school in hence the lines joining the centre with the points its axes are to each other inversely as the 7th the Borough-road was 607. The vumber in the (.x,, y,), (x ,, y.). (that is, with the ends of the powers of the axes. girls' schools was 285. Since the school had been chord), are conjugate diameters. Note.- If we change b? into -69, we obtain a. I 1395 (Proposed by Mr. S. Bills.) Within a established 65,617 boys and 24,833 girls had passed simi "I given circle (radius R) let n equal circles be de- through it. The report then went on to give an square on the radius of the circle is equal to the scribed, each touching the given circle and two of elaborate account of the society's oper sum of the squares on the semi-axes in the clince the series of equal circles. Let a second series of the year. In conclusion, it was stated that if the and to their difference in the hyperbola), but the In equal circles be described, each touching two of present aspect of the education question was not conjugate diameters will be imaginary if the preceding series, and two of the new series, entirely satisfactory it was highly encouraging. It Let a third series of n equal circles be described was hoped that the society would receive prompt, (a*ka + 6*ha) (a:-14) < a+64. in a similar manner, and so on to infinity. It is liberal, and well-sustained support. The balance. required to find the sum of the areas of all the sheet showed that the total income of the year circles thus described. Also give an example bols had been 16,2051, 14s. 7d.; the expenditure had been 11,5851. 8s. 8d. After stating that the 1379 (Proposed by * * *.)- If a curve of when n = 6. amount debited for school materials and expenses the third order have a double point A, and be cut 1396 (Proposed by T. T.Wilkinson, F.R.A.S., !: F.R.A..:: was 45051. 10s. 9d., a balance would be left of by any straight line in B, C, D ; and if, when Burnley.) -A circle (C) and two points (A, B) / 142. 15. 22. ABC is taken as triangle of reference, the tangents being given in magnitude and position, two lines Lord Lyveden moved the adoption of the report, ZT, VT, and a third point T, may be found, such and congratulated the Society on its present conat A are represented by the equation PB2 +QBy + Ry:=0, that if from T any straight line TGg be drawn, dition. cutting the circle in G and g, we shall always have and the tangents at B, C by the equations Mr. Hanbury, M.P., seconded the motion. He AG . GB : Ag . g B = g T : GT. had been highly pleased with the examination. 1397 (Proposed by R. Tucker, M.A)-If The responses of the children had been given with show that the equation to the straight line AD is the “Intrinsic equation" to a curve be known. I telegraphic rapidity. NB + My=0, show how to find the equation to the “ Radial The motion was carried unanimously. and find the equation of the curve. curre.” Hence show that the Radial curve for an The Rev. W. Arthur then moved a resolution to equiangular spiral is an equiangular spiral. Find the effect that the present state of education was Solution by Mr. W. K. CLIFFORD, London. tbe Radial curve for the Logarithmic curve and an encouragement to increased exertions, which the Cycloid, and the curve whose Radial curve is was carried. Since PB? + QBy + Rys=0) and Pa+Ny=0 are the Parabola yö = 4ar. Several resolutions having been duly moved, the tangents at the points where y = 0 meets the 1398 (Proposed by Mr. W. H. Levy.)-Given seconded, and carried, curve, its equation must be of the form the area, the difference of the sides, and the radius Earl Russell said, as there was only one more (P89 + QBy + Rya) (Pa+Ny) =*°; of the escribed circle touching the base and the resolution to be proposed, and that concerned him. also of the form sides produced, to construct the triangle by conics, self, he hoped the meeting would excuse him 1104 waiting for it, as he had a shop in Whiteball (P8? + QBy + Ry) (MB+ Ra) = Box: 1399 (Proposed by Mr. W. K. Clifford, Lon-attend to, and there was also another society It will be found that the equation don.)-From a point A two chords are drawn met in Palace yard whose meeting he was expected meeting a conic section in four points B, joined to attend that evening. He thanked the socien a (PB: +QBy + Rya) + By (NB + My).=0.... (1) also by four straight lines a. (These intersect for what it had done in promoting instruction. is of both these forms. For clearly the lines two and two in two points P lying on the Polar should doubt the stability of that teaching" PA2+ OBY+ Ry3 = 0) only meet the curve at the of A.). At the points B are drawn four tangents did not feel that the institution gave a scripe point (By), and the lines Pa + Ny=0, MB+ Ra=0,6 wbich intersect in six points, two of which are and not a mere secular education. Experience touch the curve at the points (ay), (aß). It is now on the polar of A and obvious that the other point where a meets the on the iwo straight lines APT on the two straight lines AP. These tangents in- to work upon, and in order to make it a dat curve is in the line NB + My = 0, which is there tersect the original chords in 4 points, which may benefit it must comprehend the whole cou fore the line AD. be joined by 4 straight lines intersecting by pairs The noble earl then contrasted the conduct We may notice that the tangents drawn from Djin the points P. The lines a and b intersect in 8 | people of Lancashire in their distress at the prest to the curve are represented by points C, which may be joined by 20 lines c; 4 of tiine with that of the people during the di bad selected the true principles stressed periods of 1801 and 1819, and contended that the meeting, was read by Mr. Watson. It stated that On the Report of the Examination Committee, difference was entirely attributable to the improved the Committee had with pleasure witnessed the the Dean, Moderators, and Exaininers, were apmental condition of the people through education. growing interest in the religious education of the pointed for the ensuing year. [For these, vide p. 1 The noble lord then retired, and was loudly young manifested in various parts of the world, of the present Number of the Educational Times. cheered, and the proceedings terminated. and they had readily responded to every appeal! It was Resolved, That in future the Pupils of RAGGED SCHOOL UNION.–The nineteenth an- made to them for assistance in carrying out that Non-members of the College should be admitted to nual meeting of the friends and supporters of this object. The help had generally been given in the the Examinations on payment of the fee of 12s. 6d. society was held on Monday evening, 11th May, in form of books, and the Committee had thus been each. the large room of Exeter Hall. The Earl of Shaf- enabled to assist schools at Rouen, Paris, Neuf-' It was Resolved, That an Address of Congratutesbury occupied the chair, supported by Sir R. châtel, Canton de Vaud, Western Africa, Bombay, lation should be presented by the College to His Carden, Mr. J. Payne, the Bishop of Goulburn, Rev. Madras, Calcutta, China, Queensland, South Aus- Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, on his mar. Mr. Cadman, and others. Mr. Locke, the Hon. tralia, &c. The sales at the Depository during the riage with the Princess Alexandra. Sec., read the report, which stated that the number year had been £1764. 33. 3d. ; the income of the The Rev. J. R. Major, D.D., was re-elected a of evening schools was now 180, with scholars and Benevolent Fund had been £2011. 18s. 3d.; and the Member of the Council. attendance averaging 23,360. The number of Sun- I expenditure, £2139. 4s. 11d. The result would The following were elected Meinbers of the Colday schools was 199, and the number of scholars have been a deficiency of £127. 6s. 8d., had not the lege:17,970. The week-day schools numbered 205, and Sunday-school Society requested the Committee to Mr. J. B. Gee, Halstead. scholars 8320, giving a total of 49,650 scholars ; accept a sum of £454. The meeting was afterwards | Mr. J. B. Harvey, Castle Academy, Halesworth. but as many week-day scholars attended on Sunday, I addressed by several clergymen and gentlemen. Mr. W. T. Jones, B.A., Sydenham. the committee thought that the probable number METROPOLITAN SCHOOL OF DENTAL SCIENCE.- Mr. A. E. Lamborn, Cowley Diocesan College. who enjoyed the benefit of the schools was about Last evening the annual distribution of prizes to Mr. H. W. Millett, Pavilion Terrace, Exeter. one-half of the above number -namely, 26.000. the successful competitors in this school in connec- Mr. J. G. Millward, Burnham, Somerset. The industrial scholars numbered 2850; voluntary tion with the College of Dentists, took place at Miss E. C. Wolstenholme, Boothstown, near Man. teachers, 2700; paid teachers, 360 ; paid monitors, No. 5, Cavendish-square. Mr. Samuel Lee Rymer). chester. 460. The number attending parents' meetings was (the founder) presided, and was supported by Dr. Mr. J. Woodard, Arnold House, Barking. on the increase. There were now 26 Bands of Hope. Richardson. M.A., M.D.; Mr. T. C. Jackson, The thanks of the Council were voted to J. with 4200 meinbers, and the number of school F.R.C.S. ; Mr. R. Hulme, M.R.C.S.; Dr. Parland, McDowell, Esq., B. A., of the Perse Grammar libraries had increased to 66, with above 10.000 Messrs. Hockley, S. Tibbs, W. Jewrie, W. Per- School, Cambridge, for the donation of his “ Exer. volumes. The number sent to situations during kins, H. T. Kempton, Hon. Secretary, &c. The cises in Geometry” to the College Library; and to the year was still large. The Shoe-black Societies Chairınan having briefly addressed the assembly, David Page, Esq., for a similar present of his “ Incontinued to prosper ; they were 8 in number, and congratulating the profession on the large amount troductory Text-book of Physical Geography." comprised 372 lads, whose united earnings for the lof good which had been derived from the unity year lately ended amounted to no less than 62221. which existed consequent upon the foundation of The Central Society (the Red) had been for some the College of Dentists, and also giving same valu. OXFORD LOCAL EXAMINATIOns. -The num. time self-supporting ; and the others, it was hoped, Jable advice to the students, the Hon. Secretary! ber of candidates who have sent in their names would become so by careful management. The Rag read the Report, which stated that during the four) for the Oxford Local Examinations this year, Brigade went on well. Thirty-four boys and 7 1 years that the institution had been in existence 51 lis 1071, a number slightly in excess of last year, trucks were at work ; and since Lady-day, 1862, I pupils bad attended the lectures, some of whom when there were 1052. Of these 1071, 795 82 tons of various kinds of stuff had been collected. I were still in the school, but the majority hadlare junior candidates, and 276 are seniors ; the The Committee hoped to make the brigade self. I entered the dental profession, either in practice or former being an increase of 39, and the latter a supporting. The Refuges, which take in children as assistants, and during the past season nine new decrease of 20, as compared with the previous from ragged schools, continued to be very useful to pupils had joined the school, and some of them vear. 'Of the 276 senior candidates, 218 offer the Union, but some were badly off for want of had already gained prizes or certificates of honour. ' themselves for examination in the rudiments of funds. Very few emigrants had gone out this year The Committee regretted that it was the last time faith and religion, 36 in the Scriptures only, 271 at the expense of the Union, but good news con- they should meet under the auspices of the Councillin English history, 131 in Shakspeare and Bacon, tinued to be received from most of those who had of the Dental College, and in parting expressed | 63 in political economy, 248 in physical geography, previously gone out through the Society's efforts. I great gratitude to them for their liberal encourage-1 177 in Latin, 76 in Greek, 189 in French, 29 in Meetings for Mothers and Fatliers were more nume- ment of the school. The school would not, how-German, 224 in Algebra and Euclid, 106 in the rous. The Penny Banks and Clothing Clubs had lever. fall to the ground, as it would be joined with higher mathematics, while the number in the increased since last year. The former numbered the National Dental Hospital. The Chairinan then obysical sciences is very small. As many as 47 88, with 30,000 depositors. The balance in hand distributed the prizes as follows :- By the Council, Toffer themselves for examination in drawing, but at Christmas was 15101. The Clothing Clubs num. General proficiency, gold medal, R. Harrison ; cer only 9 in music. Of the 795 junior candidates, bered 63. 172 schools and refuges reported an Itificate of honour, J. Coles. Operative dentistry : 1592 offer themselves for examination in the rudiaggregate income for the past year of 29,6361. ;|Two silver medals, H. Smith; and silver medal, ments of faith and religion, 150 in Scripture only, sixty-nine schools were reported to be in debt to F. Henry. The following were the class prizes :- 1574 in Latin, 160 in Greek, 530 in French, 56 ili the extent of 21601.; the finances of the Union were Anatomy and physiology, F. Henry; dental sur-German, 677 in Algebra and Euclid, 231 in the also rednced owing to the war in America and the sery, H. Harrison ; dental mechanics, R. Harrison higher mathematics, 91 in mechanics, 71 in che. distress in Lancashire. The receipts during the and J. P. Webb; comparative anatomy, B. Har mistry, 234 in drawing, and 43 in music. past year, including a balance of 12391. ls. 8d. at rison; principle of surgery, R. Harrison; chemistry the commencement, amounted to 59081. 9s. 5d.; and metallurgy, R. Harrison and J. P. Webb. and after providing for the necessary expenditure, Messrs. Stuck, Coles, Henry, Robinson, Webb, and UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON. a balance of 5611, 78. 4d. remained in hand. The Zingrof, also received certificates of honour. A noble chairman then addressed the meeting at some vote of thanks to the President closed the pro The distribution of the prizes to the students length upon the benefits conferred upon the com- ceedings. of the Faculty of Medicine took place on Mon. munity by Ragged schools. He remarked that at day, Ilth May, in the theatre of the College, une their nineteenth anniversary meeting there was der the presidency of Dr. Parkes, F.R.S. nothing to record but satisfactory results, the facts COLLEGE OF PRECEPTORS. | Professor SHARPEY, M.D., F.R.S. (Dean), being patent, the results manifest, and the record read the Report, which referred to the progress of true. He wanted not only to maintain the present A Meeting of the Council was held on the 2nd the college in satisfactory terms, and deeply de. system, but to extend it, as eren in the districts of of May : Present, Mr. S. C. Freeman, in the plored the loss of Dr. Walsh and others, whose the schools a great deal was to be done. Having Chair; Dr. Aldom, Mr. Bidlake, Dr. Biggs, Mr. services had greatly promoted the interests of the referred to the operations of the Rag Brigade, which Clennell, Mr. Isbister, Rev. Dr. Jacob, Mr. Knight. institucion. he thought might give employment to 1000 boys, ley, Mr. Mason, Mr. R. Palmer, Dr. Pearce, Dr. The prizes were then awarded in the following he concluded by appealing to the meeting for aid, Pinches, Mr. E. E. Pinches, Rev. J.S. Watson, Dr. order:in order to maintain and extend the usefulness of White, Rev. Dr. Wilson, Dr. E. T. Wilson. Atkinson Morley Surgical Scholarship, 451. per Ragged schools. On the motion of the Bishop of The Secretary having read several letters relating annum for three years (June 1862) – Williain Goulburn, the report was adopted. After addresses to the proposed Registration Act, it was Resolved, John Smith, of Basingstoke. from several speakers, a resolution was carried to that the consideration of this question, and espe- Longridge Prize of 401, for general proficiency the effect that to continue the work more funds cially of the forination of a General Committee, in Medicine and Surgery-William Henry Griffin, and more extended agency was greatly required. A should be referred to the Educational Committee. of Banbury. vote of thanks to the chairman closed the meeting. The Diploma of Licentiate was conferred upon Filliter Exhibition in Pathological Anatomy, THE SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION. -The annual / Mr. W. Nicolle, B.A., and that of Associate upon 301,- Thomas Griffiths, of Carmarthen. public meeting in connection with this union was Mr. John Conder and Mr. J. B. Gee l Dr. Fellowes' Clinical Medals, Winter Term, held, Monday, 11th May, in Exeter Hall. In the It was Resolved, That an Address of Condolence 1861-62-Gold Medal, J. Talfourd Jones, of Bre. unavoidable absence of the Hon. Arthur Kinnaird. I should be presented to Mrs. Turrell on the lamented con, South Wales ; extra gold medal, Frederick M.P., the chair was occupied by Mr. H. Lee, of decease of her husband, Dr. Turrell, one of the Thomas Roberts, of Carmarthen; silver medal, Salford. The Hall was densely crowded. The founders of the College, and the first President of Richard Dawson, of Brighton. Report, which had been agreed to at the Members' lits Council. | Anatomy and Physiology, Professor Sharpey, M.D., F.R.S. (Dean)-Gold medal, Bryan H. Tables” now issued enable us to make some cor.! The returns for Scotland having been also re. Allen. of London ; first silver medal, William rections on the figures then given. vised, the population of Great Britain on that Snow of Barnstaple; second silver medal-equal, | The total population of England and Wales and day is found to have been 23,271,965; and the John Morrison, of Sterling; John Williams, of islands in the British seas (excluding the army and returns for Ireland, when the revision of these Llangudock. navy abroad), as then estimated, was 20,205,504, also is completed, will bring the population of Anatomy, Professor Ellis-Senior class, gold viz., males 9,825,246, and females 10,380,258 :/ the United Kingdom, as above stated, to above medal, Charles Bradley, of Nottingham ; first while the distribution of these was-England and ile the distribution of these was-England and 29,000,000. In Scotland the disproportion be. silver medal, William Snow; second silver medal, Wales 20,061,725 and islands in the British seas tween males and females is still greater than in Philip B. Mason, of Burton-on-Trent. 143,779. The correct figures are total popula- | England or Wales. In the whole of Great Bri. Chemistry, Professor Williamson, F.R.S.-Gold |tion (excluding as above), 20,209,671, viz., males tain, with the islands in the British seas, the medal, J. Pearson Hughes, of Landovery; first 9,842,399, females 10,367,272 ; of which Eng- excess of females over males in 1861 was 687,471, silver medal, Percy John Harding, of London; land and Wales have-males 9,766,259, females to which the Irish returns, according to the second silver medal, John M. Whitwell, of Ken-10,289,965 ; total 20.066.224 : aná islands 10,289,965; total 20,066,224; and islands in unrevised abstract, have above 150,000 to add. dal. the British seas-males 66,140, females 77,307 :/ On the census night 62,430 persons were on Comparative Anatomy, Professor Grant, M.D., total 143.447. The total of the population of the board vessels in the harbours, rivers, and creeks F.R.S. - Gold medal, John Comyns Leach, of population of the United Kingdom ismales of England and Wales, without reckoning per. Crediton, Devon. | 14,097,208, females 14,939,300 ; total 29,036,508, sons in barges on canals; in the metropolitan Practical Physiology and Histology, Professor including the numbers for Scotland (revised), / district 8,084 persons were on board vessels in Harley, M.D.-Silver medal, Philip B. Mason. males 1,449,848, females 1,612,446; total 3,062,294, the docks and the Thames. In England and Wales Medicine, Professor Jenner, M.D. — Gold and Ireland (unrevised), males 2,804.961. females 124,962 persons were in workhouses and work medal, Palemon Best, of St. Ives, Cornewall, first 2,959,582; total 5,764,543. | house schools, 13,456 in hospitals, 24,207 in silver medal, John Hannon, of Canterbury ; second! These alterations make corresponding differences lunatic asylums, 26,395 in prisons and reformasilver medal, Athendore De Negri, of London. Tin the figures which represent the increase of the tories, 23,593 in orphan asylums and other prio. Surgery, Professor Erichsen-Gold medal, Herbedal, Her-population that has taken place since 1851. With cipal charitable institutions, without reckoning in bert Everitt, of Norwich ; first silver medal, Alex. Alex. Jout repeating the incorrect figures of last year 11 any instance the official staff in charge of these . Bruce ; second silver medal, Samuel Mills, of may state that the increase is, for England and so Institutions; 80,839 persons, military, and families Huddersfield. Wales, 2,138,615, viz. --males 995,034, and females the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, which had or military, were in barracks. The population of Dr. PARKES, in addressing the students, said he | 1,143,581. The population in 1801 was 9,156,171,1 previously been increasing, has, in the ten years thought he would have their hearty acquiescence but had increased in 1su to the extent of 1.217.520. in congratulating the successful competitors. or at ther titors. or at the rate of 14 per cent. ; in 1821, 1,835,980, under review, hardly maintained its number, es. They had acquired the prizes by dint of industry or try or 18 per cent.; in 1831, 1,891,561, or 16 per cent.; Icept by an increase of the military force. and perseverance. He trusted they would not in 1841, 2,017,351, or 14 per cent.; in 1857, consider the rewards as signals for cessation of 2 2,013,461, or 13 per cent.; and in 1861, 2,138,615, labour. He would also congratulate the unsuc Jor 12 per cent. In all the total increase in sixty cessful competitors, however paradoxical might years is 11,173,688, or 126 per cent., and the A BILL has been introduced into Parliament for appear his doing so, for he was confident that annual increase per cent. is 1•366. Inhabited decimalising our existing system of weights and failure would be an incentive to fresh exertions. houses during the same period have increased from measures, and for establishing an accordance Dee A vote of thanks to the Chairman then closed 1,575,923 in 1801, as follows:-1811, 221,581 : Itween them and those of foreign countries. The first the proceedings. 1821, 290,652; 1831, 393,388; 1841, 462.401 : and most important provision of the Bill is that1851, 334,094 ; and 1861, 461,466, an increase ind “From and after the expiration of three years sixty years of 2,163,582. The number of inhabited after the passing of this Act, the unit o! the measure TESTIMONIAL TO A SCHOOLMASTER.-A testi-hi houses in 1861 was thus 3,739,505. The numbers of length or lineal extension shall in all cases cor. inonial, consisting of a handsome timepiece and a uninhah uninhabited and building in 1861 were 184.694 sist of thirty-nine inches and thirty-seven thou. service of plate, was presented on Thursday, the an 7th ult., by the pupils of Harford House, Stoke and 27,305, as against 153,494 and 26,571 in 1851. / sand and seventy-nine hundred-thousandth party of an inch of the imperial standard measure, and Newington. to Mr. and Mrs. Pennington, on the! The above information is contained in Part I. ofl of shall be and is hereby denominated the new yard, occasion of their retirement from the management the volume now published, which gives the popuof that establishment. Mr. Stow, who succeeds to lation of counties, hundreds, &c. es the popu.) or the ‘metre,' wherefrom or whereby all othe: Part II. gives the same information for the Superintendent Regis measures of extension whatsoever, whether the the management of the school, presided on the same be lineal, superficial, or solid, shall be detrar's districts, co-extensive, for the most part, with occasion; and several of the old pupils who were the poor-law unions, and, as in the unrevised tables present, availed themselves of the opportunity to rived.” The unit of the measure of surface shall be the express their obligatiou for the interest which Mr. of last year, the excess of registered births over ways taken in their deaths in the ten years 1851-60 is shown. and Mrs. Pennington had always taken in their square of the new yard, except tbat the square of The figures now given differ slightly from those given one hundred new yards shall be the unit of land welfare. last year, though the main result which they bring 21 measure, and shall be and is bereby denominated out, in indicating the extent of immigration in the 18the new acre, or the “ hectare.” CENSUS OF ENGLAND.— The first volume of principal centres of trade, and the seats of mining The unit of the measure of capacity shall be the the census for England, which has recently been and manufacturing industry, is but little affected. 5 cube of a tenth of a new yard, denominated the issued, shows the numbers and distribution of the For instance, in London (Division I.) the figures, new quart, or the “ litre.” people in the several parishes and places. as stated last year, were, excess of births over | The unit of weight shall be the weight of a nem The publication containing detailed abstracts of deaths, 253,989, and total increase, 440,798; but quart of 253.989. and total increase 440 -09. hut quart of distilled water, denominated the "krio the returns made to 31,000 enumerators on the the correct figures are, excess of births. 254.090.1 gram," the half of which shall be the new powe, 8th April, 1861, commences with a volume of and total increase 441,753, or an influx of personal consisting of one pound, one ounce, three drans, “Population Tables,” showing the numbers of the from other parts of 187,663. In the Eastern Divin and three hundred and twenty-six thonsanth pare people of England and Wales, and their distri-sion a corresponding result is shown in the large of a dram avoirdupois. bution in counties, hundreds, and other similar excess of births, 129,757, and the slight increase of The Bill also contains provisions for barn divisions, in cities and towns, poor-law unions, and population, 28,598. There is of course an inaccu. legal copies of the standards made for competise registration districts, parishes, townships, and racy in some of these returns in consequence of all with other countries, and to be distributed in a ecclesiastical districts. The abstracts yet to be the births not being registered, but they are now parts of the country where standards are required presented will exhibit the ages of the people; as accurate as it will be possible to obtain them to be kept. The present provisions of the 45 their occupations; birth-places and condition as There is little difference between last year's as to Imperial measures shall be applied to the regards marriage; the numbers of the blind and publication and the present in the number of emi. new standard measures; and three years after deaf and dumb, and some other particulars. The grants between 1851 and 1861—the total being passing of the Act all other weights and measure heads of the inquiry, the Registrar-General states 2,249,355, of which English were 640,316, Scotch Imperial and local, will be abolished-the penat in a prefatory note to the present volume, are so 182,954, Irish 1,231,308, and foreigners 194,777. for using them in sales to be a fine not exces closely connected together that it is deemed unad- | The emigrants between 1831 and 184) were 40s., and a penalty of 10s. is also imposed ca la visable to offer observations on the separate classes 717,913, and between 1841 and 1851, 1,692,063, use of them in price lists and returns of marte of abstracts, but when the publication is complete making a total since 1831 of 4,659,331. clerks. The new measures may be permissives the report on the general results of the census will The tables are very voluminous and complex, I used three months after the passing of the As be presented. Although the information was not then digested, hundred, ecclesiastical and other “district," some and each separate district. parish, poor Jay union and in the meantime authoritative tables of eyes lisation of the new and old measures are to be yet as the Act of Parliament required an abstract of whose boundaries were very obscure and caused whose boundaries were very obscure and caused constructed, and tables for use in the Custoas sala of the returns made to be laid before Parliament e Parliament great difficulty in making up the returns, will now Excise, according to which all collections within a year of ist of June, 1861, the Registrar- have before them full information as to the state of calculations will be made at the expiry of the General last year issued a document, containing an their population and its past increase or decrease, years. unrevised summary of the information then col- which it will be interesting to compare with the The Bill has been prepared and brought in by lected. So far as regards the numbers of the po- lipfluences on the population of which they are Mr. William Ewart, wir. Adderley, sum pulation and inhabited houses, the “ Population otherwise cognisant. and Mr. Finlay. 18 Just published, price 4s. 6d. each, 12mo, cloth, ls. 6d. OXFORD LOCAL EXAMINATIONS, 1863. TRENCH AND ENGLISH COM- DERREN'S DIALOGUES in FRENCH Just published in 12mo, price 2s. cloth, 1 MERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE: a Collection and ENGLISH. A New Edition, revised and of Modern Mercantile Lettere, with Translation on corrected by L. STIEVENARD, Principal French Master| 1 a Life of the Poet, and accompanied by Notes opposite pages. By T. S. WILLIAMS and JULES LAFONT. ( in the City of London School, &c. Critical, Explanatory, and Grammatical, Remarks on Also, at the same price, the same work in WILLIAM TEGG, Pancras Lane, London, E.C. the Analysis of Sentences, and numerous Illustrative GERMAN AND ENGLISH. By T. S. WILLIAMS and Examples. Edited, for the Use of Schools, by WALTER CARL CRUSE. M‘LEOD, F.R.G.S., M.C.P., Royal Military Asylum, Third Edition, corrected, with Appendix incorporated, I Chelsea.' “Ample, varied, and well compiled."- Economist. price 21s. " Students will find it answer their purpose well." LA COPIOUS' PHRASEOLOGICALAlso, by Mr. MʻLEOD, on the same plan, price 1s. 6d., Athenaeum. GOLDSMITII'S DESERTED VILLAGE, 9th Edition. ENGLISH-GREEK LEXICON, founded on a work prepared by J. W. FRAEDERSDORFF, Ph.Dr., of the London: LONGMAN, GREEX, and Co., 14, Ludgate Hill. Paternoster Row. Taylor Institution, Oxford. Revised, enlarged, and im- close of 1862, price 5s, 6u. SCHOOL AND COLLEGE HIS1 THE DAY.-HAMILTON'S MODERN INSTRUC- A prospectus, with Specimen page, may be had of the A TORY OF ENGLAND. By J.C. CURTIS, B.A. TIONS for the PIANOFORTE. 377th edition (70 folio Publishers. pages), 45,; ditto for Singing, 23rd edition, 5s. Hamil RIVINGTONS, Waterloo Place, London. * Excellent." -Museum. ton's Dictionary of 3500 Musical Terms, 70th edition, ls. By the same Author, post 4to, pp. 32, price 23. Clarke's Catechism of the Rudiments of Music, 77th MR, LOWRES'S ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL CHRONOLOGICAL AND GENEALOGICAL edition, Is. Robert Cocks and Co.'s elegant Piccolo Pi WORKS. anos, in walnut or rosewood, 65 compass, warranted £25. | TABLES, Illustrative of English History, each. Drawings and price lists gratis and postage free. Just published, in 12mo, price ss. d. cloth, “We cannot too strongly recommend the work."— Pupil CYRAMMAR OF ENGLISII GRAM- Teacher. COD BLESS THE PRINCE OF WALES. By U BRISLEY RICHARDS. Song, with chorus ad lib., U MARS; an Advanced Manual of English Gram London: SIMPKIN and Co. 38.; ditto, as a 4 part Song, 2s. per score. mar and Language, critically and historically considered, with numerous Exercises : especially adapted to the London : ROBERT Cocks and Co., New Burlington St., Tuition of Pupil-Teachers, Queen Scholars, and Persons Part I. ready; Parts II. and III. in a few days, publishers to the Queen and the Emperor Napoleon III. DAVIS'S GRADE ARITHMETIC ; adapted to the Six Standards of the Revised Code, in Three Parts Boards, 3d.; cloth, 4d. each. By the same Author, in 12mo, price 2s.6d., PARTI., including Standards 1 to 3, with 2565 Examples. PART II., including Standards 4 and 5, with 3065 London : LONGMAN, GREEN, and Co., 14, Ludgate Hill.! PART III., including Standard 6, with 762 Examples. New and more portable Edition, 500 pages, *** The 6372 Answers may be had separately. crown 8vo, 6s. 6d., ust published in 1 vol., Svo, of nearly 1000 closely London: LONGMAN and Co. Edinburgh: OLIVER THE COMPLETE FRENCH CLASS. printed pages, and 40 plates, price, coloured, 505., and BOYD. Dublin : J. ROBERTSON and Co.; and of all plain, 368. Booksellers. 1 BOOK: A Theoretical and Practical French HISTORY OF INFUSORIA, inManual prepared expressly for the Use of English Students, and based upon the Works of the French Academy cluding the DESMIDIACEA and DIATOMA WHARTON'S MATHEMATICAL WORKS. and the Standard Grammarians of the present day. CEÆ, British and Foreign. By ANDREW PRITCHARD I. Esq., M.R.I., Author of "The Microscope Cabinet,” &c. "M. Havet's treatise is a complete exposition of the EIGHTH EDITION, ENLARGED, 12mo, 25.; The Fourth Edition enlarged and revised by J. T. principles and the peculiarities of the French language." ARLIDGE, M.B., B.A. Lond.; WILLIAM ARCHER, Esq.; with ANSWERS, 2s. 60., -Athettek . JOHN RALFS, M.R.C.S.L.; Professor W.C. WILLIAMSON, * We have seen no other book so well calculated to Esa.. F.R.S., and the Author. U Text-book for Class Teaching, and comprising make a complete French scholar, as M. Havet's admirable! This work is devoted to a History--based upon the Elementary Arithmetic, with Rules for Mental and Pracand comprehensive work. Where the French idioms are researches of British and Foreign Naturalists-of each tical Calculations, and a Course of Fractional and Proporat all puzzling, and where th two languages materially group of organisms comprised by Ehrenberk under the tional Arithmetic, an Introduction to Logarithms, and differ, M. Havet is exceedingly happy in elucidation; and term Infusoria, including the Desmidiacea, Diato. Selections from the Civil Service, College of Preceptors many of the gross and absurd mistakes which Englishmen maceae. Phytozoa, Protozoa, Rotatoria, and Tardigrada. I and Oxford Examination Papers. in France are perpetually making, will be altogether This is followed by a systematie description of the ANSWERS to the above, separate. Price 6d. avoided by the students of this valuable work."--English several Families, Genera, and all the known species, II. Journal of Education. recent and fossil. The present edition has been greatly EIGHTH EDITION 12mo, price 1s., "M. Hlavet's popular French Class-Book' is by far the enlarged, and is illustrated by nearly 2000 magnified most solid and practical production of its kind. It con-figures. The New Plates on Diatomacea are by Tuilen LXAMPLES IN ALGEBRA FOR tains the rndiments, the usual practice, and the niceties of West. F.L.S. JUNIOR CLASSES. the language all in one volume, Incidly arranged, and set To the Gcologist and Microscopic Observer this work III. forth with an intimate knowledge of what is easy and specially addresses itself, as a practical manual of the SECOND EDITION, 12mo, cloth, price 3s., what is difficult to English students of French.'' --The present state of our knowledge of the multitude of in. ITXAMPLES IN ALGEBRA FOR Continental Reciu. visible foring of life, above named, not to be found in a SENIOR CLASSES; Comprising numerous gra. London: W. ALLAN and Co.: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL single volume, or in any one language. duated Examples, with the Examination Papers. Co.; DULAU and Co. London: WHITTAKER and Co., Ave Maria Lane. I C.F. Hodgson, 1, Gough Square, Fleet Street, No, in hegister. No.in Register. COLLEGE OF PRECEPTORS.-AGENCY DEPARTMENT. ADDRESS, 42, QUEEN SQUARE, BLOOMSBURY, W.C. Qualifications required. 1138. (i.) French and English. Salary from 301. 1087. English and French (good), junior Latin. In Cumberland. (ii.) English Master, 6 books of Euclid. Salary from 301. in Somer1093. A junior Master to teach Drawing and Mapping, and elementary sub setshire. jects. In the S. district. " | 1139. English Governess to teach French grammatically and conversa1095. Junior Master, or Articled Pupil. In the S.W. district. tionally, Music and Drawing to advanced pupils. In the E, district. 1100. (i.) Drill Master. (ii.) Classics and Mathematics. A Graduate of Cambridge or Oxford. Salary from 801. For Midsummer. No out duty. In Kent. ASSISTANT MASTERS REQUIRING 1103. English subjects, Drawing, junior Mathematics, junior Latin, French and German desirable. Salary 401. For Midsunimer. In Denbighshire. ENGAGEMENTS. 1116. Elementary Classics, Mathematics, and English. Time given for private study. A Junior. In Surrey. Qualifications. 1117. A junior Master Age about 20 years. In the N. district. 769. German, French, Spanish, Latin, and Drawing. As Visiting Master. 1119. Mathematics, and general subjects. Salary about 401. A Catholic. 942. French, German, and Elements of Italian and Latin. As Visiting Master. In the W. district. 944. Natural and Experimental Sciences, Mathematics, German, and Drawing. 1123. Junior Latin and French, with English subjects. Salary 301. For A German Graduate. Age 33. As Visiting Master. Midsummer. In the E. district. 1018. Drawing, Fortification, and Painting. Visiting Master. 1129. Junior English Master. In Kent. 1071. Classics, Mathematics, & general English. M.A. Lond. Visiting, or 1130. English thoroughly, Latin (Virgil, Cicero); junior French desirable private pupils. Salary 101, to 501. In the S. district. 1210. Drill Master. Sword Exercise, Gymnastics, Deportment, and Fencing. 1132. (i.) Classics, Mathematics, and Chemistry. Salary 601. Visiting. (ii.) Drawing, Gymnastics, Arithmetic, with general subjects. Salary | 1212. French, German, Classics, and Moral Philosophy. Visiting Master. 301.to 401. In Warwickshire. 1221. Classics, Mathematics, Surveying, Fortification, and French. As 1134. Junior Master. In the S. District. Visiting Master. 1136. French. Salary 301. to 401. In Kent. 1239. Piano and Singing. A Lady, formerly a student of R.A.M.* Non1137. Latin, French, and Mathematics. Salary 401. resident. . No in No. In Register. College of Preceptors' Agency Department - Continued. No. in Register Qualifications. 1301. Classics, Mathematics, French, and Englishı. Visiting Master, or for 1818. English, French, German, Latin, Arithmetic, Algebra, and Drawing. private pupils. Age 18. Salary 251. 1312. Classics, Mathematics, and English. A B.A. Lond. Univ. Visiting, 1819. Classics, junior Mathematics, French, and English. Age 17. Sa. or private pupils. lary 301. For Midsummer. 1313. Classics, Junior Mathematics, and English. Visiting Mister, or for 1820. German, French, and general subjects. Holds a Government D: private pupils. Age 49. M.A. Oxford, and Third Class Classical Honors. ploma. A Lady. 1447. Drill Master. 1821. Classics, Mathematics, English, and French. Age 25. Salary 1001. ; 1484. German, French, Italian, Drawing and Painting, Polish Language and non-resident 1501. Literature. A German. Age 41. Visiting Master. 1822. Classics, Arithmetic, Euclid, English Literature. Age 19. Salary 40!. 1536. French, English, Drawing, and Music. As Visiting Governess. 1823. German, French, Classics, Mathematics, Natural Sciences. Age 30. 1564. The Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, or German Language on the principles Salary from 501. to 801. of Comparative Grammar. Private Lessons, or as Visiting Master. 1825. Middle Classics and Mathematics, Arithmetic, Euclid (3 books), An M.A. Lond. Algebra, junior French and German, English. Age 34. Salary fron 1572. Drawing, Painting, Perspective, &c., Writing, English subjects. 51. to 607.; or non-resident, 1001.. Visiting. | 1827. Classics, Mathematics, and English. Age 20. Salary 201.; or non1575. Classics and Mathematics, French and Italian. Visiting, or private 1 resident 401. pupils. Graduate of Cambridge. 1828. Junior Mathematics, Classics, English, and French. Age 22. 1607. German, French, Classics, Mathematics, Gymnastics, and Music. A Salary 451. German. Age 33. Non-resident or Visiting. 1830. Mathematics (High), junior Classics, Chemistry, Land-surveying, and 1638. Drilling or Duty Master. 10 years in the army, and retired as a Mensuration, English History and Literature. Age 29. Salary 801. to 100). Serjeant. Age 28. Salary ll. per week. 1831. English (thoroughly), junior Classics, French (good), Algebra, Euclid 1615. French and German. Visiting, or Private Pupils. (4 books), Drawing (elementary), and junior German. Ige 22. Salary 1705. French. Visiting Master or private pupils. 401, to 501. 1724. English, French, Music, Piano and Singing, Rudiments of Latin, i 1832. Mathematics (High), Mensuration, Surveying, and Mapping, Archi German, and Mathematics. Salary 501. Age 27. An A.C.P. A Lady. tectural Drawing, Writing, junior French, and elementary Classics. 1728. Mathematics, Latin, and Enzlish. Salary 1001., or 1501. nonresident. Age 24. Salary 601. to 701.; or 1001. to 1201. non-resident. Age 26. An M.A. Loud. Univ. 1833. French and German. Age 31. Salary 1501. 1731. German, French, and Music. Visiting Master. 1835. French and Spauish. Age 32. Salary 401. 1745. French, German, and Drawing. Salary about 301. Age 30. 1836. Junior Classics, French, and Mathematics, Writing, and English. 1747. Classics, and English Literature. Salary 801. to 1001.; or private pupils. Age 23. Salary 55l.; or 851. non-resident. 1748. Classics, Mathematics, and English. Visiting, or private pupils. | 1837. English (thoroughly), French and German grammatically and con. An M.A. Aberdeen. versationally, Italian, and Music. Age 32. Salary 601. to 1001. A daily 1750. French, German, and Drawing. Visiting Master, Governess." 1757. English (thoroughly), junior Latin), Arithmetic, junior Algebra, and 1838. English, junior Classics, Arithmetic, Algebra, Euclid (2 books), Plane Book-keeping. Age 41. Salary 601. Trigonometry, and Mensuration. Age 23. Salary 601. 1758. Chemical and Mechanical Sciences, Mathematics to Trigonometry, | 1839. Junior Classics, Arithmetic, Algebra to Simple Equations, English Conic Sections, and Classics. Visiting, or private pupils. subjects, Writing, French Grammar. Age 39. Salary 301. to 101. 1760. Classics, Prose and Verse Composition, Mathematics, and Mechanics. 18 10. Elocution, Classics, junior French and German. Age 28. Non. Age 25. Salary 100. A B.A. Cainb. in Classical Honours. resident or Visiting. 1761. French, German, Italian, and Drawing, Classics, and English, Age 28. 1811. Classics, Greek and Latin Prose Composition, English subjects, Salary 601. Arithmetic, &c. Age 21. Salary 45l.; or 951. non-resident. 1762. Mathematics, junior Classics, French. Age 23. Salary 1001. 1813. Latin, Euclid (4 books), Arithmetic, French (junior). Salary at the 1765. Classics, French, Arithmetic, Algebra, and Euclid, Book-keeping, and rate of 1l. per week. Age 42. English subjects. Age 20. Wishes for a private Tutorship in a family. 1814. English, Writing, junior Classics and Mathematics, clementary 1766. Mathematics and Classics, with English subjects. Ago 25. A B.A. German. Age 29. Salary 401. to 601. Camb., and Prizeman. Private pupils, or Visiting Master. 1815. French, German, Italian, Spanish, Classics. Visiting or private 1768. Mathematics. Visiting. pupils. 1770. Englishi, junior French, junior Classics, Encrid (3 Books), Algebra. 18 16. English, Arithmetic, &c. Age 19. Salary 231. Age 23. Salary 101. to 501. 1817. Classics, Mathematics, and English. Age 23. Salary 701.; or 100.. 1771. English, Writing, Book-keeping, Euclid (first 6 books), Algebra, non-resident. An M.A. Aberdeen. Plane Trigonometry, elementary Mechanics, junior Classics. Age 32. 1818. German, Music, Drawing, Mathematics, History, &c. Age 26. 1819. French and German, Mathematics, Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, 1772. English, Latin, French, Dutch, Music for juniors, Arithmetic. Age 21. Conics, Calculus, Mechanics, &c. Age 25. Salary 701. Salary 351. to 401. For the Continent. 1850. Classics. Age 25. Salary 801. A B.A. Camb. 1773. Mathematics (High), junior Classics, elementary Natural Philosophy, 1851. English, junio: Latin and French, Architectural, Mechanical, and and Chemistry. Age 26. 21. per week. Landscape Drawing, Mapping, and the rudiments of Music, Arithmetic, 1775. Classics, English subjects, Euclid (1st & 2nd bks.), Arithmetic. Visiting. and junior Algebra. Age 25. Salary 401. 1776. Classics, junior Mathematics, English, and French. Visiting. 1832. German, French, Classics, Mathematics, and History. Age 21. 1780. English, Mathematics, Trigonometry, Book-keeping, Land-surveying, Salary 1001. Chemistry, Music, Organ, &c. Age 26. Salary 1001. 1833. English generally, &c. in a family or on the Continent. Age 20. 1785. English, Mathematics to Differential Calculus, junior Classics, French, Salary 251. and Music. Visiting Master. Age 28. 1854. Classics, Prose and Verse Composition, Mathematics, Statics and 1786. Classics and Mathematics, Differential and Integral Calculus, Me Dynanics, Hydrostatics, French, &c. for the Vacation, as Private Tutor. chanics, Hydrostatics, &c., English Coinposition and Literature. Are 19. 1855. English, Arithmetic, Book-keeping, Mensuration, Land-surveying, Salary 501. Algebra to Quadratics, Euclid (1st book). Age 48. Salary 45l. 1795. French and German, igo 27. Salary 407. to 501. 1856. Junior Latin and Greek, French (fair), Euclid, Algebra, watu 1797. Classics and Mathematics (High), Englislı, and French. Age 38. Philosophy and Chemistry, English subjects. Aye 26. Salary 431. to 50%.; Salary 701. to 1001. or 701. non-resident. 1798. French, Music (Pianoforte), Drawing (Mechanical, Water Colour, &c.), | 1857. English subjects, Arithmetic, Algebra, Euclid (4 books), French Geometry, and Algebra. Age 23. Salary 601. For Midsunimer. grammatically and conversationally, junior Classics, Drilling, Chemisesi 1799. German, Frencli, Mathematics, &c. Age 31. Salary 601, to 801.; Natural Philosophy, and Electricity. Age 31. Salary 501. to 60%. or non-resident or Visiting, 1201. 1858. English Language and Literature, Mathematics, Physical Science, 1802. Classics, junior French, English subjects, Arithmetic, Euclid, and Metaphysics, Logic, Physiology, Chemistry, Fortification, Surveying, de. Algebra. Age 35. Salary 601. Salary 1001. to 2001. A B.A. Lond. 1808. Mathematics. Visitinr. 1859. Classics, Mathematics, English, &c. Requires a Tutorship during the 1810. Mathematics, Latin, and French. Age 26. Salary 701. Vacation, till October. 1811. English, French, rudiments of German, and Music. Age 22. 1860. German, French, junior Mathematics, Geography, Physics, bio Salary 301. A Lady. Chemistry. Salary 801. 1813. Mathematics, Classics, Fortification, and English. Private teaching, 1861. Junior Classics and Mathematics, French grammatically and convere or the Management of a School. sationally, English subjects. Age 21. 1814. French, German, and Drawing. Visiting. 1862. Junior Classics, Mathematics, and Englishı. Age 2k. " 1815. Classics, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, English Vacation. subjects. Age 20. Salary 701. For Midsummer. . 1 Printed and Published by CHARLES FRANCIS HODGSON, 1, Gough squa. 1817. French, Latin, English, Book-keeping. Visiting, or private pupils. 1 Pa ish of St Bride, in the City of London: and Sola by W.AVT ough Square, in the a Sola by W. Aylott and Son, |